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Adhyatma- Vidya 



M.A., (Calcutta), LL. D. hon. causa (Benares and Allahabad) 

Author of " The Science of the Emotions," 

" The Science of the Sacred Word," 

" The Science of the Self," 

" The Essential Unity of All Religions," etc. 

(Third Edition) '* 


The Theosophical Publishing House 
Adyax, Madias, India 

First Edition, 1904 
Second ,, 7927 

Brahma-bindu Upanishaf 

1 Words strung together in compilations, serve only to 
protect and hide knowledge, as husk and chaff the grain ; let 
the wise look for the grain and cast away the chaff of words 
when that grain of truth has been found.' 

1 Woulclst thou enclasp the beauty of the True ? 
Let pass the word ; the thought, the thought pursue ! ' 

Maulana Rum 

" Live neither in the present, nor the future, but in the 
Eternal, . . . because nothing that is embodied, nothing that is 
conscious of separation, nothing that is out of the Eternal, 
can aid you ; . . . within you is the light of the world .... 
'Read the larger word of life.'* 

Light on the Path 

" There is a peace that passeth and yet passeth not the 
pure understanding. It abides everlastingly in the hearts of 
those that live in the Eternal." 

3tfc*?R, flc 


I ska Upanishat, 6, 7 

' He that seeth all things in the Self, and the Self in all 
things, he thenceforth doubteth and sorroweth no more/ 


seekers after a final solution of the ultimate problems of 
life, who are not content with the solutions now extant. 
I believe that such an endeavour deserves sympathy; I 
believe that it will be more successful if I have the help 
and co-operation of sympathetic friends than if it were 
left to my own unaided resources ; and I believe that you 
can and will give such help effectively. This help from 
you is the more needed as the many distractions of a life, 
which past karma has thrown along the lines of office and 
the business of the householder, rather than those of 
literary pursuits and the studious leisure of the scholar, 
have, prevented me from making this work anything more 
than the merest outlines of the all-embracing subject of 
metaphysic, well defined as ' completely unified know- 
ledge,' treated therein and those outlines too, full of 
immaturity of thought, possible extravagance of express- 
ion, and certain lack of the finish of scholarship. 

" I therefore pray that you will look through this 
little book and, unless you think it wholly useless for the 
purpose mentioned, will send it back to me after having 
noted on the blank pages all obscure or doubtful and 
debatable or positively inaccurate and inconsistent state- 
ments of fact, falseness or exaggeration of sentiment, and 
confusion or illogic of arguments and marshalling of 
ideas, that you may notice." 

Suggestions for improvement were received in 
chronological order from : Pt. Ganganath Jha, Pro- 
fessor of Samskrt, Muir Central College, Allahabad ; 
Babu Govinda Das, of Benares (my elder brother) ; 


Dr. Hiibbe-Schleiden, of Dohren bei Hannover, Germany ; 
Dr. J. H. Stirling, of Edinburgh ; Prof. J. E. McTaggart, 
of Trinity College, Cambridge ; Pt. M. S. Tripathi, Author 
of A Sketch of Vedanta Philosophy, of Nadiad ; 
P. T. Shrinivasa lyengar Esq., M.A., Principal, Narsingh 
Row College, Vizagapatam ; J. Scott Esq., M.A., Principal, 
Bahauddin College, Junagadh. Ayodhya Das Esq., B.A., 
Barrister-at-Law, Gorakhpur ; Pt. Sakharam G. Pandit, 
Branch Inspector, Theosophical Society, Benares ; 
Pt. Bhavani Shankar, Branch Inspector, Theosophical 
Society, Benares ; M. Andre Chevrillon, of Paris ; 
B. Keightley Esq., M.A., Barrister-at-Law, of London. 

I gratefully record the names of these friends, person- 
ally known or not known, but most truly friends in the 
spirit and helpers in a common cause. 

But far more than to all these friends are this book 
and I under obligations to Mrs. Annie Besant, who first 
saw the rough draft of the work in manuscript, encour- 
aged me to persevere with it, then carefully went over 
every line of the printed proof-copy, suggested innumer- 
able improvements, and finally saw it through the press. 

Benares, 1904. 


THE work has been out of print for nearly four years. 
But the demand for it has continued. Hence this second 
edition. The text has been altered but little, though 
revised carefully. Further considerations, explanations, 
solutions of difficulties, answers to objections, have been 
supplied in additional notes. 

Some friends have queried, Why the name, The 
Science of Peace ? 

It is only a rendering of a recognised and significant 
Samskrt word for the Vedanta, viz., Moksha-shastra, 
which means, literally, the Science of Deliverance, 

Science is organised knowledge, knowledge which 
recognises similarities in diversities and arranges groups 
of facts in specified relations with each other. Such 
sciences, of the finite, are pursued because they, in some 
way or other, minister to finite human needs. This 
ministration is their function. All organisation is for a 
purpose, towards the fulfilment of which the function of 
each organ in that organisation helps. 

The most comprehensive Science is the most com- 
pletely organised, unified knowledge, which sees not 
merely similarities in diversities, but, co-ordinating and 


summing up all sciences in itself as Brahma-vidya the 
* great science ' and the ' Science of the Infinite/ sees 
the Absolute Unity of Life in and through all the many- 
ness of forms, whereof what has been called the organic 
unity of Nature is the expression ; it sees the One Self 
at the central heart of all things, and all things radiating 
from that central heart ; and the purpose of this great 
and ' true vision,' this samyag-darshana, is the fulfil- 
ment of that deepest, that infinite need of the human 
being, viz., the Peace of mind that arises out of freedom 
from all doubts and consequent sorrows, out of the 
eternal assurance of deathless self-dependence. 

Hence Moksha-shastra, of which The Science of 
Peace is an equivalent, and of the conclusions of which 
this work constitutes one way of presentation. 

The Science of the Sacred Word, or the Pranava- 
vada of Gdrgyayana may be regarded as a continuation 
of this work. Other compilations of the writer illustrate 
the same underlying principles in different aspects. The 
Science of the Emotions deals with the nature and culture 
of the feelings in the light thereof, in the same terms of 
Self and Not-Self and the desire-aspect of the Relation 
between them. The Science of Social Organisation, or 
the Laws of Manu, and The Science of Religion or 
Sanatana Vaidika Dhanna, show the application of 
those same principles (in terms of the three aspects of 
the Relation and consequent three temperaments and 
psycho-physical types of human beings, viz., intellectual, 
active, and emotional) to the planning out and 


administration of the affairs of individual, as well as 
communal, human life ; to civics, politics, and law- 
religion, in other words ; and various pamphlets endeavour 
to show their bearings on current problems. 

To help, however feebly and haltingly, in the inter- 
pretation of the ancient and the modern, the Eastern 
and the Western, to each other ; in the restoration of 
spiritual insight to material science ; in the passing of 
this revived spirituality into the new forms of Science 
and Art, ideals and aspirations, laws and conventions, 
that the turning of the wheel of time makes inevitable ; 
in dealing with modern problems in the light of the 
Ancient Spirit and bringing about a true synthesis of 
the many components of the human race and an effective 
and lasting ' balance of power ' between the many in- 
terests, classes and factors of human society, ' clerical,' 
political, financial and industrial this is the general 
purpose of all these compilations, in continuation of the 
immediate and obvious special purpose of each. 

The great quality of the purpose is the only redeemer 
of the little quality of the compilations. 


28th February, 1919. 


ALL the matter of the previous edition, text and 
notes, has been retained in this. But verbal improve- 
ment has been attempted. Long sentences have been 
cut into short. There has also been endeavour to make 
the meaning clearer where it was obscure. Considerable 
additions have been made to text as well as notes, by 
incorporation of material which had gathered, in the 
twenty-six years elapsed since the last edition, as manus- 
cript notes on the margins of my personal copy, sug- 
gested by books read during this period. 

A reason for the name, The Science of Peace, was 
mentioned in the preface to the second edition. Another 
is that the book endeavours to make Peace between all 
possible views and opinions which seem to conflict, but 
cannot really do so, since they all are in the Same Con- 
sciousness. The principle of reconciliation, stated 
repeatedly in text and notes, is, ' Vision Changes with 
angle of vision ', ' Difference of viewpoint makes differ- 
ence of view ', ' Duty differs with circumstance ', " New 
occasions make new duties ", " The old order changes, 
yielding place to new ". Also, head, heart, and limbs, 
knowledge, desire, and action, are reconciled, Rational- 
ism, the philosophy of the head, mysticism, the aspiration 


and longing of the heart, Practicalism, the activity of 
the limbs, all are unified here. (Spirituo-Material) 
Science- Devotion- Action, Jnana-Bhakti-Karma, are all 
shown to be inseparable aspects of One and the same 
Life; Conflict is only Apparent, Eternal Unity and 
Peace is Real. This reason is only subsidiary to the 
first-mentioned, because without peace between head, 
heart, and limbs, there is no peace for the soul. 

Yet another reason is that this book essays to make 

Peace between ancient eastern Vedanta and modern 

western science. The former tells us that the moving 

Universe is a Mirage, Illusion, Myth, Mithya, Maya. 

The latter tells us that Law reigns in Nature. Upanishats 

speak of n i y a t i , ' fixed law, fate, destiny, d i s h t a , 

and also of Yadrchchha, chance. But current 

V64anta has forgotten it all. A New Age, of " The 

Federation of the World and the Parliament of Man " 

requires a new statement of the Ancient-most Philosophy 

as Foundation, Inspiration, Ideal, Guide and Director. 

This Philosophy must be one which reconciles the 

Yadrchchha- Wilfulness-Self-will of Dream-Play 

with the Indefeasible Rule of Law. That Meta-Physic 

is not Meta-Physic which does not include all Physics 

within 'itself. That Self is not In-finite which does not 

include all finite selves and all not-selves within It. That 

Freedom is not Supreme Freedom which does not include 

all bonds, all law-and-order. This reason, again, is also 

only subsidiary to the first; for western Science and 

eastern Philosophy represent age and youth, Pursuit and 


Renunciation ; and without Peace between the two, 
younger generation and older, there cannot be Peace 
within the home. Also, it is patent that both states come 
to each soul, one after another, in succession. As a 
western writer has well said : 

" For a scientific theory to be final, the mind would 
have to embrace the totality of things in block, and 
place each thing in its exact relation to every other 
thing ". 

Reconciliation of all religions particularly has been 
attempted in another book by this writer, The Essential 
Unity of All Religions. Reconciliation of all sorts of 
views, as well as of all 'religions, has been attempted in 
Hindi, in Samanvaya, by him. 

From one standpoint, this whole book may be re- 
garded as a feeble endeavour to expound more fully some 
aspects of " the fundamental propositions " and " the 
basic conceptions " stated on pp. 79-85 of Vol. I of 
H. P. Blavatsky's The Secret Doctrine, (Adyar Edit ion) . % 

* Print-order ' for the first forme of the present edi- 
tion was sent to Adyar on 1-1-1945, three years ago. 
Conditions created by the second World War, paper- 
famine, enormous increase of all costs, going away of 
press-workers to other occupations, are responsible for 
spreading over three years, work which, normally, should 
have been completed in three months or at most six. In 
the meafitime, the writer has grown older (from seventy- 
six to seventy-nine years of age), his eyes weaker, and 


memory more slippery. Consequently, his proof-correction 
has not been efficient ; and there are many repetitions, 
some of which were not necessary; though, probably, 
each repetition, in its new setting, discloses a new aspect, 
or exposes more fully an old one, of the subject ; and this is 
Nature's way too ; also of Itihasa-Purdna. Such mistakes 
as are likely to cause doubt and perplexity to the reader, 
have been noted in the Corrigenda which are placed 
before the text, (not after, as is usually done), to enable 
the reader to make the corrections before he begins 
reading. To come at them after he has finished the 
book, with doubts and perplexities unsolved, is too late, 
and of no use. 

My gratitude is due, in the first place, to Mr. K. S. 
Krishnamurti, Manager of the Theosophical Publishing 
House, who decided to take up the work of a new 
edition, despite the immense difficulties created by the 
conditions above referred to ; in consequence of which 
some projected appendices have been dropped also. My 
thanks are also due to the Press as a whole for bearing 
patiently with my bad habit of making many additions 
and alterations in the second galley-proof, and, very 
rarely though, in the page-proofs also. My gratitude to 
Miss Preston and Mr. Henry van Zeijst, who have 
revised the Indices, is more fully stated in the note 
prefixed to them. 


MEND, O Master !, with Thy perfectness, Thy servant's 
imperfection, lest any earnest seeker after Truth be led 
astray by error of his. Subtile is that utter Truth, 
though all so simple, very difficult to set on high so it 
shall shine out strong and clear and steady, and very 
feeble for such purpose is the hand that would now do 
so. Guide Thou that hand aright. 


(Only such errors are noted and corrected below, as are 
likely to cause perplexity or misunderstanding. These 
corrigenda are placed before, the text begins instead of after 
it ends, as is usually done in order that the corrections may 
be made before the reader begins perusal). 










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endeavoured to 








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spirits, Dhyan 




as in 

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(Headings, placed on top of every page, supplement 
this Table of Contents abundantly.) 



Vairagya. world-surfeit, of Nachiketa and his question 
to Yama, ruler of the Prta-worlds - Vairagya of Mai^rcyl 
and her question to Yajrfavalkya Vairagya of Rama 
and his question of Vasishtha. Quest of the soul after 
immortality and self-dependence , its shrinking from anni- 
hilation and from dependence on the mercy of another. 
NOTE : Psychical Autobiography .... 1 


Craving of the jiva for a synthesising unity Its first 
finding, viz , creation by a Personal First Cause , and its 
worship thereof. Failure of this finding to bring per- 
manent peace The jiva's further search and second 
finding, viz., evolution by the interplay of two co-eternal 
factors , a philosophy without a religion Failure of this 
second finding. NOTE Three theories of Causation . 6 


The main quest. Many subordinate questions. 
Correspondence between answers to the mam and sub- 
ordinate questions NOTE : The sempiternal longing . 11 



Existence of Self. Nature of Self. Its immortality. 
Self not compound or multiplex, but the sole source, sub- 
strate, refuge, of the compound and multiplex. Uni- 
versal solipsism Self not definable in terms of anything 
limited and particular. Self not commonplace nor yet 
anything mysterious or mystical. Meaning of enquiry. 
Direct and indirect knowledge. --The nature of the Not- 
Self .The partial peace of Pratyag-atma, the Self . 21 



The kind of relation desired between Self and Not-Self, 
viz., such as will make Not-Self wholly dependent on 
Self. No enquiry needed as to origin of Self. The 
only need of thought is to free Self from dependence on 
Not-Self, to derive the changeful from the changeless. 
Attempts to formulate the relation. Dvaita Vedanta, only 
another form of the theory of creation, hence also a 
failure. Vishishta-Advaita Vedanta, only another form of 
the theory of evolution by the interaction of two factors, 
hence also a failure ...... 43 

tinued) : 

The same results in terms of European philosophies. 
The inspiration of Indian thought, ethico-rehgious know- 
ledge for the sake of happiness That of modern Euro- 
pean thought, mostly intellectual and epistemological : 
knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Locke's finding : 
there is nothing in the intellect which was not previously 
in the senses. Leibnitz's addition ' except intellect 
itself '. Berkeley's finding . the csse of matter is its 
pcrcipi. Hume's finding ; the converse Consequent 
restoration of the problem to the status quo, but on a 
higher level. Kant's finding a mental thing-in-itself 
prpjecting ' forms ' and a material thing-m- itself project- 
ing ' matter,' ' sensations ' Consequent aggravation of the 
problem. Subsequent attempts of Fichte and others to 
unify two thmgs-in-themselves of Kant. Schelling's in- 
ference of the Absolute from the Relative Hegel's work. 
Its defects Fichte's explanation of World-Process in 
terms of Ego and Non-Ego. Its general similarity 
with the views of Acjvaita Vedanta : Determination 
of nature of Ego by the method of adhyaropa- 
apavada, abscissio infimti, postulation -negation. The 
last difficulty. Need to justify the very fact and nature 
of change at all, and to combine both change and 
changelessness in the Absolute. Attempts of Rosi- 
crucians in this behalf. Logia, great sentences, of 
Veda, as employed by Advaita Vedanta. NOTE I : 
Pantheon of Philosophers.- NOTE JI : Comparison of 
Hegel, Fichte, and Vedanta . . . .52 


Eulogy, in Scripture, of AUM as last answer. 
A hypothesis as to real meaning of Aum as thus 
eulogised. The logion, ' Ego Non-Ego Non,' as real 



meaning of the three-lettered Aum, and as final ex- 
planation of World-Process. Approaches to this logion 
in current Upantshats and Puranas. Most significant 
form of this logion, ' Aham Etat Na, 1 ' I-This-Not '. 
Joy of the finding. NOTE I : No appeals to Scripture. 
NOTE II : Some more ancient texts . . 108 


Changelessness in the logion. Change within it. 
Method of World-Process, and of all thought, the same, 
viz., abscissio mfimti. Presence of all that is needed, 
of all contradictions as well as of their reconciliation by 
mutual abolition, within the Absolute So-called indescn- 
babihty of the Absolute due not to powerlessness but to 
completion of thought. Correction of Hegel by V6danta. 
Many names of the Absolute. Reason for the name 
Param-atma given to Brahma. NOTE A few more 
ancient texts, Vedic and Buddhist . ... 138 



Nature of Pratyag-atma and its identity with all jivas. 
Distinction between It and Brahma Nature of Self 
with reference to Time, Space, and Motion. An illu- 
stration, by 'Sound Sleep'. Genesis of the three attributes 
of Pratyag-atma, viz., Sat-Chit-Ananda, Being-Con- 
sciousness-Bliss, corresponding to Kriya-Jnana-Ichchha, 
Action-Cognition-Desire. Tn-une-ness of the Absolute < 

reflected in these three attributes. Worship of the Self . 158 



Various significant names of Mula-prakrti. Its essential 
nature and characteristic. Consequences ensuing from 
that nature. Birth of the world's endless diversity (a) of 
pseudo-infinite particulars, (b) in pairs, (c) mutually and 
positively opposed, and so always abolishing each other. 
Meaning of arbitrariness ; its absence from the World- 
Process taken as a whole. Continuum of the World- 
Process, in consequence of indivisibility of the Absolute, 
appearing in the fact that everything is everywhere and 
always. False assumption by Not-Self of the charac- 
teristics of Self, infinity, eternity, etc. Explanation of 
why two or rather three parts are distinguishable in the 
Partless Logion. Meaning of 'Illusion'. Safeguards pre- 
sent in the Logion itself against all possible impeachments. 



Why Matter is Uncreatable and Indestructible. 
Mutual balancing of increase and decrease, action and 
reaction. Some suggested lines of thought. How Three 
Moments are distinguishable in the partless Absolute. 
Their simultaneousness despite succession. World- 
Process a device for reconciliation of antinomies of the 
reason. Distinction between ideal and real, thought and 
thing, abstract and concrete. Special attributes of Mula- 
Prakrti, viz., Sattva-Rajas-Tamas, Cogmsability-Mobility- 
Desirability. corresponding to Guna-Karma-Pravya, 
Quality-Movement-Substance. Universal presence of all, 
with predominance of one of these three. Worship of 
Not-Self .NOTE : How Metaphysic illuminates all . 172 



Significance of Negation, in permutations of the 
logion. Various facts and beliefs corresponding to the 
permutations. Affirmation and Negation involved in 
Not. Consequences in shape of laws of alternation 
and rhythm. Chakra, wheel, of Pravrtti and Nivrtti, 
Pursuit and Renunciation. Pseudo- infinite cycles. Law 
and breaches of law subsumed under ever wider law. 
. Necessity of the Changeless Nature of the Absolute, as 
embodied and described in the logion, the one Cause of 
all causes. Meaning of Cause. The Whole the Cause of 
each Part. Metaphysic of Free-will. Necessity as 
Maya. Etymology of Maya. Correspondence between 
evolution of a language and a whole world-system. 
Connection between Maya-Shakti and Negation. Shakti 
as might, power, energy, etc. Its three attributes, viz., 
Avarana-Vikshe'pa-Samya ; attraction, repulsion , balanced 
alternation , Srshti-Sthiti-Samhara, creation-preservation- 
destruction Vidya, Ayicja, Mahavidya, Science, Nesci- 
ence, Wisdom. Worship of Shakti. Confusion as re- 
gards Shakti and Prakrti in current Samskrt works 
Para, A para, and Daivi Prakr.tis. NOTE : Real mean- 
ing and correspondence of Sattva-Rajas-Tamas and other 
triads . . . . .199 



Cause and Condition. Distinction between them. 
Various kinds of causes. Their common chararteristic. 


Shakti as cause and Negation as condition. Three attri- 
butes or aspects of Negation, vtz. t Space-Time-Motion- 
Their genesis and correspondence with the primal trinity. 
Variability of such correspondence. 

(a) Space. Space as coexistence. Triple aspects of 
Space, viz., (I) Side-beside-between, (2) inner-outer- 
through, (3) point-radii-sphere, etc. Pseudo-infinite 
dimensions of space. Worlds within worlds. Symbology 

(b) Time. Time as succession Its triplicities, viz , 
(1) begmning-end-middle, (2) Past-future-present, (3) 
Moment-period-cycle Personal immortality. Variations 
of correspondence. Symbology. Interchange of aspects 
between the Puranic Gods. 

(c) Motion. Motion as interweaving of co-existence 
and succession. Its triplets, viz., (1) Mergence-emerg- 
ence-recurrence, (2) approach-recess-revolution, (3) linear- 
rotatory-spiral, etc. -Various aspects of motion. Various 
significant ways of describing motion. Symbology. 
Unresolvable mutual immanence ond synchronousness of 
all trinities and triplets. Co-inherence of all such trini- 
ties, that is to say, of the whole of Samsara, in each 
jiva-atom, each composite of Self and Not-Self. Solution 
of the riddle that all is everywhere and always NOTE I . 
The World- Drama needs Tragedy as well as Comedy. 
NOTE II Meaning of Immortality , all jivas are equal. 

nay, the same. 297 


A resume. Genesis of the jiva-atom. Its general 
negational attributes, viz., Size-Life-Vibration. Defini- 
tion of atom. Of jiva. Adhyasa, mutual reflection 
or superimposition of each other's characteristics. Um- 
versals, singulars, and particulars-individuals. Animate, 
inanimate, all un-inanimate Organic, inorganic, all- 
organic. Chemico- physical affinities, psychic sympathies, 
psycho-physical parallelism. Significance of distinction 
between animate and inanimate Life, death, necro- 
biosis. Meaning of death. Soul, body, and causal 
envelope ; Sthula-Sukshma-Karana, gross-subtle-causal ; 
inner-outer-relational. Nucleus-protoplasm-c a p s u 1 a r - 
network. Pseudo-infinite planes within planes and 
sheaths within sheaths. Birth, death, rebirth. Patence, 
latence, development. The Absolute. Animate nature, 
inanimate nature, Virat-Purusha Individuals within 
individuals. Various theories of physical science tending 
towards the same view. Need of judging things by their 
mutual proportion. Birth of facts from laws. NOTE : 
Support of Metaphysic by Physical Science . . 333 



Other aspects and sub-divisions of Size-Life-Activity. 
Volume, form, measure : large-small-average, long- 
round-ovoid, linear-square-spherical, etc. Primary form, 
sphere, including all possible other forms.- Figure- 
symbology Period, filling, rate : long-short-average, 
wen-filled-ill-filled-occupied, fast-slow-even, etc. Ex- 
tent, rate, degree: great-little-mean, bigh-low-even, in- 
tense-sluggish-equable, etc. Reason of these triple 
subdivisions, Their simultaneity and nothingness. Un- 
disturbedness of the Absolute. Other triplets under Mind 
and Matter ; increase-decrease-equality and liberality- 
narrowness-tolerance ; growth-decay-coutinuance and 
pursuit-renunciation-equanimity ; expansion-contraction- 
rhythm and pleasure-pain-peace. Characteristic attributes 
of atom, i.e., of matter, viz., Dravya-Guna-Karma. 
Correspondences with other triplets. Nature of Guna, 
and its correspondence with Chit. Subdivisions of 
Guna. Proprium, accident, attribute. Concrete instan- 
ces of essential properties. Of accidental qualities. Of 
attributes generally. Psychological nature of sensations. 
-Pseudo-infinity of senses and sensuous qualities. All 
attributes present everywhere and always. Nature of 
Karma. Why it corresponds with Sat Its subdivisions. 
Expansion, contraction, vibration . Karmic gunas, gum'c 
karmas, etc., eg., velocity, dullness, movement, etc. 
Nature of Dravya, mere 'this-ness'. Its corres- 
pondence with Anancla Utter inseparability of the three 
aspects of matter, Dravya, Guna, and Karma, or ' This, 
Such, and Thus '.Subdivisions of Dravya. Positive 
weight, negative weight, dead weight , heavy, buoyant, 
resistant, etc. Why Dravya corresponds with Ananda 
and Tamas.- Reason of variations in correspondence. 
Simultaneousness as well as succession of all these sub- 
divisions Concomitance of the three aspects helpful in 
reconciling many conflicting theories of physical science. 
Appearance of qualities, apparently exclusively cognis- 
able 'by one sense only, in the objects of all the senses, 
Vedantic doctrine of quintuplication of all sense- 
elements. Parallel changes of aspects. Pseudo-infinite 
varieties of Guna. Of Karma. Of Dravya. Pseudo- 
infinite variety of dimension, duration, and vibration of 
atoms. Reconciled by existence of planes within 
planes ....... 360 


Subjective aspects of Size, Life, and Vibration, viz., 
range, intensity, calibre, etc., as appearing in inner 



life of Consciousness Nature of Consciousness. In 
what sense the word Consciousness describes Brah- 
ma. A re-statement of genesis of three aspects of 
individual consciousness, viz., cognition, desire, and 
action. Their subdivisions. Cognition and action in 
terms of each other. Multifarious triplets arising under 
each. Mutual superimposition of attributes between Self 
and Not-Self. Pseudo-infinite multiplications, radiations, 
and cognitions between selves and not-selves. Metaphysi- 
cal nature and genesis of organs of sense and action. 
Metaphysic of sense-media, ether, air, etc. Significance 
of concentric mvolucra, sheaths, upadhis, bodies, of 
jiva, with special reference to cognition. Nucleus and 
nucleolus. Synthesis of pseudb-infinity of planes 
Method of the synthesis, by triplets of planes or worlds. 
Interpretation of Tri-bhuvanam. Why scriptural state- 
ments are capable of many interpretations, all equally 
true " As above so below ". Distinction between Inner 
and Outer, Ideal and Real, Thought and Thing. Illustra- 
tion, How and Why this distinction. Metaphysical 
meaning of Memory. Self or Self-consciousness as 
reason, and reason or buddhi, as sutra, thread, network of 
laws of the World -Process, and web of life of individual 
organisms. Individual participation in Universal Omni- 
science. An illustration Latent and Patent. Meaning 
of ' Ideality ' Illustrations. Individuality, a ' present ' 
which includes a ' before ' and an ' after ' Metaphysical 
significance of Sukshma-Sharira. Relation of subtler 
to denser planes of matter, e g. t of ether to gas, gas to 
water, etc., similar to relation of Fratyag-atma to 
Mula-prakrti. Words having universal as well as special 
and local significance. Illustrations. Corollaries. Ap- 
parently disconnected planes found to be graded together 
from higher standpoints. Dimensions of space. Expan- 
sion of Consciousness. Meaning of Yoga . . 399 


The Universal, the Singular, and the Relation between 
them. Certain difficulties of ambiguity Suggested 
restrictions of connotation Reconciliation between 
Nominalism and Realism, etc. Manifestation of Self 
in language. Synthesis of discrete facts by the princi- 
ple of Individuality. Definitions of jiva-atom and 
brahm-anda in terms of the Absolute. Illustrations. 
Essential and complete sameness of all jivas. Apparent 
difference and separateness made by mere variation of 
order of experiences. Why order of experiences 
varies. Balancing of pleasure and pain. Bhartr-han's 



saying. Real significance of sameness of all jivas 
The converse ' reality ' of appearance of difference and 
evolution of jivas from so-called lower to so-called higher 
stages and involution vice-versa. The wonder of the 
diversity of the world and the Peace of Sameness amidst 
the Turmoil of Change. Conclusion . . . 466 

DEDICATION .... 496 






" THE dread doubt that seizeth the beholders when a 
man passeth away, so that one sayeth, ' He still is,' and 
another, * No, he is no more ' I would know the truth 
of this, taught by thee, O Death ! This I crave as the third 
of the three boons thou promised ! '* 

This is the boon that Nachiketa asked of Yama, 
Master of Death, Judge of departed souls. And Yama 
shrank from the great task imposed on him and an- 
swered : " Even the gods have suffered from this doubt, 
and very subtle is the science that resolveth it. Ask 
thou another boon ! Besiege me not with this. Take all 
the pleasures that the earth can give ; take undivided 
sovereignty of it ! " But Nachiketa : " Where shall all 
these pleasures be when the end comes ! The pleasures 
are no pleasures, poisoned by the constant fear of Thee ! 

1 Katha-Upanishat, I, i. For the full story of Nachiketa, his 
seeking and his finding, see the Upanishat. 


The gods too suffer from the doubt, for they are only 
longer-livea and not eternal ; and that they suffer is but 
reason why I would not be as they. I crave my boon 
alone. Nachiketa asks not for another." 

" If all this earth with all its gems and jewels were 
mine without dispute, should I become immortal ? " So 
Maitreyl questioned Yajna-valkya when he offered wealth 
to her at parting. And Yajna-valkya answered : " No, 
thou couldst only live as the wealthy live* and die as they. 
Wealth brings not immortality ! " Then Maitreyl : " What 
shall I do with that which makes me not immortal ? Tell 
me what thou knowest brings assurance of eternity." 1 

So Rama also asks Vasishtha : " The books that say 
that Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesha are the three highest 
gods that rule our solar system, say also that they die. 
Brahma, the highest-seated, falls ; the unborn Hari dis- 
appears ; and Bhava,teource of the existence of this world, 
himself goes into non-existence ! How then may feeble 
souls like mine find peace and rest from fear of death and 
change and ending ? " * 

" To be dependent on another (to be at the mercy of 
another, to be subject to the relentlessness of death) this 
is misery.. To be Self-dependent this, this is happiness." 3 

Thus, instinctively in the beginning, consciously and 
deliberately at ths stage when self-consciousness and 

1 Brhad-Aryanyaka-Upamshat, II, iv. 

2 Yoga-V&sishtha, Vairagya Prakarana, xxvi, 29. For the full story, 
see the present writer's Mystic Experiences, (Talcs from the Yoga- 

8 Manu t iv, 160. 


intelligence are developed, the jlva 1 feels the terror of 
annihilation, and struggles to escape from it. into the 
refuge of some faith or other, low or high. And in such 
struggles only, and always, hegin religion and philosophy, 
each shade of these according, step by step, with the 
stage and grade of evolution and intelligence of the jlva 

But when this fear of death of soul and body, this 
fear of loss and change and ending, pervades t-hc in* 
telligent and self-conscious jlva ; when it destroys his joy 
in the things that pass, makes him withdraw from all 
the old accustomed objects of enjoyment, and fills him, 
for that time, with sadness and disgust and loathing 
for c all the possible means of pleasure that ever hide 
within their lying hearts the means of pain ; when it 
leaves him naked and alone, intensely conscious of his 
solitude and sorrow, shrinking violently from the false 
and fleeting show of the world, desolate with his own 
misery and the misery of others, longing, yearning, 
pining, for the Permanent, the Eternal, the Restful, 
for a lasting explanation of the use and- purpose, origin 
and end, of this vast slaughter-house, as the whole 
world then seems to him to be then is that searching 
soul passing through the fires of burning thought, reflection 

J Jiva means a separate self, a spirit 01 sonl, a living thing, an 
individual unit, vortex, point, focus or centre of latent or evolved con- 
sciousness, a single part, so to say, of the Uni \ersal Self, a dew-drop 
image of the Sun, passing from the mineral through the vegetable and 
animal into the human and superhuman kingdoms ; here of course a 
human soul or spirit. See quotation from Yoga-V&sishtha t II, xix, in 
ch. iv, f.n., p. 29, infra. 


and discrimination between the Transient and the 
Permanent; of passionate rejection of all personal and 
selfish pleasures and attachments in himself as well as 
others; of the self-suppression, the intense quiescence and 
compassionate sadness, of utter renunciation ; and of a 
consuming, ever-present, craving and travailing for the 
means of liberation, from that seeming slaughter-house, 
for himself and for all others ; then is he passing through 
the fires that shall purify him and make him worthy of 
Ved-anta, of that ' final knowledge ' which he craves, and 
which alone can bring him peace and fit him for the 
work that lies before him. Then is his consciousness, 
his individuality, his personal self, focussed into an in- 
finitesimal point, and, thus oppressed with the feeling of 
its own extreme littleness, is it ready for the supreme 
reaction, ready to lose itself and merge into and realize 
the All-Consciousness of the Infinite and Universal Self. 
Why, and at what stage of his evolution, this most 
fearful and most fruitful mood comes necessarily on every 
soul, will appear of itself, when, later on, the mystery of 
the World-Process has been grasped and understood. 1 

NOTE. The first six chapters of this work constitute, in 
a way, the psychological autobiography of the writer. They 
describe the stages of thought through which he passed to the 
finding embodied in the seventh chapter. And they have been 
written down only as a possible guide-book to travellers along 

1 Many western mystics, poets, philosophers, have experienced and 
described this mood ; to name one, Tolstoy, in How I came to Believe, 
gives a very vivid picture of his own v a i-r a g y a, passionate disgust with 
the world, and v i-v 6 k a, search for the Eternal as distinguished from the 


the same path. All the opinions and beliefs criticised in them 
and, for the time, left behind, in order to pass further on, have 
served as staging-places to the writer himself, have been held 
by him closely for a longer or a shorter time, and then, tailing 
to bring lasting satisfaction of the particular kind that he was 
seeking, have been passed by. But this does not mean that 
the staging-places and the rest-houses have been abolished, or 
are of no use. They continue to exist, will always exist, 
and will always be of use to future travellers. No deprecia- 
tion of any opinion whatsoever is ever seriously intended by 
the writer. Indeed, it is a necessary corollary of the view 
embodied in the seventh and subsequent chapters of the work, 
that every opinion, every darshana, every * view/ catches 
and embodies one part of truth ; and he himself now holds each 
and every one and all of the opinions that appear to be refuted 
in these preliminary six chapters but he holds them in a 
transmuted form. Each form of faith, each rite of religion, 
each way of worship, has its own justification. If the 
writer has unwittingly used, in the passion of his own struggle 
qnwards, any words that are harsh and offend, he earnestly 
begs the forgiveness of every reader really interested in the 
subject, and assures him that if he does think it worth while 
to read this book through systematically, he will realize that it 
verily endeavours, not to depreciate any, but to appreciate all 
thoughts, and put each into its proper place in the whole world- 
scheme. The ' well-established conclusion/ the siddhanta, 
of Indian thought is that as 3?r^fR^|^ qjft^:, so seW^T^ 
SRFT^i, as ' duty varies with the individual's position,' so ' the 

view, the opinion, varies with the angle of vision, the situation, 
the point of departure ' ; but the ' final view/ of Vcd-anta, from 
the ' universal ' standpoint, includes^all views. 

The italicised words, ' and for all others ', p. 4 1. 8 
above, make mumuksha equivalent with bodhi--chitta 
of Buddhist philosophy. Spirit of holiness, holiness of spirit, 
is love for all, compassion for all who are suffering. The 
objection that some persons feel tired of life, do not fear death, 
indeed welcome it, is answered in ch. ii of The Science of 
the Self, and pp. 51-52 of The Essential Unity of All Reli- 
gions. If any persons really do not want any philosophy, or 


religion, surely none need be, none ought to be, none verily 
can be, forced on them. From the point of view of this work, 
ihe impelling motive, p r a - y o j a n a, * final cause ', of the 
search for philosophical Truth, is not intellectual curiosity, 
but profound heart-cra\mg for Freedom, Freedom from Fear, 
the essence of which Fear is Fear of Privation and Death at 
the hands of Another than Self. To rise in triumph above this 
Fear, sensitive and steadfast souls seek That which is beyond 

all Death, ^ f ^ sftfcNfa <4kT:, 3$^fa, cTCST, 3?^%*, 

(Upan.), " with abstinence from sense-indulgences, ascetic 
ways, and intense meditations that make them forget even the 
need for nourishment of body." 


THUS we find that the j I v a doubts and asks for immortal- 
ity alone, and in the doubting and the asking, he ever 
instinctively feels that the answer lies in a basic ' Unity ' 
of some sort or other, and that peace can never be found 
in an unreconciled and conflicting * Many '. This feeling 
conditions his search throughout, for reasons inherent in 
him-Self and in the World-Process, as will appear later. 
As the Gitd (xiii. 27) says : " Only when the soul sees 
the Many rooted in the One and aiso branching out from 
that One, does knowledge become complete and perfect, 
does the Infinite become fulfilled and realized in that soul, 
does the soul identify itself with the All-Self, Brahman." 


The first answer that the soul shapes for itself to 
the great question, the first tentative solution of this 
overpowering doubt, is* embodied in the view which is 
called the arambha-vada, 1 the theory of a begin- 
ning, an origination, a " creation of the world by an 
agency external to the questioner and to the World ". 
From so-called fetish-worship to highest deism and 
theism, all may be grouped under this first class of 

Instinctively or intelligently, the j I v a sees that effects 
do not arise without causes ; that what is not effected by 
himself must be caused by another ; that he himself (as 
he then regards himself) is an effect, and that his cause 
must be another ; that whatever is the more permanent, 
the older, is the cause of the temporary, the younger ; 
and he finally infers and believes that his well-being, 
permanence, immortality, lies in, is dependent on, his 
cause, his Creator. From such working of the mind arise 
the multifarious forms of faith, beginning with belief in, 
and worship of, stone and plant and animal, and ending 
in belief in, and worship of, a personal First Cause. The 
general form and meaning of worship is the same through- 
out, i.e., prayer for some benefit or grace. The accompany- 
ing condition of worship is the same also, viz., giving 

J Paficha-dashi. xin, 7. 

Hoffchng's statement, " according to the popular conception of the 
causal relation, one thing is the cause, another thing the effect, " is an 
almost literal translation of this verse ; (Outlines of Psychology, p. 209.) 


assurance of humility in order to evoke benevolence 
in the object of worship, by prostration and obeisance and 
sacrifice of objects held most dAr, to prove (sometimes, 
with cruellest immolation of others or of self, though at 
others with a most beautiful and most noble self-surrender) 
that they are not held dearer than that worshipped 

This first answer is a religion as well as a philosophy, 
but the jlva finds not rest for long therein. 

The concrete material idols fail again and again, and 
so does the mental idol. The incompatibility of evil and 
suffering with a being who is at once omnipotent, omni- 
scient, and all-good ; l the unsatisfied need for an explan- 
ation why a personal being who is perfect should create 
a world at all, 9 and how he can create it out of nothing 
as he must, if it is not to be coexistent with and so at 
least to some extent independent of him these distressing 
doubts, insoluble on ' the theory of a beginning,' that 
have always shaken faith, first in the power and goodness 
of the creator, and then in his very existence. Inevitably, 
earlier or later, they wrench the earnestly-enquiring jlva 
away from his anchorage in that theory, and set him adrift 
again, again a-searching. 

The truth that underlies this first answer, in all its 
forms, he will discern again when he has obtained what 
he now wants so urgently. 

| Shankara, Shariraka-bh&shya, II, i, 34. 

* Ibid.. II, i, 33. 


His next haven of rest, the second answer, is the 
parinama-vada, 1 or vikara-vada, 2 the theory of 
change, transformation, evolution and dissolution, by the 
interaction of two factors. By a great generalisation he 
reduces all the phenomena of the universe to two per- 
manent elements, present always, universally, under all 
circumstances, throughout all the changes that he sees 
and feels. 

The materialism and agnosticism which believe in 

* Matter and Force ', and declare all else unknown ; the 
ordinary Sankhya doctrine of * Purusha and Prakrti, ' (or, 
rather, an infinite number of Purushas and one Prakrti), 

* Ego and non-Ego,' * Self and not-Self,' ' Subject and 
Object ', ' Spirit and Matter ' all fall under this second 
category. Most of the philosophies of the world are here ; 
the variations as to detail are endless, but the view that 
the universe is due to two finals, is common to them all. 

At this stage, if the duality be made the basis of a 
religion at all, the believer proclaims the factor of Good 
as superior to the factor of Evil, and assigns^to it a final 
triumph, regarding God as prevailing over Satan. Hor- 
muzd over Ahriman, Purusha over Prakrti, Spirit over 
Matter, in a vague undefined way, sacrificing strict logic 

1 Pancha-dasht, xiii! 8. 

I " One and the same thing pas- 
sing into a new state, as milk becoming curds ; clay, pots , gold, ear- 
rings this is parinama." Compare Hoffding, loc. cit., p. 212, 
' * Cause and effect are members of one and the same process ' ' . 

- Vedanta-sara. 


to the instinctive need for Unity, which, as said before, 
conditions the search throughout. But where the two 
are seen as equal, as in the Sankhya, religion vanishes, no 
practice corresponds to the theory. Thus, the Sankhya 
system describes Purusha as ' lame,' and Prakrtt as ' blind/ 
helping each other, apparently, for the purpose of (each 
feeling it- k self' alive, existing, in) the Play of the 
World- Process, but in reality opposed in nature. The 
struggle between the two weakens both ; each factor 
neutralises the other. There is no worship in the absence 
of a One Supreme to worship. Only philosophy remains, 
a belief, wavering and satisfactionless. An explanation 
by two eternals, a plurality of infinites, each unlimited 
and yet not interfering with the unlimitedness of the 
other, though existing out of and independently of it ; 
with, furthermore, their interplay governed by Chance 
such an explanation is no explanation at all. If it is 
said that these many eternals and infinites exist, not out 
of but, within each other, that they pervade and permeate 
each other, then the k explanation ' becomes yet more 
unintelligible. It is all a contradiction in terms ; it is 
mere arbitrariness ; there is no order, no certainty, no 
law, no reason in it. However correct it may be as a 
generalised statement of indubitable facts, viz., an end- 
lessness of Spirit and an endlessness of Matter, those 
facts themselves remain unexplained, unreconciled, im- 
possible to understand. 

The truth that underlies this belief also will appear 
when the final ans\\er is found. 


NOTE. The arambha-vada corresponds to what in 
modern psychology has been called " the popular conception 
of causality"; (Hoffding's Outlines of Psychology, V D). 
Hoffding's own view may be described as the scientific notion 
ot causality, corresponding to the parirjiarna-vada. The 
final or Vedantic notion, including, yet transcending, the other 
two, known in Samskrt as vivarta-vada, adhyasa- 
vada, and also as abhasa-vada, may be described in 
modern terms as the metaphysical notion of causation, not 
yet recognised and accepted in the west ; though some 
thinkers approximate. Fichte, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Bradley, 
Koyce, Green, Caird and others, catch different aspects of it. 
Vivarta-vada is the * doctrine of reversal, opposition,' 
because the Changing World-Effect is the illusory opposite of 
the Changeless Consciousness- Cause ; also, perhaps, because, 
while the Sankhya concludes that Nature-Matter-Prakrti is 
One, and Souls- Forces- Purushas infinitely Many, the Vedanta 
reverses the conclusion, and holds that the Spirit is One, and 
Matter Many; adhy-asa is 'baseless im-post-ure, super - 
jm-positiou, or sup-position/ ' false imputation/ of attributes 
and qualities which do not exist; a-bhasa is 'illusory 
appearance '. The full significance of this third and last 
answer will appear, later on. See ch. xi, infra. 



TENTATIVE, temporary, full of uncertainty and full of 
questioning is this stage. Baffled in his efforts to under- 
stand the World- Process completely ; barred out from a 
perfect religion-philosophy, a system of knowledge which 
would consistently and directly unify and guide his 
thought, desire, and action, head, heart, and limbs, in 


this life and all lives to come ; unable to rest peacefully 
in a mere incomplete knowledge, in a mere belief which 
remains outside of his daily life and is often coming into 
conflict with it ; the j I va goes back again and again to 
that earlier answer, which, if only belief, only incomplete 
knowledge, is yet a religion also, a religion-philosophy, 
however imperfect. But each such going back is only 
the preliminary to a still stronger going forward. The 
jlva is now in the grasp of an indefeasible reflective- 
ness, of a craving of the intellect that may not be 
repressed. 1 He has attained his majority and must 
now stand on his own feet ; his parents may not 
fondle him in their lap any longer. And so he pro- 
gresses onwards through and from the second stage, 
driven by doubts, harassed by heart-oppressing questions. 
What is really sought by the soul, is the supremacy 
of a One, and that One, My-Self ; for so alone can My 
immortality be assured. But the jlva has only begun 
seeking. It is full of the sense of its own weakness. It 
cannot at once leap to the knowledge and certainty of its 
own supremacy. In the a r a m b h a , the beginning, of its 
search, it can reach only the arambha-vada, viz., 

1 f^fa, v i v 6 k a , ever-present discrimination between the Transient 
ancf the Permanent ; and f^R, vichara, ever-present reflection on the 
Why and Wherefore of things, whence arise the 31*T, shama, <<[*?, 
d a m a , etc. , which are part of the traditional qualifications of the seeker 
after truth, the student of Veclanta, the aspirant for the final knowledge 
(or, illumination, experience, including knowledge, emotion, will) and for 
m o k s h a , freedom (from doubt and error and all ills ; for all ills, wants 
and pains and restlessness, are but the consequences of Primal Error, as 
will appear later on.) 


that there is a Supreme One, who is other than me, yet 
is so identified with me by His karuna, compassion, 
that He will ensure me a share of His own Immortality 
ultimately, and that present miseries are only tests and 
trials. In such belief, the j I va instinctively feels that Love 
is the comparatively outer expression of the Fundamental 
Inner Unity. But this ' first ' answer is not only in- 
tellectually illogical ; it is also emotionally full of in- 
security. It satisfies neither head nor heart. Where is 
the ground for unshakeable Eternal Faith ? How can I 
trust that this God, outside of me, different from me, will 
never be other than benevolent to me ? His present con- 
duct to all His creatures, all around is it not \iery cruel, 
very non -benevolent ? Nay, the answer leaves me worse 
off than before. I am longing for ' freedom ' from ' fear 
of another '. This answer makes me utterly dependent 
on the mercy of another. It completes my servitude. 
I have been created out of Nothing by Another, at His 
Will. I can be annihilated into Nothing by that Other, 
at His Will-full Caprice. " Better to reign (be Self- 
dependent) in hell, than (be Other-dependent) slave in 
heaven ". The pari -nama, transmuted result of such 
critical scrutiny of the * first answer ', is the second, the 
pari-nama-vada; but that also turns out, on similar 
close examination, to be no less devoid of certainty of 
knowledge and assurance of feeling. Two even finite 
things cannot occupy the same space ; much more, two 
Infinites ; they would be constantly limiting, finit-ising, 
struggling to oust and abolish, each, the other. 


The main object of the soul's quest is but this : " How 
shall I make sure of my Eternity ? " " How shall I be 
freed from fear of death ? " " How shall I obtain salva- 
tion, ab-solu-tion, from all ills ? " Yet in the searching, 
he has trodden many paths which have allured him 
with promise of profit ; have sometimes made him forget 
for the time being the goal of his enquiry ; and have even, 
now and then, led him to a short-lived peace and confi- 
dence in blind unreasoning or ill-reasoning faith, or in 
agnosticism, assertion of the impossibility of final know- 
ledge and the futility of all search. And all these paths 
he has discovered again and again to be blind alleys. 
Each only leads to a new question and a new \\all of diffi- 
culty. All the questions await solution by means of the 
one supremejeolution only. The whole labyrinthine maze 
leads him back, again and yet again, to the same starting- 
point. The whole can be mastered and traversed in con- 
fidence by means of only a single clue/ 


1 Manyness is patent, all around. One-ness is not so evident. But 
the craving for a Unity which would enmesh all Multiplicity without 
destroying it, is inherent in the human soul because it is Itself the Final 
Unity, and yearns to regain what it feels it has lost. Search for assurance 
of this Final Unity is Meta-physics, ' beyond-physics '. This same craving 
and search for unity, on limited, but ever larger and larger, scales, is 
manifest in all departments of human life, political, economical, social, edu- 
cational, scientific, religious. Humanity is obviously travailing, with the 
agony of world-wars, to give birth to a Unified World- Federation, 
World Order, World Organisation of the whole Human Rac a Univer- 
sal Scientific Religion, a World Economy, a Universal Culture- Voca- 
tional Education, a Universally intelligible Language and readable 
Script , not to abolish particularity, variety, individuality ; but only to co- 
ordinate and reconcile all such, by only sub-ord mating them all to 
Unity ; only to introduce a well-recognised and well-corned minimum of 
uni fbrmity amidst qpi equally well-recognised and well-corned multi form- 
itv. Detailed illustration of this travail, in respect of all life-aspects, is 
not possible here ; but any thoughtful observer can see for himself, how 


The many doubts and questions which thejlva 
gathers and which all lead up to and merge in the one 
great question, are mainly these 1 : 

What am I ? and Whence ? and Whither bound ? 
and Why ? what is Spirit, Self, Ego, Subject ? what are 
these other selves, jlvas, like and unlike myself? what 
is Matter, the World, Not-Self, Not-I, non-Ego, Object ? 
what is Life ? what is Death ? what is Motion ? what are 
Space and Time ? what is Rest ? what arc Being and 

larger and larger concepts, combines, mergers, have been and are sub- 
suming under themselves, smaller units, of all sorts, in all these aspects 
of life That the results achieved, from time to time, have always been 
breaking down, with regresses, is due to the fact that the seeking of unity 
has been mostly governed by the false self of separatist egoist individ- 
ualism, whence periodical revolts and rebellions by the units sought to 
be forcibly absorbed, perpetual conflict, and recurring great wars between 
larger and larger groups headed by stionger and stronger ' individuals '. 
Only Metaphysics, which is Spiritual Philosophy, Psychology, Science, 
Keligion, all in one, can lead to the desired result, by teaching to Mankind 
at large, how the desired Unity should and can come willingly and 
eagerly from within, peacefully, creating world-wide Concord, instead of 
being imposed from without violently, whence world-wide Discord. 

J For crowds of such questionings, see, eg., Sarva-vitra and 
Ntrqlambct Upanisliats also Shvefitshvatara- Upamshat, Rg-vcda 
X. 1.21. and Atharva-veda X n. Why refer to so many other questions, 
when the one "that has to be directly dealt with, is " How can the j i va 
avoid sorrow and secure happiness ' ' ' Because whole and parts are inter- 
dependent ; no part can be fully understood until all other parts are 
understood, and the relation of all to each and each to all, and of each 
and all to the whole and the whole to each and all, is understood, 
generally In other words, until the whole- is understood, nothing is 
understood, really. To secure my happiness, I must find out the causes 
and conditions of my joys and sorrows , these are connected with 
' objects, the objective world ', and with other j i vas and their joys and 
sorrows. It becomes indispensable, therefore, for me to find out the exact 
nature of all these (which may all Le classified under the three categories 
of the I or ' Subject ', the not-I on 4 Object ', and the Relation between 
them, in order to secure my essential happiness. To prescribe properly for 
the disease of any one organ, the physician must have knowledge about 
all organs of the body, and their inter- workings), generally. Compare 
the current saying, " to know every thing about some one thing, and 
something about every other thing, is" culture ". 


Non-Being? what is Consciousness? what is Uncons- 
ciousness ? what is Pleasure ? Pain ? Mind ? Body ? 

What are Knowledge, Knower, Known ? Sensation ? 
Senses ? what are the objects sensed, the various elements 
of Matter ? what is the meaning, use, necessity, of media 
of sensation ? what is an Idea ? what are perception, con- 
ception, memory, imagination, expectation, design, judg- 
ment, reason, intuition ? what are Dreams, Wakings, and 
Sleepings ? what are Abstract and Concrete ? what are 
archetype, genus, and species ? what are universals, partic- 
ulars, and singulars ? what is Truth ? Reality ? Illusion ? 

Error ? 


What is Desire ? what arc the subjects and the 
objects of desire ? what are Attraction and Repulsion, 
harmony, and discord ? what is an Emotion ? what are 
Love and Hate, pity and scorn, humility and fear ? what 
is Will ? what, it any, is Free-will ? 

What are Action, acted on, and actor ? what are 
Organs ? Organism ? what is the meaning of stimulus and 
response, Action and Reaction ? what is the real meaning 
and significance of power, might, ability, force, or 
Energy? what is Change, creation, transformation, evolu- 
tion, dissolution ? what are Cause and Effect, Accident 
and Chance, Necessity and Destiny, Law and Breach of 
Law, Possible and Impossible ? 

What is a Thing ? what are Noumena and Pheno- 
mena ? what are essence, substance, attribute, quality, 
quantity, number ? what are One and Many, some and all, 
Identity and Difference ? What is Thought ? are thought 


and thing, ideal and real are they same or different, and 
how and why ? 

What are Speech and Language, command, request, 
and narration, Social life and organisation ? what is Art ? 
what is the Relation between things and jivas? indi- 
vidualities and group-souls ? 

What is Good and what is Evil ? what are Sin 
and Virtue ? Right and Wrong ? Right and Duty ? 
what is Conscience ? what is Liberty ? what are Order, 
Evolution, the World- Process ? are jivas bound and 
helpless, or are they free, and if not free, mukta, 
' liberated/ how may they become so ? how may sin and 
sorrow cease ? what is the Cause of sin and sorrow ? 
Why and How has this sinful and sorrowful world come 
into existence ? how may, and why may not, joy, happi- 
ness, bliss, love, and beauty only pervade the universe ? 
how may Salva-tion, Ab-solu-tipn, be won ? who can 
bestow it ? is it any Other, or the Self itself ? 

Such are, the harassing questions 'concerning every 
moment, every aspect, of his life, that follow on the heels 
of the searcher. Small blame to him if he despair of 
mastering them ! Well may he give up the task again and 
again as hopeless, and try to climb out of their way with 
the help of the weakling plants that rise up here and there 
before him, growths of temporary belief and uncertain 
knowledge, naturally belonging only to the first stage of 
his journey. But the branches which he clings to, fail 
him at the last, after having served their purpose of 
giving him rest and strength for a greater effort, and he 


is shaken down from them by his pursuers, and compelled 
to press forward again. 

Let him not despair. The intensity and stress of 
his vairagya 1 will soon break up the shell of selfishness 
that limits consciousness in him into a personal-self-con- 
sciousness, and will transform it into the All-Self-Con- 
sciousness. Then that Inmost Mystery of the Universe, 
that is now hidden from his sight, shall stand revealed. 
The energy of that vairagya will transform his hurrying 
feet into wings, on which he will rise high above the 
labyrinth of doubts and questions ; and from that height 
he will be able to master all the foes that harried and 
pursued him so relentlessly." 

vairagya, is the passionate revolt from all limitation of the 
Self, from all selfishness, all selfish and personal attachments in himself 
as well as others, which constitutes the indispensable pre-requisite to a 
true, earnest, and fruitful enquiry into the origin and end of things, and 
is the counterpart of 59^J^ jnumuksha, the yearning for liberation 
from pain, the essential pain of bonds, limitations, doubts and fears and 
lack of the supreme and final Self-dependence. The mystics' "Dark 
Night of the Soul"*, before it attains final certainty, the " Slough of 
Despond," are allied to, though they may not be quite the same as, 
vairagya. In order to lead successfully to the great realisation, the 
vairagya must be s a 1 t v i k a, benevolent, philanthropic , not r a j a s a 
mere cynicism, or t a mas a, mere indifference, sloth. To see others in 
pain should be the greatest pain. 

>J The expression employed here may appear a little too impassioned. 
This has been done purposely to show that metaphysic deals, not only 
with the single cold and sober department of intellect m life, but with 
the whole of life as manifesting m cognition, desire, and action, and has 
to pass through the travail of a rebirth that would encompass all these. 
The whole life of the true and earnest enquirer is put into such search . 
hence the mixture of science and emotion. Prof. Patrick Geddes 
has well said, in his report on The Proposed University at Indorc, 
"...To stir ourselves to a higher and broader level of thinking than 
the everyday one... involves a certain warmth ; it requires activity 
and ardour as of the climber, beyond our habitual alternation of pedes- 
trian's pavement and sedentary 's chair. With all real thought-problems, 
it is as with the forging of iron, which, to be strongly or subtly fashioned, 


It should be noted here that each of the first two 
amvers to the great question carries with it its own 
corresponding set of answers to all these questions. But, 
like those two, these also are unsatisfactory, external and 
superficial. The earnest enquirer must search deeper. 
How to answer them in terms of Consciousness, of the 
Self, which is the nearest to him and therefore after all 
the most intelligible ? He must interpret all things in 
their deepest connection with and origin from the Self ; 
otherwise doubt will remain and satisfaction not be gained. 
For as the answer to the one Great Question is to disclose 
the answer to all these, so in turn the good answering of 
these will be the test that that one answer itself is good. 

NOTE. Who am I, whence, how, whither, why ?, this 
has been asked in the very same words, so to say, by Shankara 
of India and Bergson of France, to mention only two out of 
innumerable seekers. Omar Khayyam of Persia has put the 
question in the very same words also, in beautiful setting, 
Into this Universe, and WJiy not knowing, 
Nor Whence, like water willy-nilly flowing ; 
And out of it, as Wind along the Waste, 
I know not Whither, willy nilly blowing. 

But he was not a seeker for the answer, but had satisfied 
himself that answer was impossible, and was content to taste 

must be hammered red-hot. The eagle rises to Ins height through the 
psych-organic stress of life and effort, which heats his blood. ..and so 
gives him wider and clearer vision, albeit at a temperature far above that 
of fever." 

"It is the heart and not the brain that to the Highest doth attain " ; 
(Longfellow). Moksha is not mere vision, but ex-tasis also, a mystic 
communion, union, of the Individual with the Universal. " All great 
things and the great philosophies are among them come from the 
heart and from great passion" Riehl's Nt^tsctic, quoted at p. 113 of 
A. Herzberg's The Psychology of Philosopher**. Bergson f s stress on 
the vital element, on intuition, on life, indirectly expresses instinctive 
realisation of the inseparability of thought-emotion-volition. 


the savour of inveighing with refined poetic unction against 
the transiency of this world's glories, and of singing the praises 
of love and wine as the only substantial joys that can give 
such consolation as i? possible for its sorrows unless we 
.assign mystic interpretations to his words, t.e. 9 'love' is 
* love divine and universal ', ' wine ' is * hormones ' secreted 
by special glands, under the stimulus of yoga-exercises, etc. 
But the Indian questioners put before this question, the other 
question " how may pain be abolished," as the main motive 
for all philosophico-religious enquiry, and then take up the 
other as a consequent, abolition of pain ensuing ultimately on 
realisation of the true Nature of the Self, which Nature includes 
Relation with the Not-Self. All the many questions stated 
in this chapter are only either the metaphysical, or the logical, 
or the psychological, or the ethical, pragmatical, practical, or 
the religious, aspects, forms, and derivatives, of this ultimate 
problem of all problems. Many of them are answered, from 
the standpoint of what is regarded here as the final answer 
to the main question, in the course of the present work ; 
others are dealt with in the other works of the writer. 

" Life is rational. It has a clear aim and purpose, dis- 
cernible by the aid of reason and conscience. And no human 
activity can be fully understood or rightly appreciated until 
the purpose of life is perceived. You cannot piece together a 
puzzle-map as long as you keep one bit in a wrong place. 
When the pieces all fit together, then you have a demonstration 
that they 'are all in their right places. Given the clue supplied 
by true religious perception, you can place Art so that it shall 
fit in with a right understanding of politics, economics, sex- 
relationships, science, and all other phases of human activity " : 
Tolstoy, quoted by Aylmer Maude, in his Introduction to 
What is Art by Tolstoy (English translation, Scott Library 

PEACE, CH. IV] 21 





THE second answer remains, as said before, wavering 
and satisfactionless. Explanation of the world, which is 
the sole purpose of philosophy, by means of two factors, 
can only be a tentative, and not a final, solution. It is a 
great advance to have reduced the multifariousness of the 
world to a duality. But what the searcher wants is a 
Unity, and in this respect, the first answer was indeed even 
better than the second, for it reduced all things to a 
unity, the will of an omnipotent being. 1 That unity was, 
however, a false unity. It had no elements of perman- 
ence in it. The will, by itself, of an individual, carries 

1 As a fact, some earnest seekers, having arrived at the second 
answer, but not satisfied, and unable to advance to the third, delibera- 
tely go back to the first, and take up the bhakti-marga, ' the path of 
devotion ' to a Personal God. The case of those who have advanced to 
the third answer, yet also, deliberately, revive the touch of personal 
b h a k t i , is different ; as that of Vyasa composing the Bhagavaja after 
having compiled the Maha-bhttrati and written the Brahma Surras, or 
of Shankara, singing hymns to Vishnu, Shiva, Ddvi and establishing 
m a t h a s (celibate- S a n n y a s i-convents) and temples. In such cases 
the b h a k t i is consciously directed to a very high m u k t a soul, acting 
as a spiritual administrator of a department, globe, system, of the visible 

" Bhakti is threefold : ' As a physical body, I am Thy servant ; as 
a soul, I am a piece of Thee ; as Spirit', I am Thy-Self." Compare the 
loyalty of a citizen or a subordinate official to the State as a whole, and 
to a particular higher official with whom he has to deal with immediately. 
For further considerations on this subject, the reader may see pp. 197-244 
of Krshna. a Study in the Theory of Avataras. 


within it no true and satisfactory explanation of the con- 
tradictions that make up the world ; it embodies no reason 
and no safeguard against caprice. Tenure of immortality 
at the will of another is a^mockery and a contradiction in 
terms. Therefore the jiva, however reluctantly, how- 
ever painfully, has to give up that first unity, and search 
for a higher one. In this search, his next step leads him, 
by means of a close examination of the multiplicity which 
presses on him from all sides, to a duality which seems to 
him, and indeed is, at the time, the nearest approach to 
that higher unity that he is seeking. 

The forms of this duality, wherein he is centred for 
the time being, beginning with rough general conceptions 
of Spirit (or Force) and Matter, end in the subtlest and 
most refined ideas of Self and Not-Self. 

These, the Self and the Not- Self, are the last two 
irreducible facts and factors of all Consciousness. They 
cannot be analysed any further. All concrete life, in cogni- 
tion-desire-action, and substance-attribute-movement, 
begins and ends \\iththese. They are the two simplest 
constituents of the last result of all philosophical research. 

None doubts " Am I or am I not "J This has been 
said over and over again by thinkers of all ages and of all 
countries. The existence of the Self is certain and 

i, p. 2. (Bibhotheca 
Indica series, published by the Asiatic Society of Bengal.) Descartes' 
famous maxim, Cogito, ergo sum, ' I think, therefore I am,' reverses 
cause and effect. It would be truer to say, Sum. ergo cogito The Bible 
log ion, " / am that / am... I am hath sent me to you " (Exodus), should 
be noted , see pp. 109-110 of The Essential Unity of All Religions b> 
the present writer 


indubitable. It proves the existence of everything else that 
is provable. It is not and cannot be proven by anything 
else. The very instinct of language, in East and West, 
past and present, bears eloquent, insistent, irrefrangible 
evidence to the fact, in the words s v a - 1 a h - p r a m a n a , 
se//-evident, sva-yam-siddha, self-proven (the techni- 
cal Samskrt name for the geometrical axiom), evident and 
proven in, by, and to it-Self, the finality of all testimony, 
on which alone the purely ' imaginary assumptions,' 
' metaphysical concepts,' of even that so-called exactest 
and most certain of sciences, mathematics, in all its 
departments, are veritably and utterly founded. 1 

The next question about it is : What is it ? Is it 
black ? is it white ? is it flesh and blood and bone, or 
nerve and brain, or rocks and rivers, mountains, heaven!}' 
orbs, or light or heat or force invisible, or time or space ? 
is it identical or coextensive with the living body, or is it 
centred in one limb, organ, or point or spot thereof ? The 
single answer to all this questioning is that " That which 
varies not, nor changes, in the midst of things that change 
and vary, is different from them " ; - therefore the I Con- 
sciousness, which persists unchanged and one, throughout 
all tile many changes of the material body and its sur- 
roundings, is different from them all. ' I ' who played 
and leapt and ^lept as an infant in my parent's lap so 
many years ago, have now infants in mine own. What 
unchanged and persistent particle of matter continues 

1 See pp. 80-6 of The Science of the Self, for full comment on this. 


throughout these years in my physical organism ? * What 
identity is there between that infantine body and this 
aged one of mine ? But the * I ' has not changed. It is 
the same. Talking of myself, I always name myself * I,' 
and nothing more nor less. The sheaths in which I am 
always enwrapping the ' I ' thus : I am happy, I am 
miserable, I am rich, I am poor, I am sick, I am strong, I 
am young, I am old, I am black, I am white, I am a god 
in dreams, a very helpless human creature on waking 
these are accidents and incidents in the continuity of the 
* I '. They are ever passing and varying. The ' I ' re- 
mains the same. Conditions change, but they always 
surround the same * I,' the unchanging amid the chang- 
ing ; and anything that changes is, at first instinctively, 
and later deliberately, rejected from the ' I,' as no part of 
itself. And as it remains unchanged through the changes 
of one organism, so it remains unchanged through the 
changes and multiplicity of all organisms. Ask anyone 
and everyone in the dark, behind a screen, through closed 
door-leaves : " Who is it ? " The first impulsive answer 
is : " It is L" * Thus potent is the stamped impress, the 
unchecked outrush, the irresistible manifestation of the 
Universal Common T in all beings. The special naming and 
description : " I am so and so," follows only afterwards, 

1 What truth there is in the view, that some one or more particles of 
matter persist with persistent consciousness (two forms of which view are 
the theosophical doctrine of the auric egg, jiva-kosha, and Weis- 
mann's theory of cell-continuity) may appear later. (See the chapter on 
Jiva-atoms, infra.) 

I Brhad-Aranyaka, I, iv, 1. 


on second thought. So real is the * I ' to the ' I ', that it 
expects others (who really are not 'others') to re- 
cognise it as surely as it recognises it-Self. Again, 
what is true of the * I ' with regard to the body, is 
also true of it with regard to all other things. The 
house, the town, the country, the earth, the solar 
system, which ' I ' live in and identify and connect with 
myself, are all changing momentarily ; hut * I ' feel my- 
self persisting, unchanged through all their changes. * I ' 
am never, and can never be, conscious of myself having 
ever been born or of dying, of experiencing a beginning 
or an end. T " In all the endless months, years, and small 
and great cycles, past and to come, this Self-luminous 
Consciousness alone ariseth never, nor ever setteth." * But 
as regards all the things other than * I,' that ' I ' am con- 
scious of, ' I ' am or can become conscious also of their 
beginnings and endings, their changes. " Never has the 
cessation either in time or in space of consciousness 

1 Births ancl deaths of ' others ' are always felt as only ' incidents ' 
in our life, ' my ' life, which is always felt as permanent, impossible to 
begin or end ' I ' never mr//se(v) that ' I ' was born or shall die. ' I ' 
can only ' see ' in ' imagination ', a tiny infant body being born, and a 
grown up one dying, and, in thought, connect the two with " my-self ', 
4 me', T. So lean, and do, see, with physical eyes, the bodies of 'others' 
being born or dying. We cannot realise that ' I ' ihall die That we 
'fear death ' is really only fearing the loss of enjoyment of our possessions, 
especially of our body, through which we enjoy the possessions, with 
which ' I ' have identified my-self, by means of which I feel my separate 
individual ' self '-existence. We do not fear sleep , nay, we welcome it, 
in its due time , and stand in terror of insomnia , because, and only so 
long as, our body and possessions are not menaced by or during sleep. 

- Pancha-tlasht, i, 7. 

, ? 


been experienced, been witnessed directly ; or if it has been, 
then the witness, the experiencer, himself still remains 
behind as the continued embodiment of that siame con- 
sciousness." l WAen-so-ever and zc?A?r^-so-ever I imagine 

1 Dcvi-Rhagavata, III, xxxn, 15-16. 

It may be objected "But this is only negative proof , show me 
positive proof, that the ' I '-Consciousness stretches through all time " 
the answer is: "First; it is not negative proof that is advanced here, 
but negation of negation of Consciousness , and two negatives make 
a positive. Second , in order that you may have positive proof of the kind 
you have in mind, i.e., witnessing the everlastingness of the '/', you 
must watch it everlastingly , you can scarcely have direct positive 
proof of cvcrlastmgness compressed into a few seconds or a few 
minutes of answer to your query, can you ? Direct positive proof of your, 
' I's ', self's eternity and infinity, you have, here and now, in one in- 
stant and at one point, m your, ' I's ', self's, Self -Consciousness. Direct 
positive proof of the self's ever-last ingncss and all-pervadtngitcss, 
Immortality and omni -presence, is being given to It-Self, by the Self, 
through endless rebirths and measureless wanderings riding in and on 
the orbs of space Remember that ' ever-lastingness ', the meaning of 
the word, the whole of it, is all in your mind, your consfciousness, the 
Self's consciousness, now and here, at this moment 

Lack of memory of past births is no disproof of rebirth. Far the 
larger part of daily knowings, feelings, actings, is completely forgotten 
Yet nothing of them is wholly annihilated , it all remains buried in the 
sub- or supra-conscious ; and is revivable under special conditions ; as is 
proved by the work of hypnotists and psycho-analysts. How and why 
the scientists admit they have no satisfactory purely physical or physio- 
logical explanation. The superphy steal explanation, given by Indian 
and other yqga and mystic traditions, is that all, the minutest, details of 
experience are ' photographed ' and ' phonographed ' in the suks h ma- 
sh a rira, subtle body, on which the successive physical bodies of the 
same soul are strung. The complete explanation is to be found in the 
metaphysical aphorism, sarvam sarvatra sarvada, 'all is every 
where, every when, everyway or all-ways '. The nature of separate 
' individuality ' has to be carefully understood in this connection , see 
Chapters XV and XVI infra, and pp. 411-413 of World War and Its 
Only Cure- World Order and World Religion ; and ' Note on Karma 
and Rebirths ', pp. 190-199 of Essential Unity of All Religions.' 1 The 
difference between ' ever-lasting-ness ' and ' eternity ' will appear later. 


myself, my consciousness, i.e., all Consciousness (for con- 
sciousness is always and only My consciousness), as ceasing, 
in that same act of imagination / see the subsequent time 
and the further space as devoid of Me a contradic- 
tion in terms. Every when and where, every then and 
there, every instant of time and point of space, at which 
I may try to imagine myself (i.e., the ' My-consciousness,' 
the consciousness which is Me, which is /, the subject, 
and not the body which is an object) as ending, is itself 
within me, in my imagination ; I am all around and about 
and beyond it always and already. Thus may we deter- 
mine what the ' I ' is. Omnis determinatio est negatio, 
"all determination is negation," is a well-known and 
well-established maxim. We determine, define, delimit, 
recognise, by change, by contrast, by means of opposites ; 
so much so that even a physical sensation disappears 
entirely if endeavoured to be continued too long without 
change ; thus we cease to feel the touch of the clothes 
we put on, after a few minutes. Scrutinising closely, 
the enquirer will find that everything particular, limited, 
changing, must be .negated of the ' I ' ; and yet the ' I,' 
as proved by the direct experience of all, cannot at all be 
denied altogether. It is indeed the very foundation of all 
existence. ' Existence,' ' being ', (using the two words 

Modern Western psychology is also approaching this view in the 
doctrine of the continuum of consciousness. " We cannot imagine the 
beginning of life, but only life begun/' James Ward, "Psychology" 
(Encyclo. Brit., p. 7). Hoffding, Stout, etc., all recognise the unity and 
continuity of consciousness, though in the individualistic sense Green 
and others seem willing to recognise it not only *' lengthwise " but also 
"breadthwise," i.e., universalistically, not only along the line of each 
individual, but as sweeping over and including all individuals at once. i 


roughly as synonymous at this stage), means nothing 
more than ' presence in our consciousness/ * presence 
within the cognition of the I, of the Self, of Me '. What 
a thing is, or may be, or must be, entirely apart from us, 
from the consciousness which is ' I,' of this we simply 
cannot speak. It may not be within our consciousness 
in detail, with its specifications ; but generally, in some 
sort or other, it must be so within consciousness, if we 
are to speak of it at all. 

The third step, the immortality of the ' I,' neces- 
sarily follows from, is part of, the very nature of the * I '. 
What does not change, what is not anything limited, of 
which we know neither beginning nor end, in space or 
time, that is necessarily immortal and infinite, nitya, 
and v i b h u ; it cannot be created by and dependent on 
anything or anyone else. 1 

Let us dwell upon these considerations ; let us pause 
on them till it is perfectly clear to us that 'our' conscious- 
ness is the one witness to, the sole evidence and the only 
possible support and substratum of, all that we regard as 
real, of all 'our' world, Let us make sure, further, that by 
eliminating the common factor ' our ' from both sides 

1 As the Charaka, one of the principal \vorks on Sarnskrt medicine, 
says . 

" The notion cannot be entertained that the begmningless ' Substance 
of Consciousness, * ' Conscious-stuff ' has been created by another. If 
such another be said to be Atma, the Self, ; c , Consciousness itself again, 
then we are willing to agree. ' ' 

PEACE, CH. IV] * YOU ' AND ' 1 ' BOTH IN THE ' I f 29 

of the equation, the proposition stands, and stands confi- 
dently, that " Consciousness is the only basis and support 
of the world ". For how can we distinguish between 
' our ' consciousness and ' another's ' consciousness, be- 
tween * our ' world and ' another's ' world ? That another 
has a consciousness, that another has a world, that there 
is ' another ' at all, is still only * our ' consciousness. 1 
And as this holds true for every one, at every point, 
does it not follow that all these * every ones ' are only 
One, that all these ' our ' consciousnesses are only one 
Universal Consciousness, which makes all this appear- 
ance of mutual intelligence and converse possible ? For 
it is really only the One talking to itself in different 

More may be said on this, later on, in dealing with 
Consciousness from the standpoint of the final expla- 
nation of the Wo rid -Process. 

1 See the story of Rbhu and Nidagha in the Vishnu Purana (a 
version of which, by the writer, appeared in The Theosophist for 
March, 1909), and was reprinted in The Dream Problem, a symposium, 
by Dr. Ram Narayan (Delhi) ; there is also a similar story in the Yoga 
V&sishtha. " I am a character in your dream , and you are a character 
in my dream." Here, ' I ' and ' your ' and ' you ' and ' my ' are all in 
' each ' consciousness, and ' each ' the notion of 4 many single ones ' 
that is implied by ' each ' is also One and the Same consciousness. The 
vicious circle is solved by adding, " and I and you both are creatures of 
the dream of the Universal Self ". A real, final, distinction between ' 1 ' 
and ' you ' is impossible and ' unreal,' ' illusory ' for both are in the / 
which is speaking That both are there, at the same time, in the same 
consciousness, negates the cruder forms of individualistic solipsism, but 
supports the Universahstic Solipsism which says, not that I, the individual 
self, know only my own modifications, or states, but that the Universsl 
Self experiences Its own (sup-posed and negated) modifications or states 
in an infinite number of individual-seeming selves. Berkeley explained, 
in his later writings, that the ' idealism ' of his earlier writing was not 
4 individual ' idealism, but (God's) ' universal ' idealism. 


In the meanwhile, we need not be disturbed by any 
random statements that " thought (or the ' I '-conscious- 
ness) is the product of the brain as much as the bile is 
the product of the liver 'V If any earnest-minded student 
feel himself disturbed by any such, then let him ask 
himself and the maker of the statement, by what laws of 
deductive or inductive logic is such statement justified ? 
If there are many points in common between the liver 
and the brain, what similarity is there between * bile ' and 
4 thought ' to justify an inference as to the similarity of 
their causes ? And, again, how do we know that such 
things as liver and bile and brain arc ? Because we see 
and feel them! But how are we sure that we see and 

1 How philosophical beliefs govern great public movements, ideas and 
idealogies move the world, theory guides practice, for good or for ill the 
latest instance of this, still operating on a vast scale, is the current tremend- 
ous history of the first half of the 30th Century A. C For a succinct 
account of the share in it, of the views of Ilegel and Feurbach the philo- 
sophers, 'and Marx and Kngels, the communist-socialists, of Germany, 
and Lenin and Stalin, the statesmen-makers, of Soviet Russia, see 
Kngels' pamphlet, Socialism, Utopian and scientific, and ch. iv. 
(and therein too, specially the section, ' Dialectical and Historical 
Materialism ') ot History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
(ttolshcviks) written by a special Commission of that Party (Second 
Indian edition, 1944, People's Publishing House, Bombay). Great im- 
portance of course belongs to the material side and needs of human life ; 
but even greater importance belongs to the spiritual side and needs. The 
ignoring of the latter fact introduced an element of grave error into the 
great truths of the Marxian system, and has been the cause of serious 
tribulations and setbacks in the life and work of Soviet Russia. From 
these she has been extricating itself bv recognising its mistakes, quickly and 
frankly, from time to time, in respect of human psychology and spiritual 
requirements, and endeavouring to correct them. But she is still work- 
ing more or less in the dark , for she is without the full light of India's 
ancient scheme of Yarn a- A shram a-Dharma (now utterly corrupted), 
which is, indeed, Vedanta (Philosophy and. Psychology) Applied, as Social 
Organisation of the Human Race. The whole subject is discussed in the 
present writer's World War and Its only Cure World Order and 
World Religion, and Ancient versus Modern Scientific Socialism. 


feel ? Do we see our eyes that see, and touch our hands 
that touch ? If our senses prove their objects, what is the 
evidence, the proof, of our having the senses, ear, skin, 
eye, tongue, nose the senses, mind, not the reflected 
images in a mirror which are sense-fes.v and of our 
having corresponding sensations through them ? Is it not 
that we are sure of our seeings and feelings, of our having 
the senses wherewith we do so, of our existence at all, 
only because we are conscious of such things ? It is far 
easier to walk on the head comfortably without the aid 
of arms or legs, than to live and breathe and move and 
speak without the incessant /^-supposition that Con- 
sciousness is behind and beyond' and around everything. 1 
Argue as we may, we are always driven back, again and 
again, inexorably, to the position that Consciousness is 
verily our all in all, the one thing of which we arc abso- 
lutely sure, which cannot be explained away ; and that 
the Universal Self, the one common " I ' of all creatures 
(or the Universal, all-including ' We,' if that word is more 
significant to us, but it is One We, We as the Unified 
many I's) is our last and only refuge.' 

1 The word ' Consciousness ' is used for brevity , it should be under- 
stood to mean ' the Principle of Consciousness ', the ' Self's Awareness ', 
'which includes all States or kinds or degrees of Consciousness, waking, 
sleeping, slumbering, and all those varieties which psycho-analyst and 
other writers on psychology endeavour to distinguish minutely, as pre-, 
fore-, co- t sub-, supra-consciousness, hypno-pompic and hypnagogic con- 
sciousness, etc. All these fall within the main three, waking etc , in 
Skt terms, j a g r a t-s v a p n a-s u s h u p 1 1 , or in Yoga technique, 
udara-tan u-p r, a s u p t a f from a different point of view. 


? " What is the proof of our proofs^ , " Shn-harsha, Khandana- 
Khadya. i , 


Perhaps, in our long-practised love of the concrete, 
we like to tell ourselves that the * I ' is only a series of 
separate experiences, separate acts of consciousness. We 
have then only explained the more intelligible by the less 

"the senses which sense, are themselves unsensed " ; (pratyaksha 
is 'here used in the limited sense of ' sensation,' not the essential one of 
' direct cognition ') ; Charaka, I, xi. 

. . ; "the Hearer of the ear, . . . 
the Seer of the eye . , . is the Self ' ' ; Kena Upanishat. 

SRTOTO sfaffi: ; Nyaya-Bhasdya, I, i, 3. "All proofs, all 
evidence, ultimately depends upon, all mental processes work back to, 
pratyaksha, or sensation, ' ' in the narrow sense ; all experiences ulti- 
mately base upon experience, direct cognition, consciousness, in the larger 
sense, as in the following : 

5cf ; ^5 H ^ tf : 

^firat, e S^R:, ^Tsr^ 

cT ?3ftWT, ^F T?m iRl FSclT I Yoga-Vfiststha. II, xix. 

" As the ocean is the abiding place of all waters, so the proof of all 
proofs is pratyaksha, direct cognition the a d h i-a k s h a or overlord 
of each and all the senses, prat i-aksha v^dana, feeling, anubhuti, 
experience, -pratipatti, awareness, s a m v i t, consciousness ; it is the 
j i v a, it is the pumanorpurusha, the ' person, ' personality, of the 
nature of the I-feeling ; and its samvit-s, cognisings, modifications, 
states (which always involve the notion of ' another-than-I, 1 though that 
notion is also within the I, and so a 'modification* of it) , are p a d- 
a r t h a s, ' things , ' ' meant by words ' . 

See pp. 18-26 of The Essential Unity of All Religions ^ for the 
opinions of over twenty famous scientists, leaders in their respective 
sciences, all to the effect that the universe has to be interpreted in terms 
of. ' mind ', not of ' matter '. 


intelligible. The separate experiences, or acts of consci- 
ousness, are intelligible as a series, only by pre-supposing 
a one continuous Consciousness, a Self. The acts or 
modifications are of and belong to the Self, not the Self to 
the former. Wherever we see unity, continuity, similarity, 
there we see the impress of the Self, the One. The 
concrete is held together only by the abstract, the two 
being always inseparable, though always distinguishable. 
" The Self-born pierced the senses outwards, hence the 
Jlva seeth the outward and the concrete * many '; not 
the inner Self. One seeker, here and there, turneth his 
gaze inwards, desirous of immortality, and then beholdeth 
the Pratyag-atma, the abstract Self." 1 

Katha, iv, 1. 

This word Pratyag-atma, significant as it is, and made classical 
besides, by use in one of the most famous of the Upanishats, is somehow, 
notwithstanding, not much used in current Vegan^a works. But it occurs 
often in the Bhagavafa. See also Yoga-bh&shya, i, 29, and, further, 
ii, 20, and iv, 21, as regards $gT SfSRTSjpW and |fe|^fcfSf<^:, " The 
Seer Ego is ' aware ' of all mental functionings," and " To say that ideas 
cognise one another, is to say too much ". Shankara Mishra, in the Upas- 
kara on Vaish&shika Sutra, also very effectively disposes of the theory, 
revived by William James, in The Principles of Psychology, of " the 

stream of thought " being self -cognisant, thus : fffi| *J5J5*ir 

?fcr %c^, 



The school of ' the New Psychology,' of psycho- 
analysis, speaks of the * ego-complex ' ;it regards the notion 
of ' self ' (as a concrete ' personality ') as a * complex ' 
of many thoughts, feelings, sentiments, etc. But it fails 
to recognize that there must be a contrasting Simplex (the 
abstract ' I ') also, to serve as background for the Com- 
plex, which background makes the complex possible. 

We feel impatient, we exclaim : " What is this * I ' 
that is neither this nor that ? " Let us define it, if we 
can, by any particular ' this ' or ' that '. The whole of 
the World-Process has been now endeavouring so to define 
it, for the whole past half of all time, and by the whole 
half of all countless possible * tJhis-es ' ; and it has not 
succeeded. It will go on similarly endeavouring to define 
it, in the whole future half of all time, and by the remain- 
ing half of endless possible ways ; and it will not suc- 
cee4*' It has not succeeded, and will not succeed, because 

M The preceding psychosis. cannot impregnate the succeeding with 
& sainskara, an ' impression, ' a ' seed, ' a ' germ, ' a ' tendency ' ; for 
the latter would have to be ' stationary,' lasting from one moment into 
another and this you do not admit. And a psychosis,- dying with its 
own moment of time, cannot look backwards and forwards, in memory 
pr expectation. If you say, there is a latent, subliminal or supraliminal, 
series of psychoses of the nature of apperception, which is different from 
the manifest series, and which remembers and expects and connects past 
and future, the same difficulty is repeated over again. If it has any 
element of persistence in it, why, that is our Self ; if not, there is no 
possibility of memory and expectation and impression and tendency and 
seed and germ, etc." 
Shankara's Shariraka-Bhashya, II, ii, 31, is to the same effect. 

1 The full significance of this statement will appear later, when the 
distinction between Eternity and Time, true Infinity and the mere bound- 
lessness of Space, totality and countlessness, the indivisible whole and 
innumerable parts, ?>3^*ffir, k G t a-s t h a-s a 1 t a, ' rock-seated being,' 
and SRff^SRTf 3ffiT, a n-& d i-p r a v S h a-s a 1 1 a, 'endless-flow existence', 
is understood. 


the very being of the * I f is the negation, the opposite, 
of all ' not-I's,' all that is ' object,' all that can be known 
as a knowable object by the knower subject ' I ', all that is 
particular, limited, defined, all that can be pointed to as 
a * This V Do we think that we will evade this inevitable 
conclusion by denying the ' I ' altogether ? We cannot 
do that, as already said. We will only stultify ourselves. 
* I ' is not nothing, but it is not any-one-thing. Let 
us ponder deeply on this for days and days, and 
weeks and months and years if necessary; as Indra 
did (for a hundred years and one), when trying to 
learn the secret of the Self from Praja-pati, in the 
Upanishat-story, till we see the pure, unique, universal, 
and abstract being of the ' I '. We will do so if we are 
in earnest with our search ; and when we have dione so, 
more than half the battle is won. We have attained to 
the Pratyag-atma, the ' inward,' abstract and universal, 
Ego, and are now in sight of the Param-atma, the ' Sup- 
reme,' the ' Ab-sol-ute ' Self, the Self 'solved,' loosed, freed, 
from all conditions, limitations, relations. This Param- 
atma is the ' whole ', ' full ', significance and Nature of 
the Self, so named for special reasons. 2 It is the 
Brahman, final goal, and ultimate < place of Peace. 

Or perhaps we feel another difficulty. Perhaps we 
feel a sudden revulsion at this stage and cry : " This 
commonplace * I ', that everyone is glibly talking about 
and relishing acutely every moment of his life, from 

> S? gg flSTT^Tctl \ 
2 Explained at the end of ch. viii infra. 


babbling baby to garrulous old man in dotage is this 
the mysterious, marvellous, and mystic vision of beatitude 
and perfection that we hoped for ? I that am so small, 
so weak, how can I be the unreachable, all-glorious, 
Supreme ! " Let us be patient if we would understand. 
Let us go back to our question ; re-formufete it to our- 
selves. Have we been, at the bottom of our heart, seek- 
ing so long for immortality ; or only for a ' glorious vision * 
of something which is graded on to our present experi- 
ences ; for aji enlargement of our powers and our worldly 
possessions, transformed and glorified into subtler material, 
but the same in kind ? If we have longed for such, then let 
us seek for them by all means ; but the way is different ; 
and the result is limited and poor by comparison. 
Nachikt& refused such glorious states. He wanted im- 
mortality. If the emmet were to sigh for sovereignty of. 
a world-wide hurnan empire, it would be a ' glorious ' con- 
summation indeed, as compared with its present condi- 
tion, when it attained thereto, as it surely would if it 
desired persistently and ardently enough. But would 
that glorious consummation be a final consummation ? 
And are the lives of such grand and glorious beings, 
full of joys only ? Are they not full of miseries, as 
much, as many, if not more ? Do we wish for only 
such an elevation and expansion ? What if one were 
ruler of a solar system, omniscient and omnipotent but 
omniscient and omnipotent within the poor limits of a 
solar system only ! One solar system may be, nay, must 
be, to another solar system circumscribed in a sufficiently 


greater breadth of space and length of time even as 
a small molecule is to the whole earth-globe ; and such 
comparative smallnesses and greatnesses are endless. The 
ruler of a solar system, of a hundred, of a thousand, of a 
million solar systems rolled into one, must die, as such 
ruler. His life, as such ruler, had a beginning and must 
have an end. This fact is almost plain to the physical 
senses, to say nothing of logical inferences. Physical 
science sees stars ancl systems beginning and ending. 
Whatever tenure of true immortality such a* ruler has, he 
has it because of the identity of his self with the Pratyag- 
atma, the Universal Self/even as much as, and no more 
arid no less than, the meanest worm whose form exists 
within his system. We do not, at present, seek for any- 
thing that is only comparative and circumscribed and 
limited by death at both ends. We want an im- 
mortality that is unlimited and un comparative. Such 
can be found only in the Universal ' I ? . Thoughtlessness 
says, " This thing is commonplace and unimportant," 
only because it is familiar. Serious thought, on the other 
hand, perceives, in that same ever-and-everywhere-presence 
of the ' I ' ; in that familiar nearness and pervasion, by 
the * I ', of all life and all consciousness and all universal 
processes ; the conclusive evidence of the Self's unlimited- 
ness and true immortality and everlastingness. This 
Pratyag-atma declares its utter purity, transparency, 
transcendence of all limitations whatsoever, gross and 
glorious, through the mouth of Krshna : " The ' I ' is 
the origin, the middle, and the end of all the worlds. 


It is the womb, also the tomb, of all of them. There 
is nothing higher than the ' I/ O thou who wouldst win 
the wealth of wisdom ! All this multitude of worlds is 
strung together <Jn the ' I ', even as jewels on a thread." ! 
We may think again, with lurking doubt as to the 
value of our finding : " 1 knew this * I ' indeed before I 
started on my quest ! " That we did so is no detraction 
from the value of our finding now. We knew it then, it 
is true, but how vaguely,, how doubtingly, bandying it 
about between a hundred different and conflicting hypo- 
theses. Compare that knowledge with the utter all-em- 
bracing fullness of the knowledge of the nature of the 
' I ' that we have now attained to. Indeed it is the law 
of all enquiry about anything and everything, that we 
begin with a partial knowledge, and end with a fuller one. 
None can turn attention to that of which he knows 
nothing at all; none needs to enquire about that of which 
hg knows all already.* To start on the quest of the North 
Pole we must have at least heard of it as existing and 
in a certain direction. This knowledge is very different 
in fullness from the knowledge we should acquire if 
we actually stood on the North Pole ; still it is partial 
knowledge of it. The reconciliation of the antitheses, 
involved in the paradox, that we cannot talk about what 
we do not know, and need not talk about what we do 
know, will be seen, later on, to lie in this : As everything 
in the universe is connected with everything else therein, 

1 Bhagavad-Gifa, vii, 6, 7. 

2 Yoga-vOsishtha. 


so every single piece of knowledge is connected with every 
other; and therefore every jiva possessing any piece of 
knowledge is potentially in possession of all knowledge ; 
and enquiry and finding, in the individual life, mean only 
the passing from the less full to the fuller, from the 
potential to the actual knowledge. In other words, 
the unfolding of the knowledge existing, but concealed 
within the jiva, appears as enquiry and finding. Thus, 
then, we can talk about all things, because we know a 
little of them all ; and need to talk about them, because 
we wish to know more. Let us not look, then, with slight 
upon this simple * I '. " The heedless ones condemn the 
' I ' embodied in the human frame, unwitting of the 
supreme status of that ' I,' as the Great Lord of all that 
hath come forth." ? 

There is one point here which should be borne in 
mind. The full knowledge, obtained by the traveller 
when he has attained his goal, may be set down by him 
exhaustively in a book, reading which, another may 
acquire that knowledge. Yet there will be a difference 
of degree, the difference between direct and indirect, 
between the knowledge of the two. Such difference will 
always hold good as regards things material, whether 
gross or subtle (even those loosely but not accurately 
called spiritual). But as regards abstract principles, the 
universal ' I ', and the abstract laws and subordinate 
principles that flow from the Nature of that * I ', directly, 
and are imposed by Its being as laws on the World-Process 
1 Bhagavad-G?ta t ix, 11. 


in their case, knowledge and finding are one ; there 
is no distinction between direct and indirect knowledge, 
intellectual cognition and realisation. In this respect, 
metaphysic is on the same level as arithmetic and 
geometry. 1 What the true significance is of the 

1 Indeed the level of metaphysics may well be said to be higher than 
that of mathematics. All the root-conceptions of the latter are essentially 
metaphysical. In arithmetic, the mathematics of time, the only one 
that is not-a-many at the same time, which we know of, is my-Self : 
every sens-able one, is a many too ; the only ratio, relation, that really 
comes home to us, is that of memory, expectation, reason, in which the 
principle of oneness or identity, working in the many, assumes the forms 
of relativity, causality, generalised law, invariable succession, proportion, 
, etc. In geometry, the mathematics of space, the only point that we really 
know of as having position, posit-in g, but no definable magnitude, is again 
this same my-Self ; all sens-able points have magnitude ; the only length 
without breadth is the line of memory-expectation ; the only surface 
without depth is imagination's ; the only perfect sphere is the infinite 
One of the All-Consciousness, indicated by the logion which embodies the 
final answer to our questionings ; the only perfectly equal radii are the 
number-less individual selves or souls ; the only intelligible postulate is 
the free feel of the will. The first proposition of the first book of Euclid 
may well be interpreted as Purusha and Prakyti interlacing, to give birth 
to the triple-functioned, triune-minded, ' equi-lateral ' man; and other 
propositions similarly. ' In dynamics, the mathematics of force or energy, 
the only force or energy that we understand is that of ' my- will '. It is 
in this sense that the Vdas, and their climax and essence, Ve"<}anta, 
Brahma-vuJyS, aresvatah-pramana, ' self-evident, ' and a - p a u r u , 
sheya, 'not the inventions of any particular ^ereons,' purushas- 
but universal (or, as they may be poetically called, divine) truths. In this 
sense also are the Vecjas, in their entirety, said to be infinite, a n-an t & h 
vai V e 4 5 h. Science must be as infinite as the world-objects with which 
it deals. The comparatively small texts, currently known as the four'Vedas, 
are only an infinitesimal fragment of this Universal Science ; but they 
apparently contain the fundamental laws and facts of the world-process, 
and at the same time constitute, it would seem, a manual of super- 
Physical science and art of a special kind, all ultimately based on meta- 
physics and psychology, and intended to give access to the more or less 
individualised forces, g e v a s or s h a k t i s , of the subtler worlds, parti- 
cularly by means of ' sound ' and ' fire ' ; either for the sake of the immediate 
joy of communion and intercourse with them ; or for the sake of helping 
human life on earth, in respect of the elemental requirements of timely 
sun and rain, abundance of corn and cattle, physical and mental health 
and vigour, knowledge and long life, etc. The Science of the Sacred 
Word, or The Pranava-Vaga of Oargyayana should be perused by those 
interested in this line of thought ; also H.P.B.'s The Secret Doctrine* 


distinction currently made, between so-called ' mere 
intellectual cognition * of Brahman, and * realisation * 
thereof; between knowledge which is par-oksha, 
'beyond sight,' and that which is a-par-oksha, 'not 
beyond sight ' ; will appear later. 1 

Having thus necessarily abs-tract-ed and separated 
out from the World- Process, the true, universal, and un- 
limited One, out of which all so-called universals borrow 
their pseudo-universality, we equally necessarily find left 
behind a mass of particulars. And just as it is not possible 
to define the ' I ' any further than by naming it the ' I,' 
so is it not possible to define this mass of particulars 
otherwise than by naming it the ' Not-I,' ' Not-Self,' 
4 Non-Ego,' ' This,' Mula-prakrti, ' Root-Nature,' ' Root- 
Matter '. 2 Take it at any point of space and moment of 
time, it is always a particular something which can be 
cognised as Object in contrast with the cognising Subject. 
As the characteristics of the ' I ' are universality and 
abstractness, so are the characteristics of the * Not-I ' 
particularity and concreteness. It is always a ' This,' s a 
particular something that is always, in ultimate analysis, 

1 See the last pages of this book. 

2 Sankhya-Kdrika, 11. 

3 ' This ' is the name for the object, the objectiye world, as ' I ' is 
the name for the subject. In Samsktf, the word isigamore'tat, See, 
e.g., Manu, vi, 82. According to grammarians, ejat is the nearest 
'this;' i(Jam, the slightly less near; a 4 as* the distant but yet 
'this 1 , (and hence, it is the technical name for the next world) ; and 
tat,' that, ' is what is ' beyond immediate sense ' , ' out of sight ' ; 


limited and definable in terms of the senses. Its special 
name is the Many, Nan a, An-ekam, as that of the 
Self is the One, kam. That it is generalised under 
the word ' Not-Self ' is only a pseudo-generalisation, 
by reflection of the universality of the ' I '. The word 
' pseudo ' is used to distinguish the universality of the 
One from that of the Other. It does not mean false 
in the sense of ' non-existent,' but only in the sense of 

* apparent,' * not real,' ' borrowed,' ' reflected '. The 
physical fact of the continuance and indestructibility of 
matter illustrates this distinction. Because the ' I ' and the 

* Not- 1 ' always imply each other and can never be 
actually separated, they are always imposing on each 
other, one another's attributes. The ' I ' is always (be- 
coming particularised into individuals, and the ' Not-I ' is 
always becoming generalised into the elements and classes 
and kinds of matter, because of this juxtaposition of the 
two, because of their immanence within each other. 

Further treatment of this point belongs to a later 
stage of the discussion. It is enough to show here that 
the searcher necessarily comes, at the last stage before 
the final finding, to these two, the Self and the Not-Self. 

It should be added that, at this stage, having traced 
his ego into the universal Ego, the j I va finds a partial 
satisfaction and peace. Seeing that the universal Ego is 
unlimited by space and time, he feels sure of his immor- 
tality, and does not yet feel any great care and anxiety 
precisely to define the nature of that immortality. He 
is, for the time being, content to take, it as a universal 


immortality, in which all egos are merged into one, with- 
out any clear distinction and specialisation ; for he feels 
that such specialisation is part of the limited and perish- 
ing, and so incapable of such immortality as belongs to 
the Pratyag-atma. Later on, he will begin to ask whether 
there is any such thing as ' personal immortality* also ; he 
will find that in the constitution of the material sheaths 
which make of him an individual ego out of the universal 
Ego, there is a craving for such personal immortality, 1 
for a continuance of existence as .separate'; and he will 
also find that such is possible, nay certain, in its own 
special sense and manner. Just now, there is but one 
last remaining doubt that makes him feel that he has 
found but a partial peace and satisfaction in the finding 
of the universal Ego. 



SEEING the unvarying continuity of the ' universal ' Ego, 
the Pratyag-atma, through and amidst the endless flux of 
' particulars/ of not-selves, we have ' abs-tract-ed,' sepa- 
rated, it out and identified ourselves with it, and so 
derived a certain sense of absence of limitation, of 

1 See Stirling's Secret of Hegel, 2nd ed., pp. 213, 214, and his 
Schwegler, pp. 435, 436. 


immortality. But the separation now begins to seem' 
to us to be merely ' mental ' and not ' real '. For while 
we see, without doubt, that ' I ' continues unchanged 
through changing things, we also see that it continues 
to do so only in these things, and never apart from them ; 
and if it must do so, is it not, after all, limited by some 
inherent want and defect, so that it is dependent for its 
manifestation, its existence in fact, upon these things, 
just as much as these things may depend upon it ? So we 
come back to the old difficulties of two eternals-infinites. 
We must reconcile these two eternals-infinites : indeed 
we must derive the one from the other ; and also main- 
tain, all the while, their coevalness, their simultaneity ; 
for it is not in our power to deny the beginninglessness 
and endlessness of either. How to perform this most 
impossible task, to combine all the statements of the first 
and the second answers, and also obviate all the possible 
objections to them ? How relate Self and Not-Self so 
that Self ' my-Self * shall no longer feel bound, small, 
dependent, helpless, at the mercy of any Other-than-Self ? 
We do not want to know how and why and whence 
the Self. When we come to a true eternal infinite One, 
further search for causes ceases. To ask for a cause of 
that which is unlimited and changeless is meaningless. 1 

1 ' Whence ' is asked for the limited in space ; * when,' for that in 
time ; ' how ', for that in condition (motion) ; ' why/ for that which is 
limited by and in purpose, design, desire. We have found, by the think- 
ing done so far, that the Self is not limited in or by space, time, condi- 
tion, desire, change. Why is appropriate only when there is a change, a 
new event, concerned. ' Why has this happened ? ' ' Why do you wish 
this to happen ? ' Where there is no change, there can be no ' why '. 


None really and sincerely does or can do so. All enquiry 
starts with a certain standard ; when we have found such 
and such a One, we shall toil and seek no further and no 
longer ; and Uncausedness, Self-existence, is, on the very 
face of it, part of the standard of the enquiry after the 
Unlimited. We do not want to engage in an endless pas- 
time of asking " Why " after every answer, without 
considering whether the answer is, or is not, complete 
and final. What we want is to derive all and every- 
thing from One True, unchanging and unlimited some- 
thing, which something shall be wy-Self, owr-Self. But we 
must do this and nothing less. We must prove conclu- 
sively to ourselves that our Self is the true eternal and un- 
limited, that it is not based in any way on the Not-Self ; 
but that from it is derived the Not-Self ; and a countless, 

Sankhya declares that the concrete-seeing. ' intelligence ' and its ' argu- 
mentation ' can never come to a finality, tarka-a-prati-shthana^ 
The reason is plain. All such argument starts with a limited datum ; and 
with a limited datura, there must be an endless regressus and progressus 
of why's and how's, and because's and thus's, and why's and how's to 
these last two again. But with an unlimited datum, unlimited in time and 
space, motionless, there is no further how and why ; we have finality. 
The Self is such an unlimited finality ; it is absolutely certain ; it is the 
Absolute It-Self. The difference between intellectuality and spirituality 
various aspects of which are m a n a s and buddhi-mahatof Sankhya, 
b u dd h i and c h i 1 1 a of Vedanta, present cognition and memory, cons- 
cious 'and sub-and-supra-conscious, intelligence and intuition, patence and 
latence, willed attention and dormant tendency, knowledge and wisdom, 
individual and universal, understanding and reason, discrete and continu- 
ous, (personal) J and (all-personal) We or the ' I '-that difference is but 
this : that the former deals with the Limited and the latter with the Un- 
limited. The same j I v a, in one mood, is intellectual and limited, in 
another, Spiritual and Unlimited. It may be said that it is not impossible 
to ask: " Why does the Self pxist ?" But on scrutiny, it will be found 
that, if the questioner has any meaning behind his words, it is only this : 
*' Why has the Self come to be here, or why has it begun to exist." 'And 
the changes involved in these interpretations are obviously out of place 
in connection with the Self, motionless, spaceless, timeless, including all 
times, spaces, and motions within Itself, within Consciousness. 


boundless, endless series too of not-selves. We have to 
create everything, all things, oat of the ' I,' and not only 
everything and all things but an endless series of such. 
We have to create, in a rational and intelligible manner, 
not only something but an infinite something, viz., the 
second of two co-infinites, and create it oufr of nothing ; 
or, which is the same thing, out of the first co-infinite, 
without changing this first infinite in the very minutest ; 
for thea, its unlimitedness is lost ; it is subject to finite- 
ness, to change, to beginning and end. 1 Impossible, truly, 
to all appearance ! Yet until this so impossible task is 
done, there is no final peace, no final satisfaction. Amass 
worldly wealth and glories, amass endless particulars 
upon particulars of science, amass occult knowledge and 
powers of high and low degree, for a thousand years, for 
a thousand thousand years, and do not this, set not 
at rest this doubt and there will be no peace for you. 
Secure this, and all else will follow in its proper time, 
serenely, certainly, and peacefully. The gods have 
suffered from this doubt, as Yama said. Indra, king 
of the gods, found no pleasure in his heavenly kingdom, 
and, forsaking it, studied the Science of this Peace, 

1 The words infinite and eternal have been used, so far, from <tie 
standpoint of the enquirer who has not yet made the technical and pro- 
foundly significant distinction between the true eternal and infinite, on 
the one hand, and the merely in-numer-able, count-less, endless, on the 
other, which distinction will appear later on. This false or pseudo-in- 
finite has been called ' spurious ' and ' bastard ' infinite, by Hegel ; see The 
Secret of Hegel, by Dr. J. H. Stirling, who delights in an exuberantly 
vigorous, aggressive, pugnacious style, and imports dramatic phrasing into 
philosophical discussion, thereby making it more ' interesting ' and 
"arresting ', if, perhaps, less serious, lefcs reposef ully anxious, less earnest- 
ly wistful. 


Acjhyatma-vidya, the Science of the Self, for a hundred 
years and one, in all humility, at the feet of Prajapari. 1 
Even Vishnu had to master it before he could become 
the ruler of a system. 2 Let us then set our hearts on 
mastering it. 

The first ' result of this last effort is a return to the 
first answer on a higher level. The universal Self, 1 the 
One-without-a-Second, by its own inherent power of Will- 
Desire, creates the Not-Self, at the same time dividing 
it-Self into many selves, assuming names and forms by 
combination with the Not-Self. " It willed : May I 
become many, may I be born forth ; " " Having created 
all this it entered thereinto itself.'' Such are the first of 
the scripture-texts which seek to sum up the World- 
Process in one single act of consciousness, and bring it all 
within the Self. 3 

This first result, corresponding to the Dvaita or 
dualistic form of the Vedanta, is only the theory of 
creation on a higher level, with a new, added, and im- 
portant significance. Instead of a personal, extra-cosmical, 
separate God, the universal Self, immanent in the 

1 Chhandogya-Upanishat, VIII. 2 Pevi-Bhagavaf a, I, xv. 

^^snnita, ?faj Chhandogya-Upanishat, VI, ii. 

15 w* , rarfcr, ?i% ; g: w * *KPRI; *m jr, ^ 

^ Taittirlya-Upanishat, II, vi. Cf. Karl Pearson, 
Grammar of Science (1st edn.) : '* There is an insatiable desire in the 
human breast to resume in some short formula, some brief statement, the 
facts of hu man experience," (p. 44). If he had added, " in such a manner 
as to derive these all from the Self, ' ' he would have explained the why of 
the insatiable desire at the same time. Fichte only, of western philo- 
sophers, seems to have attempted to do so, but has not satisfactorily 
deduced the concrete ' this-es ' from the abstract universal Ego. 


universe, has been reached. Instead of craftsman and 
knick-knacks, potter and pots, builder and houses, we have 
en-Soul-ing Life and Organisms. The world is, though 
vaguely, included in the being of the One ; the sense of 
Unity is greater, and that of irreconcilable difference and 
opposition less. The universe, made up of countless 
world-systems, with their endlessly repeated beginnings 
and endings, is without beginning and without end, as 
much as the Self, and individual selves ; and the karma 
of the latter is without beginning, but may have an end 
by M the grace of God ". As to what is the exact relation 
between that universal Self and the individual selves and 
living material organisms and so-called dead inanimate 
matter, there is, as yet, no really satisfactory idea. 1 It 
appears in st general way, at this stage, that the three 
God, individual spirits or ' Man,' and ' Nature ' are all 
eternal, and ever distinct from each other, but yet that 
the latter two are entirely subordinate to the first, and 
that the relation between God and j I v a is that of an indi- 
visible conjunction, the individual j I v a being unable to 
exist without the energising support of the universal 
Spirit, as the tree cannot live and subsist without its sap. 
But .this transmuted form of the theory of creation 
fails and falls short of final satisfaction, for reasons the 

1 The five kinds of separateness and relationship, referred to in the 
pvaita-Veganta, are : 


difference between j i v a and j i v a, between j i v a and I s h v a r a. be- 
tween j I v a and the world (or inanimate matter), between the world and 
I s h v a r a, and between inanimate matter and inanimate matter. 


same as those that demolish that theory* It explains the 
beginning of the World-Process as being dependent on, 
and the result of, the desire, the will, of the Self. It 
thus explains motion, change. But it does this by means 
of a mysterious Power which itself requires rational ex* 
planation. Also, there is no reason assigned for the 
exercise of such power. Finally, it does not explain 
and contain Changelessness. The Perfect, the Supreme, 
must be Changeless. What changes, desires, feels want, 
is imperfect, is limited, is less than the Supreme. 1 Our 
final search is for that which shall be Changeless, and yet 
shall explain and contain all the multiplicity of endless 
Change within itself. 

The next step, the second result of the last effort, 
is the Vishisht-advaita form of the Ve^anfa : One sub- 
stance, eternal, infinite, changeless, * Ishvara,' has two 
aspects, is animate and inanimate, c h i t and a c h i t, 
conscious and unconscious, Self and Not-Self ; and by its 
power, Maya, Shakti, this ' sove-reign Lord ' causes 
interplay of the two, for its own high pleasure which there 
is nohe other to question, without any compulsion from 
without. " It has two natures ; one, Formless, the other 
Form ; ... It became husband and wife ; ... It is Being, 
also No-thing." 9 Such is the second series of scripture 
texts that correspond to this stage. 

3 TOTTcflT 
Shariraka-bhashya, II. i. 32. 

2 \ * 

flcfof ^wtt *n?*nJf at^f WWR?*, qfire <wft ^ erarot ; 


This second result, it is clear, is again only the 
second answer, the theory of transformation, on a higher 
level. Two factors are recognised, but subordinated to, 
made parts and aspects of, a third, which is not a third, 
however ; and the two are thus rather forcibly reduced 
to a pseudo-unity. Instead of the complete separateness 
of seer and seen, instead of the Sahkhya doctrine of 
Purusha and Prakrti, Subject and Object, as commonly 
understood, we have a complete pantheism of ensouling 
life and organism. The two are not only seer and 
seen, subject and object, desirer and desired, actor 
and acted on, but also soul (i.e., j I v a or mind) 
and body, force and ' receiver/ cause and instru- 
ment, knowledge and organ of knowing, desire and tool 
of desire, actor and means of action. But the objections 
to the original form of the transformation theory hold 
good, with only the slightest modifications, against this 
subtler form of it also. Why the need for, the want of, 
amusement and manifestation and interplay ? f Why so 

Wl 3RT^ ^ ; Brhaf-Zrapyaka-Upanishat, II, in, 1 ; lbid. t I, iv, 3 ; 
Prashna-Upanishat, ii, 5. 3$ WK^=3 3*;, Bf^T; Git a, ix. 19- 

t \ sftsref 

SKfiT: \ Bhagavafa. Ill, vii, 3. 

' Sir ! Revered Teacher ! how can specific qualities, attributes, 
actions, touch, appear in, the Supreme, Which is Changeless, Pure 
Consciousness, even in sport ? Sport, Play, is the activity of children, who 
Wish to play with another or others, (for ' play ' means playing with 
another or others) ; how can there be the action, the motion, of Play, in 
th0 Supreme, Which is always ever Self -Contained, Self-Content, Motion- 
iftfet, Actionless. eternally turned-away-frora (negat-ive, repudiative, of) An- 
Other ? ' How the answer is hidden in the words of the question itself, how 
the Sport, Lila, of the Supreme, is motionless, actionless, will appear later. 


much evil and misery instead of happiness in the course 
of the manifestation ? And what, after all, is the duality ? 
Are there two, or are there not two ? If two, and there 
must be two if there is interplay, as there self-evidently 
is, nothing has really been explained. Prove that one of 
the two is Not, Naught, Nothing, and then you will have 
said something ! What is this mysterious Maya, Shakti, 
* Might/ which brings about the interplay ? What is this 
unexplained secret ? How am I, the individual enquire*, to 
feel the satisfaction of being the owner, possessor, master, 
not the slave, of that Power? How does this explana- 
tion assure me of my own freedom ? Where is the law, 
the regular method, the reliable process, in all this mani- 
festation and interplay and unrestrained power, , which 
may assure me of orderliness -and sequence, assure me 
against caprice, i.e., at least against all caprice other than 
My own, and also be in accord with what I see in the 
world around ? I, as an individual, do not feel my asson- 
ance with this explanation. It does not yet lead tne to 
the heart of the World- Process. It does not explain my 
life, in reference to and in connection with the world 
around me, systematically, satisfactorily. The laws of, 
Karma and compensation, the law of rebirth, do not fit 
into it quite plainly. To say that I am (i.e., the ' I ' is) 
feeling happy in a billion forms, and also feeling miserable 
in another billion, does not assimilate readily with the 
constitution of my being. I feel the statement as some- 
thing external to me. In order to be satisfied, I must see 
the identity of the countless individual * I's,' including 


I f , not only in essence but in every detail and 

Such are the doubts and difficulties that vitiate the 
second result, and show it as of no avail. Such is the final 
Crux of philosophy to reconcile the Changeless One, 
Self, Subject, with the Changeful Many, Not-selves, 
1 This-es ', Objects ; to explain the Relation between the 
TWo ; arid in such a manner that the Two shall be One 
onljL He who will mount and surmount the Crux, the 
Cross, on which is sacrificed the ' small self ', of egoism, 
to the * Great Self , the Universal Self, of altruism and 
Universalism, shall win ' Christ '-hood, the full understand- 
ing that belongs to him who is * anointed with wisdom.' 

.',:.-., ^ CHAPTER VI 


It may perhaps be useful to the reader, especially the 
iSVestertt reader, if a rapid sketch of modern Europeafc 
trioiight on the subject is given here, showing how its 
developments stand at the same level, though riecessarily 
with very great differences of method and details, as the 
second form of V&Janta above given iri essence, and the 
<^rreiit third form thereof also, t>fe., the A-<Jvaita, non- 
i#fc$-istic (incorrectly understood as won-istic). The 
Ifiture of that A-4vgJta view will also appear, compa- 
; in the course of this sketch. : 


Indian thought in all departments of re&earch, in 
which we possess tangible results of it, in the shape of 
Samskrt and Prakrt works has seldom lost sight of the 
fa,ct that the end and aim of knowledge is, directly or 
indirectly, the alleviation of pain and the promotion of 
happiness. 1 The end, aim, and sure and certain result, 
of the supreme knowledge, is expressly declared to be 
the alleviation of the supreme pain of the fear of an-other 
and of annihilation, and the promotion of the supreme plea- 
sure of the assurance of Immortality and Self-dependence. 
The dominant motive of that thought, therefore, is ethico* 
religious. 9 Even works on grammar and mathematics 
do not forget to state, at the oucset, that they subserve 
the attainment of m u k t i, liberation, salvation, in some 
way or other. " What is the human need it will sub- 
serve ? ", "What is its prayojana, aim, motive ?" 
Who is its adhikari, i.e., for what manner and 
quality of student, for person of what qualifications, 

4 Because triple pains of many kinds assail human beings, therefore, 
is there search for cause and remedy thereof ; final remedy is kndtvledge 
of the real nature xrf the Subject and the Object, the Un manifest and the 
Manifest, (and of the Relation between them, which inhered in that 
real nature) '. Upanisbafs, Buddhist, and Jaina, books, SSnkhya, Yoga, 
Nyaya. Vaishlshika, Purva-Mimamsa, and pre-eminently, Ve^ap|a M^- 
ras, Aphorisms, and earlier works, all have sentences to thesam&effectrjit 
their beginnings, (53?^, Manifest ; 3=|oq^R, Unmanifest P, Kntt^ei^^ 

2 Or " pragmatical " in the highest and most comprehensive sena 
as it would perhaps be now called, in the West, See William James, 

Pragmatism. . ., -. 


needs and requirements, is it intended ? " these questions 
are answered at the outset of every recognised ancient 
classical work in Sarnskrt in every department of its litera- 
ture. Since it recognises the organic wholeness and unity 
of life and nature, the unbreakable connection between 
all departments of 'nature' and all aspects (corresponding 
to them) of ' man,' soul, mind ; therefore, Samskrt philo- 
sophy deals with all other questions as subordinate to the 
main question of the supreme need of the soul " How 
may the soul be freed from pain, how may misery be abo- 
lished, how may happiness be expanded and perpetuated 
infinitely ? " the central motive which governs the whole 
of life. Its answer, as will appear later, is, " By realisation 
of the true Nature of the soul as the Supreme Self." The 
exposition, of the essential features of that Nature of the 
Self, contains within itself, answers to all other and minor 
but connected questions. 

Modern western thought, on the other hand, has, 
for various reasons, historical and evolutionary, become, 
dtlring, and since, the nineteenth century, more and more 
disconnected with D harm a, Religion-Law, which, in 
its perfection and completeness, is the one Science of all 
sciences, knowledge pre-eminently directed to the achieve- 
ment of desired happiness here and hereafter by means 
of appropriate action ; ' V&Ja-Science, as it is named in 
Saipskrt. The mainspring of this modern western know- 
Ifedge is mainly intellectual, knowledge for the sake of 
'knowledge at least as that mainspring is described by 

. i. 2. 


some of those 'in whose hands it has made progress, 
especially in science. This fallacy as it is, despite its 
brilliant results in science, including psychology alsrf 
has its own good reasons for coming into existence, as 
may be understood later. That it is fallacy may be in* 
ferred, in passing, even from the one single and simple 
fact that public common sense, public instinct, public 
need, have always declined to rest content with a mere 
subjective and poetical admiration of the scientific dis- 
coveries registered in bulky tomes and journals, but have 
assiduously applied them, and continue to apply them, 
with an ever-increasing eagerness and demand, to the 
purposes of daily life, for the assuagemqpt of its pains 
and the enhancement of its pleasures ; and this, with a 
success in the mechanical arts and appliances of peace 
and commerce, which makes modern western civilisation, 
the wonder, the envy, the exemplar to be copied, of the 
eastern peoples. 1 

1 Unhappily, by the Law of Duality, Polarity, Action-and-Rcaction, 
Thesis-and-Antithesis, which Law is inherent in (the) Nature" (o! the 
Supreme Self), Good, by Excess, has become Evil, Extreme ha* iMPf 
to Counter- Extreme ; mechanical arts and appliances have been con 
verted into monstrous implements of internecine destruction, and science 
has been prostituted into the slave of horrible war, instead of being made 
the mother of peace and prosperity for mankind ; especially since the 
beginning of the twentieth century after Christ ; and the western races, 
instead of becoming the friendly helpers and uplifters of weaker races, 
have first become the rulers and oppressors, and now the devastators, Of 
those weaker races, and of themselves also by internecine war, out of 
excessive greed for lands, serf-labor, markets (called 4 colonies ' and 
' dependencies ' and ' mandated territories ' in hypocritical diplomatic 
language). If the scientists of the world had borne in mind, always, the 
awful dangers of misuse of science, they would, long ago, have taken 
due precautionary measures, and insisted on properly guaranteed inter- 
national pacts, between Scientists and Statesmen, before publishing their 
discoveries; as Manu-Smrfi enjoins, ch. ii, verse 114; see the press*! 
writer's World-War and Its Only CureWorld Order and World 


In the meanwhile, that Western thought has ap- 
proached metaphysic proper, too, from the side of psycho- 
logy or rather epistemology, the theory of knowledge, 
almost exclusively. 1 It examines the nature of the Self 
and the Not-Self- in their relation to each other as 
cogniser and cognised, subject and object, knower and 
known, rather than in their other relations to each other, 
of desirer and desired, and actor and acted on. 9 In other 
words, it at first confined itself, in metaphysic, mainly 
to one relation, that of jnana, cognition, and did not 
take much more than incidental account of ichchha, 

j.e.9 desire, and kriya, i.e., action. These, in their 


Religion, ch. xii* ' Scientists of the World ! Unite ! ' The hope of Huma- 
nity today, is in a Re-re-action, a higher Synthesis after the Antithesis, 
return of satya-yuga, ' age of Dharma ', ' age of Truth and Concord,' 
and a better satya-vuga than the previous one. after the present kali- 
yuga, ' age of Discord and A-dharma ', has run its appointed unavoidable 
course. Efforts to prevent the World-Wars were inevitable , the failure 
Of those efforts, and the occurrence of the wars was inevitable ; the 
return of World-peace, on a higher level, sooner or later, is also inevit- 
able. So we hope, for such is the promise of Metaphysic, the Science 
of Peace. 

w Gr, logos, word, logic, putting into words, of tyt-stetne, under- 
Standing ; the science of the origin, nature, and validity, of knowledge. 

* This predominantly ' intellectual ' outlook upon life has. as con- 
comitants or consequences, the great development of the physico- material 
sciences as against spiritual science ; the predominance given to the law 
of competition, of individualism, of struggle for existence, over the law 
pf co-operation, of universalism, of alliance for existence ; the increase 
pf egoism, aha m-k & r a' I am superior ' and * I am at least as good as 
you ' as against mutual fraternal serviceability of elder and younger ; the 
greater insistence upon one's rights rather than duties ; and the whole 
development of the mechanico-industrial civilisation ' of the titans ' of the 
modern west, with its endeavour to control ' nature ' by means of external 
machinery, as distinguished from the pastoral-agricultural civilisation ' of 
the gods ' of the ancient world, with its endeavour to commune with 

* nature ' by means of internal living and subtler senses. In the compre- 
H&psive theosophical phraseology, all these issue from the great develop- 
jnt of * the fifth principle ' or manas. in ' the fifth race ' : ' titans ' and 

* gods ' being the same j I v a s, taking turns, in different moods, and ages. 


metaphysical bearing, it left for long entirely to theology, 
though, of course, the later thinkers have not been able 
to avoid a survey of the whole field of life from the 
standpoint they ultimately reached. 

Thus it has happened that Locke (born, 1632, in 
Britain) decided that what was called ' mind * was a 
tabulit rasa, a clean slate, had no ' innate ideas ', and 
that all its contents were written on it by experience of 
the outer world of 4 matter ' ; nihil est in intellectu quod 
non fuerit in sensu, there is nothing in the intellect 
which is not given to it by the senses. Leibnitz (b. 1646, 
in Germany) swung back towards idealism, and pithily 
criticised Locke by adding these words nisi ipse intellects, 
except intellect itself. The periodic cyclical duel, or rather 
duet, was repeated by Berkeley and Hume. Berkeley, 
(b. 1685), enquiring into the relation of knower and known, 
under the names of mind and matter, came to the conclu- 
sion that the very being of matter is its perceptibility by 
mind. Its esse is its percipi. What matter is, apart from 
its cognisability by mind, we cannot say ; indeed, we 
may well say, it is nothing apart from mind. Thus, 
that which we have regarded so long as out of us, apart 
from us, independent of us, is in reality dependent on us, 
is within us ; ' without is within '.' 

Hume (b. 1711) came after Berkeley. He may be said 
to have shown with equal cogency that, if the being of 
matter is perceptibility, the being of mind is percipience ; 

1 }. H. Stirling's English translation of Schwegler's History o/ 
Philosophy, p. 419 (Annotations). 


that if we do not know matter except as it is known 
almost an Irishism, (Bishop Berkeley was an Irish 
Bishop I), but with a special fullness of significance we 
also do not know mind except as it knows, and apart 
from what it knows. What is mind but something 
cognising something ? Vacant mind, empty of all cogni- 
tion, we know nothing about ; therefore ' within is without. 9 

Thus, then, between Berkeley and Hume, the status 
quo of the problem was restored, and the shopkeeper in 
his shop and the ploughman at his plough might well feel 
delighted that these two philosophers in combination 
were no wiser than they, though each taken separately 
might have appeared something very fearfully profound ; 
that the, net product of these mountains in labour was 
that mind was that which knew matter, and that matter 
was that which was known by mind. Yet something 
seemed to have been added to general knowledge. A very 
close and intimate tie, an unbreakable nexus, of complete 
interdependence between mind and matter now clearly 
distinguished, even as ' opposites ' had been made 
apparent, as was not before apparent, to those who had 
not travelled along the paths of enquiry trodden by 
Berkeley and Hume, in their company, or in that of 
their elders and predecessors in the race of thinkers, or, 
it may be, by themselves and alone. The problem was 
therefore the richer for the labours of these philosophers, 
and had now a newer and Deeper significance. 

Kant (b. 1724) took it up at this stage. The tug-of- 
war between materialism (or * sensism/ which tends to 


pass into * sensualism' on the ethical side), and idealism (or 
1 mentalism ', which tends to grow, ethically and practi- 
cally, into ' unpractical mysticism '), went on. What is the 
nature, what are the laws, of this unbreakable bond be- 
tween mind and matter ? What are the two ? How do they 
affect each other ? ' Within is without ' and ' without is 
within f is all right enough : but this mutual absorption 
shows independence as well as interdependence. Two men 
may appear to be standing on each other's shoulders by 
bending, bowlike, in opposite directions ; but even this can 
be only appearance ; each, or at least one, must have a 
separate, open or secret, fulcrum, standing-ground. After 
many years' hard thinking, Kant came to the conclusion 
that each did have such a separate standing-ground. Be- 
hind mind was a * thing-in-itself,' and behind matter was 
a ' thing-in-itself ' ' ; and from these two noumena there 

1 Compare the ^3<3$[OT. s v a-1 a k s h a $ a, ' own-mark, ' of the 
Sankhya and the Bau^dhas. The Samskr,t words, taj-tva, * that- 
ness/ and tan-matra, 'that alone* or ' the nature, maker, measure, 
essential characteristic, of that/ convey the same idea as ' thing-in- 
itself/ but with a fuller and more real and substantial significance. 
f^lc*W>, s v-a | m a k a, would be a literal translation of ' thing-in- 
itself/ but is not justified .'by usage ; and it is only a variation of sva- 
1 a k s h a p a. 

These words do not vaguely imply any such elusive will-o'-the- 
wisp as Kant's 'thing-in-itself'; e.g., in Sankhya, the eight forms of 
Praktfi are all $ a M v a-s, and the five sens-able qualities are all | a n-m a- 
tras. In the Veganta, the expression Ajma-tattva, 'Self-fact, Self- 
essence/ is frequent. A ' fact/ ' essence ' substance ', having a specific. 
defining, demarcating, unique characteristic, is a* that ' or ' that-ness," 
{5Hva;and the characteristic quality, in the case of the five sens-able 
substances or true 'elements/ is the |an-ma|ra, i.e., the sens-able 
qualities known as sound, touch, colour-form, taste, and smell. Bhagcr- 
vaf<t, III. xxvi, uses the expressions shab4a-ma(ra ( ' sound only, pure 
sound, sound-continuum', also sparsha-, rapa-, rasa-, gan<)ha- 
m&$ram, 'pure tact, color-shape, taste, odour only/ i.e., continua, 
highest genera, of these. 


irradiated and coruscated, spontaneously and by inherent 
nature, phenomena which entangled themselves with each 
other and produced what we know as mind and matter. 
But, Kant added, the phenomena that issued from the 

Some further observations re western ' cpistemologists '. 

It may be noted here that the Indian philosophies, Darshanas, 
1 Views ' (of the Universe), ' Outlooks ' (upon Life), do not approach the 
problem that occupied the above-mentioned western thinkers, in the 
manner of the latter. Indeed it may be said that they do not discuss that 
particular problem, in that particular form, at all. They all, more 
or less, with slight variations, take it for granted, as undisputed and in- 
disputable, and not needing discussion or enquiry, that the ' mind ' 
subject, jiva, chitta, vishayi, has three aspects or functions, 
is triune, knower-desirer-actor ; and that 'matter '-object, jada, 
,c h e* t y a, vishaya, has also three aspects, is tri-ime, known-desired- 
manipulated, or cognisability-desirabilit y-movability . J i v a-c h 1 1 1 a, 
as a whole, is said to possess the faculty or function of ' memory ', 
whence its name chitta, from c h i, to gather, to store up. The Sankhya 
treatment of Purusha-subject and Prakrti-object, may be said perhaps 
to be like the western philosophers' treatment of knower and known ; yet 
is different ; * psycho- physical parallelism ' is nearer to it. ' So many men, 
(bodies, faces), so many minds ' ; yet there is something in common, too, 
ttm-ting them all; making some understanding possible amidst much 
misunderstanding ; Unity in Multiplicity. 

In Sankhya, Purusha-Spirit is Pure Consciousness, C h i n-m a t r a ; 
and all the details &&& particulars, that are commonly ascribed, some 
to 'mind', intelligence, understanding, reason, (as the words are ordi- 
narily understood and used), f.i., the Kantian ' forms ' and ' categories ', 
and the rest to,- matter '. i.e., the multifarious congeries of countless 
sensations and sense-objects, the Kantian ' matter ' or ' material ', 
which the ' forms ' are supposed to sort out and arrange all these 
are assigned to Prakrti-Nature (-Matter-Energy) ; and relational laws-and- 
facts, ' forms-and-material ', genera-and-species (from summa genera to 
in-fima species, individuals, singulars), universals- (generals) -and- parti- 
culars, all arise together-, all are 'objects', seen in unbreakable, 
indivisible, connection ; though they are distinguishable, while insepara- 
ble, and though the seeing, the discerning, of the inseparability-with- 
distinctness, of both series, of facts and of relations, becomes clearer 
and clearer with the evolutionary growth of ' mind-body ' ; which 
evolutionary growth, in cycles, is fully recognised and declared at length 
in the Purapa-History, and also, much more briefly, of course, in the 
Upanishafs and Vojanta-works. 

The ' categories ' of Kant are dealt with aspacj-arthasin Vaishe- 
shika-parshana ; six are the main, (Jravya (substance or substantiality), 
Runa (quality, attribute, specificate, determinative), karma ductility. 


mental thing-in-itself were few in number add took the 
shape of ' universal ' laws and * forms,' ' categories ', into 
which the far more numerous ' particular ' phenomena 
ttfat streamed from the material thing-in-itself as 

activity) as one triplet, and as another triad, s a many a (universality 
or generality), vishdsha (particularity, or singularity, or individu- 
ality), and (this is specially noteworthy, for it seems to be absent from 
the list of Kant, and subsequent German philosophers have, apparently, 
not named it specifically as a distinct 'category) sam-av-aya (inse- 
parability), mutual inherence, togetherness. Later, ' modern ' adherents 
and exponents of the system have added a seventh to the six, viz., 
a-bhava (non-being, non-existence), distinguished into four sorts, 
atyanfa-abhava (eternal, utter, non-being), prag-abhava (ab- 
sence or non-existence before coming into existence and manifestation), 
pra-(}h vam sa-abhava (non-existence after destruction and disap- 
pearance), and any-onya-abhSva (mutual non-existence, each 
being-not, not-being, what the other is ; Hegel's ' reciprocal negation', 
'mutual determination/ Spinoza's omnis negatio est deter minatio, 
'all determination is negation', seem to embody much the same idea). 
Under each of the other six, also, are grouped many subordinate ones 
(some of which are equivalents of those mentioned by Fichte, Schelling, 
Hegel, but not by Kant), 

The ' laws of thought ', the subject-matter of western ' logic ' (in the 
common sense of the word, not Hegel's), and the triad of term- 
proposition-reasoning, or concept-(or notion)-judgment-syllogism, or 
(Hegelian) apprehension- judgment- reason (or notion), pacja-vakya- 
m a n a, together with their subsidiaries, major premiss, minor premiss; 
conclusion, various forms of syllogism, etc., are dealt with in *the 
Nyaya ; which is the science-and-art of correct thinking ; as Vyakarana, 
Grammar, is that of correct speaking-and-writing, correct expression of 
thought. But note that Nyaya is not mere and wholly sterile deductive 
logic, as that logic, in strictness, must be ; (as Hegel too recognises, see 
Wallace, The Logic of Hegel, p. 184, edn. of 1874) ; but is induction- 
deduction in combination ; first induction, by the method of concomi- 
tant variations, agreement-and -difference, anvaya-vyatire'ka, and 
then deduction. 

Psychology, pure and applied, is the subject-matter of Sankhya and 
Yoga ; Ethics, sin-and-merit, vice-and-virtue, right-and-wrong, good-and- 
evil, exertion-and-destiny, freewill-and-fate, self-dependence-and -other- 
dependence, are the Subject-matter of Mimairisa ; Metaphysic, the ulti- 
mate problems of Being-and-Nothing, Unchanging-and-Becoming, Truth- 
and-Untruth, Reality-and- Illusion, God-and-Nature, Spirit-and-Matter, 
Subject-and-Object, God -and -Man, Universal-Self-and-Individual-self, 
Param-Atm&-and-Jiv-atma, Universal-and-Singular. Self-and-Not-self, 
and the Relation between these Pairs of Opposites, (Jvam-dva m 
these i^e dealt with 


4 sensations ' the * matter ' of knowledge, as opposed to 
its ' form,' in technical language fitted in exactly and 
helplessly ; and so an organic whole of systematised 

knowledge was produced. 


The other systems too have something to say on these ultimate 
questions ; and, in this reference, Vaisheshika and Nyayaare thought to 
favor what has been described before^ (pp. 7-11) as aram bha-vaga; 
Sankhya and Yoga, parinama-vaga; Mi mams a and 

a t m a-v a <J a (as s v a-k ar m a-v a <J a, the supremacy of the Self's will-and- 
action), and v i var ta-vada ; but they are so thought, generally and 
popularly, not quite precisely and accurately ; though ' popular ' im- 
pressions and broad views are seldom wholly wrong, and often more 
correct and more useful than specialist's and expert 1st 's minutiae and 
* exactitudes '. Subtle differences on minor points, mostly verbal, due to 
use of the same words in several, sometimes even opposite, senses, and 
consequent misunderstandings ; due frequently to even mere controversial 
and quarrel-some ' cussedness ' ; or craving to pose as ' original ' and 
1 superior 'such differences, for the pleasure of differing, are without 
end, in the later exponents of the six systems ; also of the several 
schools of thought into which the original Buddhist and Jaina philo- 
sophies broke up. The primal vasana-s, ' sub-supra-conscious urges 
of ego-ism, are active in wduld-be philosophers also, in east and west 
alike. The earlier Sutra-and-Bhashya writers of ' Aphorism-and-Com- 
mentary ' differ seldom ; and then they indicate that whatever differ- 
ence there is, is due to difference of viewpoint and naming. 

* A few abridged sentences from Wallace's The Logic of Hegel. 
' Prolegomena ', pp. Iviii-lxi, may help to elucidate further what has 
been said above in this note, and also in the preceding and the succeed- 
ing text of this chapter. " Locke as well as Kant began with an 
assumption based upon abstraction. This assumption led to a fatal 
flaw in their conclusions. Both took the understanding or reason 
to be some sort of thing or entity, however much they differed as to the 
peculiar nature of its constitution, or the amount of its original contents. 
Both confronted the mind to an external world, an object of knowledge 
existing apkrt by itself, and coming in certain ways and under certain 
forms Into Connection with the subject-mind, likewise existing apart by 
itself. In ibis state of absolute disruption, with two independent 
centres in subject and object, how was it possible to get from the one to 
the other ? This was the common puzzle from Descartes to Spelling, 
Locke and Kant included^ " ( ' but,' the present writer would add, ' Fichte 
excluded '). " For its solution, all sorts of incredible 'devices have been 
suggested, such as pre-established harmony, divine interposition, and 
impressions with ideas. It has given rise to two opposite views, some- 
times known as Idealism vs. Realism, sometimes as Spiritualism vs. 
Materialism." (Medieval Conceptualism, Nominalism, Realism, etc., 
ring changes on the same theme). "But every true philosophy tpt&st be 


But this was worse and worse. The shopkeeper and 
the ploughman might be excused for staring aghast. We 
had two difficulties to deal with before, viz., mind and 
matter ; now we have four, viz., two (or, one for each 

both idealist and realist. Realism asserts the rights of the several and 
particular existences ; Idealism asserts the thorough inter-dependence of 
all that exists. ' ' (The former exhibits the Many ; the latter, the One 
which includes and interweaves the Many). " Neither mind nor so-called 
external world, ' subject * and ' object ', are, either of them, self-subsistent 
existences. The objective world and the subject are really one ; they 
spring from a common source, which Kant called the ' original syn- 
thetic unity of apperception ' . . . " (In plain language, the original 
Unity of Self-Consciousness, which synthesises, interlinks, Self and Not- 
Self, against which Not-Self, by contrast to which Not-Self, by negation 
of which Not-Self, the Self eternally realises It-Self. Kant seems to have 
only glimpsed, very late, that the Self was the one and on(e)ly Thing- 
in-it-Self, behind both outer and inner). "The subjective world, the 
Mind of Man, is really constituted by the same force as the objective 
World of Nature. Hegel came to prove that God is the ' original 
synthetic Unity/ from which the external world and the Ego have issued 
by differentiation, and in which they return to Unity." (Again, in plain 
words, ' God is the Supreme Universal Self, whose Unity synthesises, 
posits-and -negates, creates- (main tains) -destroys, all Multiplicity '). " The 
deepest craving of thought, the fundamental problem of philosophy, is 
to discover the Nature and Law of that Totality or primeval Unity, 
which appears in the double aspect of matter and mind." 

It will have been noted by the reader that the fatal flaw t referred 
to in the extract, is the flaw of extremism, as usual ; by omitting the 
italicised words * apart by itself ', ' absolute ', ' independent ', the flaw 
disappears. As will be expounded in the subsequent chapters, Vldanta 
tells us that the Ab-sol-ute, solved, salved, from all limitations, Param- 
Atma, the supreme Self, is Pratyag-Stma, abstract Sell .plus MGla-prakrti, 
abstract Not-Self, which appear as mind^/MS-matter, man-/tts-nature, 
inner-^/ws -outer, Ji 

Yet, the occurrence of the ' fatal flaw ' has not been useless. It was 
inevitable, even desirable, that the ' philosophic mind ' should have erred 
away for a while from the ' thesis ' of Unity of Subject-Object, into the 
' anti-thesis ' of the ' disruption into two or Many ', in order to re-cover, 
with fuller knowledge, the ' syn-thesis ' of that primal Unity ; in the terms 
of the Git a, kata, One-ness, thence Prthag-bhava (visjara), 
Separateness (Multiplication), then again k a - s \ h a-t & (re-establishment 
in One-ness), according to the Law of Duality, of contradictory opposites, 
appearing, and also balancing, neutralising, cancelling, each other, in the 
One. JBy Error and Correction* an enrichment of thought is achieved. 


mind ?, and one for each material object, therefore count- 
less), things-in-themselves, and two (or rather an endless 
number) of things-in-other-than-themselves ! What are 
these things-in-themselves ? Some ran away with the idea 
that they were the unknowable ultimates of the universe; 
and whenever that which it most concerns us to know, 
that which is most necessary for us to know, that which 
is a matter of life or of death for us to be intimate with or 
strangers to whenever that comes up before us, then, 
these people declared, we must shut our eyes and turn 
away and say : " We cannot know you ; the limits of 
human knowledge have been already reached and circum- 
scribed." Others, impressed by the stately technical 
harness and trappings, big unusual words, of the philo- 
sophy, but not caring to examine beneath those externals, 
took to themselves the belief that these things-in-them- 
selves were knowable in some mystic state ; unmindful 
that the very definition of ' thing- in-itself ' excluded any 
such possibility of cognition; that, as soon as anything 
is cognised, it ceases, by that very fact, to be a thing-in- 
itself; that its thing-in- itself retires inwards, beneath 
and behind that which has been cognised and has 
therefore become an attribute and a phenomenon veiling 
the now deeper thing-in-itself. Thus many theories and 
schools arose on the basis of the labours of Kant and 
under the shadow of his " critical philosophy/' as it 
was called. But the plain and patent objection to the 
conclusions of Kant was that instead of an explanation 
he had given us only an increase of confusion. There 


was no superior law provided by Kant, l as was most 
imperatively needed, to regulate and govern the fitting 
of sense-phenomena .(the matter) into the so-called laws, 
(the forms) of mind, the mind-phenomena. If there 
was something inherent in the sense-phenomena which 
guided them instinctively to close v/ith the right laws, 
then that same instinct might well enable them to 
marshal themselves out into systematic knowledge too 
without the help of any of such mental laws. On the 
other hand, if the mind-phenomena had something 
in them which would enable them to select the right 
sense-phenomena for operation, then they might also 
very well have in themselves the power to create such 
phenomena without the aid of any material thing-in- 
itself. Kant himself seems to have felt these difficulties 
in his later days, and to have begun to see that the 
mental thing-in-itself was nothing else than the Ego, 
and that this Ego was the law and the source of all laws. 
Perhaps he had also begun to see that the Ego was 
not only thing-in-itself to mind, but also, in some way 
or other, thing-in-itself to matter too. Perhaps, also 

1 Ueberweg, History of Philosophy (English translation), II, 216. 
(Art. " Schelling "), and Stirling's Text-book to Kant, and Translation 
of Schwegler's History of Philosophy, (Annotations, Art. " Kant "). 

Another difficulty which seems to have been left unsolved by Kant 
is as to the number of these things-in-themselves. Is there only one 
thing-in-itself for all minds (or mind ?) on the one hand, and all matters 
(or matter ?) on the other ; or one each for each person and each thing ; 
and if the latter, how to define person and thing respectively ? 

Such objections to Kant's views have been taken by Fichte, Schel- 
ling, Hegel, Schopenhauer* Stirling, Wallace, Caird, and other 


that all individual ego-s were somehow unified in the 
Supreme Universal Ego. But it was not given to him 
to work out and attain those last results in that life 
of his ; and Fichte took up and onward the work left 
unfinished by Kant. 

Fichte clearly saw the necessity, in the interests of 
mental satisfaction, true internal liberty, and respite from 
restless doubt, of deducing the whole mass and detail of 
the universe from a single principle with which the 
human j I v a could find the inviolable refuge of identity ; 
and he also saw therefore that this principle must be the 
Ego. Fichte is the western thinker, who, of all western 
thinkers, ancient and modern, known to the present writer, 
appears to have come nearest the final truth, attained 
closest to the ultimate explanation of the universe. He 
divides with Schelling and Hegel, in current public judg- 
ment, the high honour of leading a large number of 
thinkers in the West, away from the deadly pits of blind 
belief on the one hand and blind scepticism on the other, 
towards the magnificent health-giving mountain heights of 
a reasoned knowledge of the boundlessness and unsurpass- 
able dignity of the j I v a's life. Some incline to place 
Hegel's work higher than Fichte's ; especially Stirling, 
who spent a whole lifetime on the study of German 
thinkers, and whose opinion on any matter connected 
with them is therefore entitled to great respect. Yet it 
may be said that, though Hegel's work was fuller in detail 
and more encyclopaedic in its comprehension of the sci- 
ences than Fichte's, the latter's enunciation of the f basic 


principle of the World-Process is more centre-reaching, 
more luminous one would almost sa)' wholly luminous, 
were it not for a last remaining unexplained difficulty 
than Hegel's. And, therefore, it may also be said that 
Fichte has gone a step further than Hegel. The man's 
noble and * transparent personal life deserved too, that he 
should see more closely and clearly the nobility and trans- 
parence of the truth. Hegel's life does not seem to have 
been so selfless as Fichte's, according to the biographers 
of the two ;. therefore he probably saw the truth under a 
thicker veil. 1 Jt may be that if Fichte had lived longer 
he would have explained the last difficulty that remains 
behind at the end of his work ; he would then have 
applied a master-key to all the problems and the sciences 
that Hegel has dealt with, and opened up their hearts 
with a surer touch. It may also be that if Hegel had 
lived longer, and not been suddenly cut off by an epide- 
mic, he might have completed his system, (as Stirling 
suggests) which also suffers from a single but very vital, 
pervasive, and perpetual want, by means of Fichte's 
single principle, and so have done the same work that 

1 To western philosophy and science, such considerations may seem 
irrelevant. Ancient metaphysic says that without ethical qualification of 
v a ir agy a t v iveka, etc., Vedanta cannot be successfully studied ; 
other sciences may be. The reason is : Ve\}anta is the Science of the 
Infinite ; all others are sciences of the Finite. To enter on this realisa- 
tion of the Infinite, the ' individual ' must have begun to turn from 
' individualism ' in its triple form ofavi<Jy5-kama-karma> cling- 
ing to the Finite, intellectually, emotionally, and practically, i.e., in 
thought, feeling, and action ; and turn towards ' universalism ' in its 
corresponding threefold form of j Sana-bhakti-virak$i, i.e., re- 
cognition of the small self's identity with the Great Self, philanthropic 
altruism, and asceticism. Taint of selfish ego-ism dims vision of the 
True Self. 


might have been done by Fichte. In the combination of 
the two lies great promise of satisfaction. On the whole, 
then, because of the view that Fichte has gone further 
than Hegel, what has to be said here about Hegel will be 
said first and Fichte taken up afterwards. 

But before taking up Hegel, a word should be given 
to Schelling, who has very much in common with HegeL 
The two were contemporaries and associates of each other 
and partly of Fichte's also, both being greatly influenced 
by Fichte. But Schelling failed to make such a lasting 
impression on European philosophy as did Hegel, because 
of repeated radical changes in his views, and lack of such 
consistency, stringency, and rigour of thought and genetic 

. . u^^a^i* teO&n. * 

construction as Hegel carried into effect. The net addi- 
tion made by Schelling to the stock of Western philo- 
sophy may be said to be a deeper and fuller view of the 
Law of Relativity, viz., the law that two Opposites 
imply each other. The point which Hegel emphasised 
^so much does not seem to have occurred to him, that 
such opposites further inhere in a third something, which 
is not exclusively and wholly either the one or the other, 
but somehow includes and contains both, and is itself 
the summation of the two. What Hamilton and 
Mansel of England derived from Schelling, and Her- 
bert Spencer from them, is that as everything implies 
its opposite, so the whole of the world, the whole 
mass of relatives, of opposites, being taken together 
as one term which may be called the Relative 
this whole would necessarily imply its opposite, the 


Absolute. Hamilton and Mansel vaguely called this 
Absolute, God ; Herbert Spencer called it the Unknow- 
able. In one sense this conclusion is true ; in another it 
is only a verbal quibble, so that critics have not been 
wanting to point out that the Absolute and the Relative 
make a new relation, a new pair of opposites, which also 
requires an opposite in a higher absolute, and so on 
endlessly. 1 

' Hegel put a stop to this unfruitful and fatuous end- 
lessness of higher and higher absolutes, which really 
explains nothing and is a contradiction in terms, by show- 
ing that when all opposites had been once heaped together 
under the Relative, no further opposite could be left out- 
side of this mass in the shape of an Absolute ; that if 
such a train of reasoning was to be followed at all, the 
logical conclusion should be that the Absolute was im- 
manent in the mass of the Relative ; that every thing 
contained its opposite within itself, and that the true 
Absolute would be complete when opposites had been 
resolved into each other, so that no further search for a 
higher Absolute was left to make* Hegel's most impor- 
tant contribution to metaphysic accordingly seems to be 
a full development and application of the law that two 
opposites, two extremes, always find their reconciliation 
in a third something, a mean, which, as said before, is 
neither the one nor the other exclusively but both taken 
together. Applying this principle to the World-Process 

1 For various criticisms of Spencer's view on this subject, see Caird, 
Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion, ch. i ; and also Spencer's 
own Replies to Criticisms, published in his collected Essays., 


in the mass, he first analyses it into two ' pure ' opposites, 
* pure ' Being and ' pure ' Nothing, and then proceeds to 
state that the collapse of these two into each other is * Be- 
coming,' is the World- Process. The fact that * Becoming * 
is the conjunction of Being and Nothing, and that every 
particular combines and reconciles within itself two 
opposites ; and the consequent law that the reconciliation 
of two extremes should be always sought for in the mean, 
and that extremes should always be regarded as a violent 
and unnatural disruption of the mean this fact and this 
law are profoundly significant and very helpful to bear 
in mind in all departments of life. But yet the mere 
statement of them, which is practically all that Hegel 
has done, leaves behind a sense of dissatisfaction. The 
why and the how are not explained ; and the why and 
the how necessarily come up when we begin with two 
and not with one. If we begin with One and can main- 
tain it Changeless, then none may afek why and how. 
Merely to say that every change implies a falling of 
Being into Nothing and of Nothing into Being is per- 
fectly true ; but is true only as breaking down some old 
preconceived notions obstructive to further progress, true 
as a stimulus to further enquiry; it is not at all 
satisfactory in itself or helpful towards the solution 
of the final doubt. It was declared long before Hegel, 
and declared a thousand times, and the fact is indeed 
so patent that he who runs may read and even with 
the eyes of the flesh, that the world of things is 
Being, sat, as well as Non-Being, a sat ; that it is both 


and that it is neither ; tut the statement remains dark, 
unlighted ; the fact remains unintelligible. Where is 
the lamp to light it up and to make all clear at once ? 

Then this speaking in the third person, Being and 
Nothing, instead of in the first and second person, Self 
and Not- Self (' I ' and ' you '),* re-invests the whole prob- 
lem with the old strangeness which we were at so much 
pains to transform into the home-feeling that goes with 
the words Self and Not-Self. Being means Self to us ; and 
Nothing is nothing else than Not-Self (in the sense of a 
denial of the Self), if it is anything at all. To talk of Being 
and Nothing, after Fichte has spoken of Ego and Non- 
Ego, is to take a regressive rather than a progressive step. 
Indeed, this may be said, in a sense, to be the greatest 
defect of Hegel's system. To speak in terms of 'pure 
universal notions,' of Being and Nothing, etc., instead of 
Self and Not-Self and their derivatives ; to imply that 
' Spirit ' (in the sense of Self) is subsequent to ' pure im- 
material thought ' ; this is to walk on the head instead 
of the feet. Perhaps a little ' progress ' may be made 'even 
in that way. But the falls, the lapses of intelligence, must 
be very frequent ; and the whole process is invested with 
an immense and most unnatural strain. Of course, it is 
clear that, if we would deal with psychology and meta- 
physic, we must intro-spect ; we must look inwards, more 
or less ; we must turn our -eyes in a direction opposite 
to that in which we usually employ them in ordinary life; 
we must become * introvert ', rather than ' extravert ', 
1 Shankara, Shariraka-Bhashya, the very first paragraph. 


for the time. But, while our eyes are ' in-turned ', or even 
closed, our hands have to be kept, however lightly, on 
the ' outer ' also ; we should not lose touch of and with the 
* outer * World altogether; for, then, the 'inner* will vanish 
from consciousness also ; * inner and outer ', ' abstract and 
concrete ', both will fall asleep in Chaos, slumber. 1 

1 As regards the difficulty of V^danta, Metaphysic-Philosophy, the 
Science of the Infinite, and of the introspection needed for the study 
thereof, Katha Upanishaj (II. i. 1) tells us, 


* Very subtle, not easy to be understood, is this highest 'Duty', (of 
achieving, this highest Knowledge of the Self. The Self-born (appearing, 
illusorily, to be born in a body, a not-Self) pierced the senses ot*- wards ; 
therefore the individualised self looketh ow^- wards, not in- wards, not 
to and at it-Self. One here, one there, desirous of Immortality, resolutely 
turning vision in- wards, saw him-Self, the Self." R difficulty of Hegel, 
Wallace, in The Logic of Hegel, ' Prolegomena ' (p. civ ; first edition) 
says: " There- are two degrees in the hindrances against mastering 
Hegelianism. The first difficulty is to reach the point of view from which 
the system starts. It is, says Hegel himself, ' like learning to walk upon 
our heads ' . The second demand to move in the ether of this absolute 
thought is even harder than the first." Stirling also, in The Secret of 
Hegel (p. 81) writes, "Hegel himself allows us to say ' We feel as if 
we were standing on our heads' ..." One gets the impression, from 
the English translations of Hegel, and also from various facts of his life, 
as regards his relations with Schelling and others, that he was too desir- 
ous to be ' original ' a common weakness of ' thinkers ', but excusable 
within narrow limits only, i.e., while confined to joyous, boyish 

* self '-testing, ' self '-delight, and play. We may therefore decline 
Hegel's invitation ' to stand on our heads; and may suggest to those of 
his way of thinking, that, instead, they may practice, what is known in 
Yoga as, the sham bhavi or vaishpavi mudra, eyes nearly but 
not quite closed ; attention turned in-ward to the Great Self behind the 
small self's workings ; but not wholly oblivious of the out- ward, the Not- 
Self. Ve<Janta does not recognise ' absolute thought ' an expression of 
frequent recurrence in the English expositions of Hegel ; it recognises 
the ' Absolute Self ', behind and around all ' thought ' ; it is the same as 
Absolute Self-Consciousness, including all Not-Self, all not-selves, all 
4 this-es ' ; so that, ultimately, and eternally, Abstract and Concrete, 
Inner and Outer, all merge into the One which is Number-less. 


Moreover, while pure Being and pure Nothing might 
well be allowed to combine into pure Becoming, whence 
comes this endless multiplicity of particular becomings, 
or rather ' becomes,' i.e., of special things that have 
become ? Hegel does not seem to have explained this ; 
although it seems necessary and even quite easy to do so 
from the standpoint of a true definition of the Absolute. 
A single word explains it. Has Hegel said that word ? 
It does not appear that he has. If he has, then there is 
nothing more to be said against him on this score. Yet 
the story goes that Krug once asked Hegel to deduce his 
particular writing quill from the general principle that 
Being and Nothing make Becoming, and that Hegel 
could reply with a smile only. Stirling talks of Krug's 
' ridiculous expectation ' ; it seems to others that Krug's 
request was perfectly fair and legitimate. The arbitrari- 
ness of Krug's particular quill does require to be ex- 
plained away. Wallace (op. cit., p. clxxi) says, " Hegel's 
system . . . can only unveil what is, ... it has no 
vocation to say why it is, or how it can be so " ; and 
Hegel himself says (op. cit. p. 20), " The idea of Nature, 
when it is individualised, loses itself in a maze of chance 
. . . points of existence, kinds, distinctions, which are 
determined by sport and adventitious incidents ; . . . 
phenomena are regulated by no law, but depend upon 
arbitrary influences ". Yet the why is vitally important 
to us, lest we become such chance- phenomena. 

Again, Hegel's fundamental proposition, the very 
ibase and foundation of his system viz., that Being and 


Nothing are the same and yet opposite, and that their 
mutual mergence makes Becoming, which, he says, is the 
true Absolute is wholly unsatisfactory. It may be true, 
nay, it is true, in a certain sense, that Being and Nothing 
are the same and yet opposed ; but it is not Hegel who 
tells us what that certain sense is. It may be true, nay, 
it is true, in a certain sense, that Becoming is the 
Absolute ; but it is not Hegel who tells us what that 
sense is. On the contrary, the general impression is that 
Hegel began with a violent petitio principii when he 
assumed that Being and Nothing, though opposite are the 
same, and so took for granted the very reconciliation of 
opposites which it was his business to prove. After 
assuming that the two most opposed of all opposites are 
identical with each other, it is truly easy to reconcile all 
other opposites that may come up for treatment later. 

Then, what is meant by saying or implying that 
Becoming is the Absolute ? If the word Becoming is 
taken to mean the totality of the World-Process from the 
beginning to the end ot beginningless and endless time, 
then of course an absolute may be meant, but such an 
absolute remains absolutely unilluminative and useless. 
Hegel says (as summarised by Schwegler) : " The absolute 
is, firstly, pure immaterial thought ; secondly, Aeter-isation 
of pure thought, disruption of thought into the infinite 
atomism of time and space Nature ; thirdly, it returns, 
out of this its self-externalisation and self -alienation,, 
back into its own self, it resolves the heterisation of 
nature, and only in this way becomes at last actual* 


self-cognisant, thought, Spirit." ' Perhaps, then, he 
means, not the totality of the world-process, but, a 
growing, maturing, absolute ; in the course of the 
growth of which, the cropping up of anything, of count- 
less things, hetera, ' others ', im-pure, concrete, out of 
the pure, abstract, remains a mystery, unexplained as ever. 
But the absoluteness of an evolving, changing, thing or 
thought is a very doubtful thing and thought. Indeed, 
there no distinction of thing and thought in the 
Absolute ; and this distinction is one of the very 
hardest and subtlest tasks of metaphysic to explain away. 8 
The general impression left by Hegel is that the Absolute 
is an idea, which finds its gradual expression and mani- 
festation and realisation in the things, the becomings, of 
the world-process ; and that, consequently, there is a dif- 
ference of nature between the idea and the things. But 
if there is any such difference, then the things fall outside 
of the idea and have to be explained, and the whole task 
begins again. But even apart from this difficulty, which- 
constitutes a separate doubt by itself, is the main diffi* 
culty of a changing absolute. The elementary V6da- 
texts, which helped as temporary guides at an earlier stage 
of the journey, and which said that the Self multiplied 
it- Self into Many, had to be abandoned (for the time being 
at least) for want of sufficient reason and justification- 

1 Note the thrice-repeated ' self ' here ' Thought cannot be, without 
theprius of Self as basis. 

- The thirty-two thousand shlokas or two-line stanzas of the Yog&' 
Vasishtha constitute the great and unique Epic, in Saipskr.! literature, of* 
this particular Herculean labour. 


for the changing moods of a Supreme. We have been 
pining all along for changelessness, for rest and peace 
.amidst this fearful turmoil. Hegel gives us an endless- 
ness of change. He says the Absolute-Universal realises 
itself, through Nature-Particular, in and into the Indivi- 
dual-Singular ; i.e., the already supremd and perfect God 
developes into and finds himself in perfected man, self- 
conscious man, (typified by Jesus). 1 A doctrine unsatis- 
factory enough in the mouth of anyone, and much more 
so in the mouth of Hegel who knows nothing, or at least 
indicates nothing of the knowledge, of the vast evolution 
and involution of worlds .upon worlds, material elements 
and j I v a s, of the incessant descent of Spirit into Matter 
and Its re-ascent into it-Self, which is outlined in the 
Purdtuis. What does Hegel say as to where and when 
the Absolute began its evolution and when it will 
complete and end it ? Has he anywhere entered into the 
question whether this actual self-cognisant spirit, this 
perfected individual, this perfected man, who has achieved 
that combination of reason with desire or will which 
makes the true freedom, the true internal liberty, m o k s h a 
as altruistic synthesis and balancing ofjnana, bhakti, 
and karma, knowledge, selfless desire, selfless action 
whether such an individual is completed in and arises 
at a definite point of time, or is only an infinitely reced- 
ing possibility of the endless future ? Also, whether many 

1 The element of truth in this view is to be found in the Vlganta 
doctrine of the J i v an - m u k t a, the Sufi's insan-ul-kamil, the Biblical 
phrase ' Sons of God ", (Sons, in the plural, not only one ' Son ' Jesus, 
who is on)y a typical J i v a n-m u k t a of high quality, ' freed from egoism 
while still in the body '). 


such are possible at one time or not ? There were millions 
of individualised human jlvas upon earth in the time of 
Hegel. H#d the Absolute finished evolution in them or 
any of them, and if not, as it clearly had not, then why 
not ? Such are the legitimate questions that may in all 
fairness be put to Hegel. He does not seem to have 
answered them. Yet each and every one of them should 
and can be answered from the standpoint of a complete 

It is not probable that Hegel in this birth, and in the 
life and surroundings of the period he lived and worked 
in, (1770-1831 A.C.), knew all the even partial and one- 
sided details about kosmic evolution, which have since 
then become accessible to the human race in the West, 
not to speak of the complete outlines (though lacking in 
detail) which are sketched in the Puranas (and now in* 
theosophical literature). He ridicules the doctrine of 
rebirth, 1 (which Fichte, Schelling, Goethe, and many 
others, poets, writers, thinkers, even physical scientists, 
famous in the west, have believed in) ; and shows 
thereby, that he did not realise the full significance and 1 
extensive application of some of the metaphysical laws 
which he himself, or Fichte and Schelling before him, 
stated. Yet these particulars of endlessly recurring 
cosmic evolution and dissolution, in smaller and larger 
cycles, as ascertained by masters of y o g a, and embodi- 
ed, in broad outlines, in the extant Puranas and other 

1 Hegel, History of Philosophy, English Translation, Vol. I, Art. 
1 "Pythagoras". 


Samskrt and Prakrt writings (and in theosophical litera- 
ture), are alone capable of providing a basis for a true and 
comprehensive metaphysic ; for they, in the very act of 
pointing out the way to the final goal, explain how they 
themselves are inseparately connected with and derived 
from that goal. And if Hegel was not acquainted with such 
-details, it is no wonder that his metaphysic remains incom- 
plete. It is, indeed, a wonder, on the contrary, that it is so 
full as it is. It may, on the other hand, be that it was given 
to a man who saw so much and so deeply, to see more also, 
.and that he did not say all he knew for special internal 
or external reasons. This is the view that Stirling takes, 
in pointing out Hegel's shortcomings, especially in his 
work entitled, What is Thought ? Stirling probably had 
not in mind, when stating such a view, anything about 
-information derivable by means of a higher development 
of human faculties through yoga. What most concerns 
us here to know, is that such a lifelong student of Hegel 
as Stirling declares, with all the weight and authority of 
such study, that there is a radical defect in the system, 
.and that a key is wanted which perhaps Hegel might 
have given if he had lived longer, that is to say, assuming 
that he himself had it. 2 

9 See infra \ the close of ch. viii, for the needed rectification of Hegel 
by Veijanta. Here, we may quote' what Stirling says, Schwegler's 
History of Philosophy, pp. 445. 475: "Whether Hegel's Notion* be 
really the pulse of thought- t -that is what is still to be verified that is 
what I still doubt. So long as that doubt remains, I am not properly 
an Hegelian . *. . Hegel's Logic, though containing much that is of 
material importance, is still principally formal. Its first note after all 
is said, will never ring quite true ; existence of some kind and existence 
of no kind are not the same " 


We see thus that, while Schelling and Hegel made 
a very close approach to the final explanation, they do 
not seem to have quite grasped it. Let us now examine 
what appears to have been in some respects a closer 
approach than theirs. 

Fichte, as said before, realised and stated that the 
Ego is the only true universal, perfectly unconditioned 
in and by (sensuous) matter as well as in and by (in- 
tellectual) form (in the technical language of German 
thinkers) ; the certainty of which can not possibly be 
ruffled by any doubt. And from this universal, he en- 
deavoured to deduce the whole of the world-process. 
His deduction is usually summed up in three steps : 
Ego Ego; Non-Ego is not ^Ego; Ego in part--Non- 
Eo, and Non-Ego in part = Ego. 1 There is first the 
thesis, the position of identity, * I ' .is ' I ' ; secondly, 
there is the antithesis, the op-position of contradiction, 
4 I ' is not * Not-I ' ; lastly, there is the synthesis, the 
corn-position, i.e., a reconciliation, of the opposites, by 
mutual limitation, mutual yielding, a compromise in 
which the * I ' becomes, i.e. 9 takes on the characteristics 
of, the * Not-I,' and the ' Not-I ' of the ' I '. And this is 
entirely and irrefutably in accordance with the facts of 
the world-process as they are there under our very eyes. 
No western thinker has improved upon this sum- 
mary of the essential nature of the world-process ; and 
it is difficult to understand how Stirling has failed to give 

3 See Adamson, Fichte (Black wood's Philosophical Classics), p. 172, 
for explanation of the third proposition. 


due meed to this great work. He says regarding Fichte : 
" What is said about the universal Ego ... is not 
satisfactory. Let us generalise as much as we please, 
we still know no Ego but the empirical Ego, and can 
refer to none other." 1 Now, with the respect one has 
for Stirling's metaphysical acumen, one can only say that 
this statement of his is very difficult to understand. For 
it is exactly equivalent to the entire denial of the possi- 
bility of an ' abstract,' simply because we can never 
definitely cognise lanything but a ' concrete ' with our 
physical senses. As said before, in dealing with the 
process by which the nature of the universal Self is 
established, the mere fact of a diversity, of the ' many', of 
concretes and particulars, necessarily requires for its 
existence, for its being brought into relief, the support 
and background of a continuity, a ' unity ', an abstract and 
universal. The two, abstract and concrete, universal and 
particular, are just as inseparable as back and front ; 
though, of course, it is not only possible, but is what we 
always actually do, viz., that we distinguish between the 
two, and attend more to the one, now, and more to the 
other, at another time. But looking for a highest uni- 
ersal and a lowest particular, we find that the extremes 
meet. The highest universal, (Self It -Self as) Being, 
satta-samanya, is also the most irreducible point, 
charama-vish6sha, the 'singular' (Jlva or atom). 
The universal Ego is also (the essence of) the individual 
ego (the so-called empirical ego) ; the universal Being 
1 Stirling's Schwegler's History of Philosophy, p. 428. 


and the anu, atom, of the Vaisheshika system of 
philosophy, correspond to the Pratyag-atma and 
the ideal atom which, enshrining a self, is the jlv- 
atma. Between tfrese two limits, which are not two but 
one, the all-comprehending substratum of all the 
world-process, the Infinite which is also the In- 
finitesimal, " greatest of the great and also smallest of 
the small," there fall and flow all other pseudo-univer- 
sals and pseudo-particulars ; pseudo, because each falls 
as a particular under a higher universal (or general) and 
at the same time covers some lower particulars (specials). 
The universal Ego is thus the only true, absolutely cer- 
tain and final, universal. " Hegel, in opposition to 
Fichte, . . . held that it is ... not the E^p that is 
the prius of all reality, but, on the contrary, something 
universal, a universal which comprehends within it every 
individual." ! This is where the deviation from the 
straight path began. It began with Hegel. And the 
results were : (1) that dissatisfaction with Hegel which 
Stirling confesses to again and again ; and (2) a tacit 
reversion, by Stirling himself, to that impregnable posi- 
tion of Fichte (as shown throughout Stirling's work, 
What is Thought ? in which he endeavours to make out 
that the double subject-object, ' I-me,' is the true Ab- 
solute).* For if " we know no ego but the empirical ego," 

1 Ibid., p. 315. 

* Compare the Sankshepa-Sharlraka , 

*' Only this partless, indivisible, Consciousness is both subject and 
object at once," 

6 <* 


how much more do we know no ' being ' but empirical and 
particular beings, no * nothing ' but empirical and particular 
non-commencements :or destructions. Ego and non-Ego 
we understand ; they are directly aqd primarily in our 
constitution ; nay, they are the whole of our constitution, 
essence and accidence, core and crust, inside and outside, 
the very whole of it. But Being and Nothing we under- 
stand only through Ego and Non-Ego ; otherwise they 
are entirely strange and unfamiliar. Being is nothing else 
than pro-position, pre-positing, affirmation, by conscious- 
ness, by the ' I ' ; Non-Being is nothing else than op-posi- 
tion, centra-position, denial, by that same * I '. Stirling 
practically admits as much in What is Thought ? Fichte's 
approach, then, is the closer and not Hegel's ; and Stir- 
ling's opinion that " the historical value of the method 
of Fichte will shrink, in the end, to its influence on 
Hegel " * is annulled by his own latest research and find- 
ing. The probability indeed, on the contrary, is that 
Hegel's work will come to take its proper place in the 
.appreciation of students as only an attempt at a filling 
and completion of the outlines traced out by the earnest, 
intense, noble, and therefore truth-seeing spirit of Fichte.* 

1 Stirling's Schwegler, p, 427. 

fl Dr. J. H. Stirling, in a very kind letter to the present writer, 
*aid : "Dr. Hutchinson Stirling would beg to remark only that he is 
not sure that Mr. Bhagavan Das has quite correctly followed the distinc- 
tion between Fichte's and Hegel's use of the Ego in deduction of the 
categories the distinction at least that is proper to Stirling's inter- 
pretation of both ; Stirling holding, namely, that Fichte, while without 
provision for an external world, has only an external motive or move- 
ment in his Dialectic, and is withal in his deduction itself incomplete ; 
whereas Hegel, with provision for externality, is inside of his principle, 
and in his deduction infinitely deeper, fuller, and at least completer." 


Hegel's work is a supplementation, by mere descrip- 
tion, not at all a deduction or explanation, of the succes- 
sive steps in mind-development, from simple sensuous 
perceptions to complex intellectual thinking or compre- 
hending, in terms of abstract ideas and relations. 
Darwinian evolutionism is similar ; it is a description, 
not an explanation, of body-development ; it assumes 
countless perpetual variations of environments, and corres- 
ponding ones in organisms, at every step ; power of vari- 
ation is assumed at every step. 

By sheer force of intense gaze towards the Truth, 
Fichte has reached, even amidst the storm and stress of 
a life cast in times when empires were rising and falling 
around him, conclusions which were generally reached in 
India only with the help of a y o g a-vision developed by 
long practice amidst the contemplative calm of forest- 
solitudes and mountain-heights. 1 (Perhaps he had been 
a disciple in the home of an Indian sage, in a previous 
life, and done all the preliminary thinking there !) Page 
after page of his work reads like translations from V&Janta 
works. Schwegler, apparently unmindful of their value 
and even disagreeing with them, sums up the conclusions 

I give this extract from Dr. Stirling's letter with the view that it may 
help readers to check and correct any errors made in this chapter, in the- 
comparative appreciation of Hegel and Fichte. 

Professor J. E. McTaggart, of Trinity College, Cambridge, also 
isaid, in a letter to the present writer: "... I still maintain that Hegel 
has got nearer the truth than Fichte/' x 

1 Fichte's lecture on The Dignity of Man (pp. 331-336 of the 
Science of Knowledge, translated by A. Kroeger) is full of statements 
which might be read as meaning, on Fichte's part, a belief in the evolu- 
tion of the j i v - a t m a of the kind described inv44an|ic and theo- 
sophical literature, in direct contrast to Hegel's statements. 


of Fichte in words which simply reproduce the conclu- 
sions of A-dvait a- Vedanta as now current in India* 
Fichte's statement, quoted above, as to the transference 
of their characteristics to each other by the Ego and the 
Non-Ego, is the language of Shankara.l His distinction 
between the absolute Ego and the individual or empirical 
ego is the distinction between the higher A t m a and the 
j 1 v a. The words ' higher A t m a ' are used here, because 
one of the last defects and difficulties of the current 
A - d v a i t a - Vedanta turns exactly, as it does in Fichte, 
on the confusion (of the distinction without a difference) 
between"? ratyag-atmS and Param-atma, the abs- 
tract universal Ego and the true Absolute ego. Again, 
Fichte's view is thus stated by Schwegler : " The business 
of the theoretical part was to conciliate Ego and Non-Ego. 
To this end, middle term after middle term was inter* 
calated without success. Then came reason with the ab- 
solute decision ' Inasmuch as the Non-Ego is incapable 
of union with the Ego, Non-Ego there shall be none.' " 
This is to all appearance exactly the Vedanta method, 2 
whereby predicate after predicate is superimposed upon 
the Supreme, and then refuted, negated and struck 
away, as inappropriate, till the naked Ego remains 
as the Unlimited which is the Negation of all that is 

1 The opening lines of his commentary, the Sharlraka-Bhashya,. 
on the Brahma-sutras . 

9 And the method of the world-process. The spirit is ions, electrons, 
atoms? No. It is gases, metals, minerals? No. Vegetables? No. Ani- 
mals? No. Humans? No. Upa-<J6vas, de" vas, Vislvva-sr. jas? 
No. And so on. 


Not-Unlimited, and the searcher exclaims : " I am (is) 
Brahman,' 1 ' and " the Many is not at all," * as the two 
most famous V6da-texts, great sentences (in the Samskrt 
phrase, maha-vakyas) or logia, the foundation of the 
A-dvaita-V6danta, describe it. The opposition be- 
tween the specification-less Brahman or At ma or 
Ego, on the one hand, and the Non-Ego, on the 
other, is stated by the Vedanta thus: (The At ma is) 
That of which a kasha (ether), air, fire, water, and 
earth, are the v i - v a r t a - s, opposites, perversions. 3 
The relation between them is indicated in a manner 
which comes home to the reader more closely than 
Fichte's : " Brahman dreams all this universe, and its 
waking is the reduction of it all to illusion." 4 

Thus we see that some of the most important con- 
clusions of the current A-dvait a- Vedanta have been 
independently reached by this truly great German thinker. 
And in seeing this, we have ourselves taken a step further 
than we had done, when we left the Vishrshta-advaita 
system as the second result of the last endeavour to solve 
the supreme question of questions. We have seen that 
the current A-d v a i t a - V&Janta is an advance upon 
theVishishtadvaita. We have also seen that Fichte 
and Hegel are supplementary to each other. For, while 
Fichte's dialectic is the more internal, starting with 

1 Brhad-Aranyaka , I, iv, 10. 
9 Ibid. t IV, iv, 19. 
* B bam aft, p. l. 

4 Madhusudana Sarasvati's Sankshe1>a-Sharlraka-Tlk& t iii, shloka 


the Ego, and therefore the truer and less artificial, it 
follows out the world-process up to the end of two stages 
only, as it were, those of origination and preservation, 
i.e., the present existing order of things, a commingling 
of the Ego and the Non-Ego ; whereas Hegel's dialectic 
though external, starting with Being (returning how- 
ever to thought and Self afterwards), and therefore the 
more artificial completes, in a way, the circuit of the 
world-process to the last stage, that of destruction, dissolu- 
tion, or return to the original condition. (The words ' in 
a way ' have been used for want of the certainty that the 
full significance of this cyclic law and triple succession of 
origin, preservation, and dissolution of the kosmic systems 
which make up the world-process, and which law is 
reiterated over and over again in all Samskrt literature, 
was present to the minds of Fichte and flegel.) We feel 
now that Hegel, Fichte, and current A-dvaita-V6danta 
have come close to the very heart of the secret ; we 
feel that it cannot now be very far off; we are face 
to face with the lock that closes the whole treasure- 
house of explanations of all possible mysteries and secrets 
and confusions ; we also hold in our hands the key which 
we feel is the only key to the lock ; and not only do we 
hold the key, but in our struggles with the key and the 
lock we have, in the good company of the Indian 
v6<j5ntls and the German idealists, broken through 
panes of the door leaves and almost moved the door away 
from its hinges, and obtained many a glimpse and even 
plain view of many of those treasures and secrets. Yet 


the key will not quite turn in the lock. Some rust-stain 
somewhere, some defect of construction, prevents this. 

The defect, some features of which have been already 
pointed out in treating of Hegel, is that we cannot deny 
altogether this Non-Ego. We cannot quite convince 
ourselves that it is 'pure* Non-being, atyanta-asat. 
It seems both existent and non-existent, sad-asat. 
Whence this appearance of existence in it ? The last 
unexplained crux of the current A-dvaita-V6(Jmta 
is the connection between Brahman, the Absolute, 
and Maya, the Illusion of the World-Process. As 
with Fichte's Non-Ego, so with the v6dantTs Maya, 
there remains behind an appearance of artificiality, of a 
deus ex machina, a lack of organic connection and 
spontaneity, in the working of the world-process into and 
out of the Ego, in the arrangement between Maya, on 
the one hand, and Brahman, on the other. Why should 
Brahman dream ? A hundred different ways of enunciation 
and illustration are tried by the ordinary v64anti. 
None is satisfactory. And therefore the current A-dvai{a 
does not reach to the final stage of a true A-cJvaita . 
When pressed, it, like Fichte, falls back upon the position 
that Maya (Non-Ego, with Fichte) is wholly Non-being, 
instead of both existent and non-existent, and this we 
cannot quite bring home to ourselves. Besides this 
difficulty, there is the process of change : the * I ' opposes 
to itself the * Not-I ', and reverts again to an original 
condition. Why ? Our Absolute must be above change* 
Again, there seems to be an artificiality and arbitrariness 


about the ' Not- 1 ' in another way. Why any one parti- 
cular ' Not-I ' ? Fichte's deduction of the world-process 
is effected in a syllogism of three steps, three propositions, 
and even then it does not quite complete the process, but 
leaves it half-finished. It ought to be complete in one 
proposition, one single act of consciousness; otherwise 
the difficulty of change in the Absolute remains unsolved. 
There are expressions and indications that to the 
mind of Fichte and other German thinkers, as to the 
mind of the vedantl, there is present the distinction or 
rather opposition between Eternity, succession-less Time- 
lessness, kala-atlta-ta,, transcendence of time, on the 
one hand, and successive time, kala, even though endless, 
on the other. In this opposition lies the clue to the whole 
of the'secret ; but it does not seem to have been utilised. 
It is not properly utilised in the extant books on 
A-<Jvaita-V6cUinta, although the fact that Brahman is 
beyond space and time, is reiterated incessantly. Nor does 
it seem to have been put to effective use by Fichte or any 
other Western thinker, though it has been recognised by 
even such a non-metaphysical but extremely acute 
reasoner as J. S. Mill \ as the distinction between the 
true and the false Infinite. One hesitates to say 
positively that Fichte has left this last work unperform- 
ed ; but from the accounts and translations of his writings 
available in English, this seems to be the case. Yet the 
secret is there, all the time, among the ideas expressed in 
his writings, as much as in the better works of current 
1 In his Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy. 


A-<Jvaita-V6danta. Just the one rust-stain has to be 
removed frprn the key, then it will turn, and will finally 
unclose the lock, and lay open before us what we want'. 

We want, as said before, That Which combines 
within itself Change as well as Changelessness, and will 
also be our own inmost Self. An infinity of change, 
even though it be a change of progress a progress 
that has no self-contained and consistent meaning ; 
that is without a definite final goal towards which it 
is a progress ; an increasing progress which, there is 
reason to believe, may also be alternating with an ever- 
increasing regress; a progress in a convolved spiral, which, 
if it turns upwards to ever greater glories of higher and 
subtler life, may also, by necessary correspondence, in 
accordance with the law of balance, compensation, action- 
reaction, thesis-antithesis, pass downwards too, through 
ver-increasing miseries of lower and grosser densities of 
matter such ceaseless, aimless, dual process, swing to- 
and-fro, or progress even, means not satisfaction, brings 
not happiness, but rather a desolate weariness. Fichte has 
said (to quote again the words of Schwegler) : " It is our 
duty at once, and an impossibility to reach the infinite ; 
nevertheless, just this striving, united to this impossibility, 
is the stamp of our eternity." ! Schelling has said the same 
thing. 8 To the principle of this metaphysical * deduction,' 
corresponds the actual fact, ascertained by Yoga and occult 
science, and stated in the Puranas and other theosophical 

1 Schwegler's History of Philosophy, p. 270, 
1 J. H. Stirling, What is Thought ?, pp. 397-398. 


and Yoga-V6danta literature, that there is endless evolu- 
tion of j I v a - s, by birth after birth, in body after body 
and world after world. But this fact is not the whole truth ; 
it does not stand by itself. If it did, then such a mere in- 
finity of change, without a constant and permanent basis 
of changelessness and peace, would only add the horrors 
of Sisyphus to the agonies of Tantalus. No soul, however 
patiently it now accepts as many do the doctrine of an 
endless progress, will long feel peace in it by itself. The 
longing, yearning, resistless and quenchless craving for 
Changelessness and Peace and Rest, for something final, 
will come upon it sooner or later. 

Besides this emotional difficulty, this surfeit with 
unrest, which is now upon us, there is the intellectual 
difficulty, the impossibility of understanding the very 
fact of change. The instinct of the intellect cries out, as 
the very first words of all logic, as the primary laws of 
all thought, that A is A, that it is not not-A, that 
Being is Being only, and never Nothing. " The non- 
existent cannot be, and the existent cannot not-be." l 
Yet every mortal moment of our lives, all around and 
above and below us, these much-vaunted laws of logic 
are being violated incessantly. 1 Every infinitesimal instant, 

1 Gifft, ii, 16 ; otherwise, / might become non-est also ! The intellec- 
tual instinct too is emotional rebellion against that possibility. 

* And in these textbooks of deductive logic themselves, most bare- 
facedly ! Solemnly declaring that A is A only and B is B only, they at 
once also say, A is B, B is C, therefore A is C ! If A is A, B is B, and C 
is C, only, how can A ever be B, or B be C, or C be A ? If A really is 
B. i.e., identical with B, then why two names for the same thing ? Call 
it either A, or B. Samskrt Nyaya does not misapply these laws of 
Universal Thought, as if "they were laws of individual and concrete 
t hinking, for which the distinction between thing and thought, idea and 


something, some existent thing, is becoming on- 
existent, and some non-existent thing is coming into being, 
is becoming existent. We may say that it is only the 
form that behaves like this. But what is the good of 
saying so ? All that the world really means to us sounds- 
and sights, tastes, touches, and scents all is included in 
the ' form ' that changes. Even weight, it is being 
attempted to prove by mathematical computations, 
will 'change, with change of position, from planet to 
planet. 1 And, finally, those mathematical laws them- 
selves, on which such computations are based, can no- 
longer boast permanence ; they, too, are being changed 
by mathematicians, and it is endeavoured to be shown- 
that parallel lines can meet and two things occupy the 
same space ; though, on these points, it seems likely that 
exuberance of originality has led to exaggerations, and 
that the ' old order ' will be restored. We have an- 
indestructible faith that matter is indestructible ; this 
faith is not due to any limited facts we know, for 
limited data can never justify limitless inductions * and 
inferences ; it is only the unavoidable assignment by us, 

reality, holds good. It does not say A is B, and B is C, therefore A is 
C, but that A has C, because C goes with B, and A has B. It does not 
artificially separate out an utterly sterile deductive or formal logic from 
the wholly useful inductive or real logic, but combines both, as is inevit- 
able and natural. The true and full significance of these laws of thought 
appears only in metaphysic, as laws of Being, i.e., Universal Thought, 
as will appear later on. 

1 See Scripture, The New Psychology ; but Ostwald in his Hand" 
book of Chemistry seems to think otherwise. 

2 The real secret of the unlimitedness of inductions and generalisa 
tions, as made, is that every single instance, every one, has in it the 
principle of infinity. Many cases, a number of cases, are not necessary to 
justify an induction. One case, but it must be a clear and unmistakeable 


by the ' I,' of a conjugal share in our own indefeasible 
eternity, to our undivorceable partner in life, the * Not-I,' 
matter. Such being the case, it does not help us in any 
way to say that only the form changes. The form is 
practically everything ; and even if it were not so, even 
tthen it is something, it is an existent something at one 
moment. And what is existent once, should be existent 
ever. How, why, does it pass into non-existence ? We 
*do not understand change. We do not understand the 
world-process. If you would have us understand it, you 
'must show that this world-process is not a process at all, 
>but a rock-like fixity ; that procession is illusion, and fixity 
the truth. Then only shall we be able to bring it into 
.accord with the primary laws of thought. Such is the 
'difficulty of the exaggerated, yet also legitimate, demand 
of the reason, on the one hand. 

On the other hand stands the difficulty of what may 
<be called the demand of the senses. A doctrine of mere 
*changelessness is incomplete ; a mere assertion of it 
perfectly unconvincing. It explains nothing and is not a 

<case. is enough. Because in one, therefore in all ones which are the 
. same ; because once, therefore always, in the same conditions. 

One school of Nyaya puts the ' matter in a simple way ; we have 
pratyaksha, direct perception , of a v y a k t i , a particular, and of its 
j a ti, species or genus, both, together, simultaneously; because parti- 
t:ular-and-general are inseparably bound together by samavaya, co-in- 
herence, mutual 'together-ness'. No 'induction* by elaborate obser- 
vation and comparison of many instances would be necessary, and 
'generalisation ' could be arrived at straight off, from the very first obser- 
vation, if it be sufficiently precise, accurate, unmixed ; but, in practice* 
observation and comparison of many instances are needed, to eliminate 
irrelevant circumstances. In short, particular-perception and the 
><connected general-perception (Kantian ' matter ' and ' form ') arise 
together in the observer's consciousness. 

PEACE, CH. Vl] " I AM THAT I AM " 9$ 

fact. It is, as just said, denied by every wink of our 
eyes, by evsry breath of our lungs, by every beat of our 
hearts. We want that which will combine and harmonise 
both change and changelessness. We want to reduce 
each into terms of the other. 

Many have been the efforts to shut up the world- 
process into something which can be held in a single 
hand ; which shall be but one single act of consciousness. 
Kant says, in his Kritik of Practical Reason, " to deduce 
all from a single principle, is the inevitable demand of 
human reason; we can find full satisfaction only in a 
complete systematic Unity of all the possessions of our 
reason " ; but he himself failed badly to satisfy that de- 
mand. Fichte could not do it in less than three successive, 
unsimultaneotis, and therefore change- involving steps, and 
then too but incompletely. The great mystic school of 
Rosicrucians has endeavoured to do so in one thought 
and Bible-text : " I am that I am " ; but this propounds 
mere changelessness, and makes no provision for change. 
The Vda-texts belonging to the penultimate stage have 
exclaimed separately, as said before : "(The) I am (is) Brah- 
man," and then : " The Many is not at all " ; but these 
too are insufficient for our purpose ; they too establish 
changelessness alone and explain not change ; while others- 
embody change only and not changelessness, as thus : "May 
I who am One become Many ; may I be born forth and 
multiply," 1 " It created that, and entered into that also." 2 

1 Chh&ndogya, VI, ii, 3, and fait\iriya % II, vi, 1. 
% II, vi, 1. 


we seek shall be obtained by compressing the 
three steps of Fichte into one ; 6y combining the first 
two separate scripture-utterances into a unity a small 
change perhaps, at first sight, but almost as radical and 
important in result as an alteration of the mere order of 
letters composing a word, an alteration which makes a 
completely new word with an entirely new meaning. 

NOTE I. It may be mentioned here that the western 
philosophers especially selected in the text to serve as land- 
marks on the *p a t:h of enquiry, have been so selected because 
their special way of thought, arising out of modern con- 
ditions, seemed most suited to the modern student and best 
fitted for the* purpose in hand. Otherwise, indeed, the same 
subjects of enquiry have been and are being investigated by 
hundreds of the finest intellects of the human race, from the 
most ancient times up to the present day ; and different aspects 
of the same truths -and propositions and solutions maybe 
found in the works of the ancient Greek philosophers, Plato, 
Aristotle, and the Neo-Platonists especially, of Descartes, 
Spinoza, Leibnitz, of the mystics, Scheffler, Eckhart, Albrecht, 
and Bcehme, of Bruno and Bacon, and, again, Schopenhauer 
and Spencer, and many others. Each philosopher worthy of 
the name, and to whom the name has been given by public 
recognition, has undoubtedly left the world's stock of philo- 
sophical knowledge richer, by at least some definite piece of 
work, a fuller and deeper view of some law, or a new appli- 
cation and use of it, a new aspect of a question, or fact, or 
law, or a fresh presentation, in a new re-arrangement, of the 
same time-old world-facts, as of the same glass-pieces of a 
kaleidoscope re-arranged by every new turn. Indeed, as may 
appear later on, the most erroneous -seeming opinion ever held 
by any thinker will be seen, from an all-embracing standpoint, 
and in a certain sense, to be a not inaccurate description of 
one aspect of a world -fact, one greater or lesser portion of the 
truth. But some of the latest German thinkers seem to have 
succeeded better than any of their precursors in Europe in the 
attempt to systematise and unify. And even amongst these, 


from such accounts and translations of his writings into 
English as are available, Fichte appears to be an almost 
indispensable help to the modern students of true Vedanta 
and the higher metaphysic the metaphysic which would en- 
close so-called occult and superphysical science within its 
principles, as well as physical science ; which claims to be a 
science because it offers to be tested in the same way as 
every particular science is tested, viz., by endeavouring to 
show that its hypotheses agree with present facts, and also 
enable prediction to be made correctly, of results in the 
future ; which, indeed, claims to be the very science of 
sciences by providing a great system, a great hypothesis, 
which, while special sciences systematise and unify limited 
groups of facts, would deal with and synthesise the root- 
concepts of all these special sciences, and so co-ordinate all 
sciences, would systematise and unify all possible world-facts, 
past, present, and to come. 

It may be objected that this claim is rather large, seeing 
that many thinkers have put forward many systems of meta- 
physic ; and all differ from each other more' or less ; so that 
metaphysic has been even described as the most contentious of 
sciences. The reply is that there is, at bottom, as substantial 
an agreement, though much less obvious, between these 
different systems as between different textbooks of, say, arith- 
metic or geometry, which differ in language, phrasing, order 
of presentation, of the subject-matter, method of calculation 
or proof, examples, corollaries, etc. A similar substantial agree- 
ment there must be, at bottom, ultimately, between all the 
changing expositions of all the physical sciences too ; for 
each endeavours to expound, obviously, one aspect of Nature, 
all aspects of which make up a mutually-agreeing consistent 
whole ; and scientists are sensing, and trying to grasp and 
express, that underlying agreement and unity. In countries 
where metaphysic is almost as much in vogue as arithmetic, 
e.g., India, this substantial agreement between philosophies 
is no longer un-obvious either ; thus the learned in India are 
all, on the whole, tacitly agreed that the Vedanta is the final 
philosophy, that the five or more other schools represent but 
stages or aspects, and that changing times require and bring 
forth only fresh presentations, in more or less suitably modified 


forms, of the same ' final truth '. When and where metaphysic 
comes to be really as much in vogue as mathematics, then 
and there its numeration and notation, its four fundamental 
rules and Rule of Three, its definitions, postulates, and axioms, 
its points, lines, surfaces, and solids, its essential concepts 
of force, fulcrum, and lever, its compositions, resolutions, 
and parallelograms of forces, its equations, permutations, 
combinations, and probabilities all these will be recognis- 
ed and agreed upon even more widely and deeply ; for 
what is or can be nearer than the Self, the Not-Self, and the 
Relation between them ? And then there will be, even obvi- 
ously, as little difference between books on metaphysic, as 
between those on mathematics. What the traditional feeling 
and conviction on this point is in India, may be inferred from 
the fact that while the V edas and, of course, the Upani- 
shats which are the Vedanta, the * final ' and crowning part 
of them are insistently declared to be svatah-pramapa, 
self-evident (see footnote at p. 40, supra), the technical 
SamskrJ name for the geometrical axioms is svayam- 
siddha, ' self-proven/ the same thought, and practically the 
same word. 

Sometimes it is said that philosophy is a matter of ' per- 
sonal equation '. Alexander Herzberg has written an in- 
forming and entertaining book, The Psychology of Philo- 
sophers, in which he has tried to connect the views, of some 
thirty of the most famous western thinkers, with their per- 
sonal characters, temperaments, physical health and features, 
life-experiences, and circumstances. There is an element of 
truth, no doubt, in this ; it is even proverbial that views 
change with the situation, the point of view. But that element 
of truth must not be pressed too far. The proverb suggests 
its own supplement. Circumambulate the problem concerned ; 
view it from all standpoints ; and you will see the way to 
agreement. Differences are mostly of emphasis, on this or that 
other aspect ; and of taste. Even in mathematics, one person 
studies and writes on arithmetic ; another, geometry : another, 
algebra, or trigonometry, or mensuration, conic sections, 
calculus, etc. But there is no contradiction between them. 
So too, there would not be any, there is no, contradiction 
between philosophers and philosophies, if the latter only 


restrained egoism properly, and were more desirous to under- 
stand than eager to differ and claim originality. The present 
writer has endeavoured to show the Essential Unity of All 
Religions, in a compilation hearing that name, by parallel 
texts from the scriptures of eleven ; and philosophies are at 
least one aspect of religions, as religions are of philosophies. 

NOTE II. For readers interested in the linking up of 
eastern and western thought, some further observations are 
subjoined. They may perhaps be usefully read once again, 
after reading the next chapter. The two will cast light on 
each other. 

Schwegler, in History of Philosophy, articles on Fichte, 
Schelling, Hegel; J. H. Stirling^ in The Secret of Hegel; 
Wallace, in The Logic of Hegel, ' Prolegomena ' ; Caird, in 
Hegel all speak unfavourably of certain traits and acts of 
Hegel, his grudging and very insufficient acknowledgment of 
his great debt to Fichte, his jealousy of Schelling and making 
use of him as a stepping-stone in various ways, his flattery of 
his Government and exaltation of the Monarchical State. He 
had his great good points also. All human beings including 
1 philosophers ' (!), of East and West, ancient as well as 
modern are ' bundles of contradictions ', of ' opposites ', as 
is all Nature. A soul wearing a body, is necessarily such a 
compound ; it is matter for deep thanksgiving, if the factor of 
soul-altruism happens to predominate over that of body-egoism. 

Hegel says (Wallace, op. cit., pp. 101-102): " It was 
only formally that the Kantian system established the princi- 
ple that thought acted spontaneously in forming its constitu- 
tion. Into the details of the manner and the extent of this 
self-determination of thought, Kant never went. It was 
Fichte who first noticed the omission, called attention to the 
want of a deduction of the categories, and endeavoured to 
supply something of the kind. With Fichte, the Ego is the 
starting point in the philosophical development, and the out- 
come of its action is supposed to be visible in the categories ". 

Broadly, ' categories ', here, may be understood to corres- 
pond with themaha-vakyas, 4 great logia ', Primal Laws 
6f Nature, God's Nature, Self's Nature, on which Laws 


the World- Process is framed, by which it is shaped, gov- 
erned, carried on ; this sense is much broader than that of the 
word as used by Kant and also Hegel. In the Vaisheshika 
system, as we have seen (f.n. to pp. 60-61 supra)> the * cate- 
gories f are implicitly inherent in God's Nature. Fichte and 
Schelling have their own sets of categories, though perhaps 
less full, and less systematically concatenated, than those of 

Hegel goes on to criticise Fichte : " But in Fichte, the 
Ego is not really presented as a free, spontaneous energy ; it 
is supposed to receive its first impulse from without . . . 
The nature of the impulse remains a stranger beyond 
our pale ". 

Hegel's objections are false, and apply to his own 
work forcibly ; not tp Fichte's. When Hegel begins with 
the sensationalist paradox, that Being is Nothing, and 
Nothing is Being, and Becoming is the passing of each 
into the other, does he present the three as three free 
and spontaneous energies, and endow any or all of them 
with impulses from within, impulses which are not strangers 
beyond our pale, but familiars within our home ? He tries to 
see a non-existent mote in Fichte's eyes, and fails to see the 
beam in his own ! Fichte says clearly that the Ego itself 
positively posits, contra-poses, Non-Ego, over against it- 
Self, in order to realise it-Self. The Ego is obviously, 
as comes home to every one us in our feeling of free-will, 
a free and spontaneous energy, and the impulse is it own. 
The following extracts from Schwegler (op. cit., * Fichte ') will 
illustrate : " The Ego is manifest in consciousness ; but the 
thing-in-itself is a- mere fiction . . . (Fichte) would make the 
Ego the (first) principle, and from the Ego would derive all the 
rest . . . We are to understand by this Ego, not the parti- 
cular individual, but the universal Ego . . . Egoityand indi- 
viduality, the pure (abstract) and the empirical ego, are 
entirely different ideas. . . . Fichte is the first to deduce 
all fundamental notions from a single point, and to 
bring them into connection, instead of taking them only 
empirically, like Kant, and setting them down in mere 
juxtaposition. . . . EgoEgo, the Ego is, / am. . . . 


Before anything can be given in the Ego, the Ego itself 
must be given. . . . This is pure, inherent, independent 
activity. . . . / am is the expression of the only possible 
original act. . . . The Ego is the prius of all judgment, and 
is the foundation of the nexus (relation) of subject and predi- 
cate . . . We obtain from it, the category of reality. All 
categories are deduced from the Ego as absolute subject. . . . 
The second fundamental principle is, ... Ego is not=non- 
Ego. . . . Whatever belongs to the Ego, the counterpart of 
that must, by virtue of simple contraposition, belong to the 
non-Ego. The category (idea, general notion, law, of) deter- 
mination or limitation follows ; thence follow . . . divisibility, 
substantiality, causality, cause-and-effect, reciprocal relation 
(etc.) . . . The Ego itself is absolutely self-determination. . . . 
Originally, there is only a single substance, the Ego; it 
alone is the absolute Infinite. . . . But the Ego sup- 
poses a Non-Ego. . . ." And so on. That there are some 
minute, subtle, even important, differences between Fichte's 
thinking and Vedanta, may be granted. The Vedanta 
way is preferred in the present work, compiled in view 
of the Indian reader's requirements as well as those of the 
western reader, who may be interested in Indian thought. 
The seeker, goaded by inner questionings, must, of course, 
decide for himself, which satisfies him most. But Hegel's 
fault-finding with Fichte does not seem justified in any case. 
He says (op. cit.) : " What Kant calls thing-tn-itself, Fichte 
calls impulse from without . . . (i.e.) non-Ego in general. 
The c I ' is thus looked at as standing in relation with 
the * not- 1 ' through which its act of self-determination is 
first awakened." 

Hegel had access to the original German of Fichte, which 
the present writer has not ; and Fichte may have employed 
words equivalent, in English, to ' impulse from without '. 
But, seeing how words are perpetually changing their mean- 
ings in the hands of philosophers, and even the same philo- 
sopher, (Hegel himself is an outstanding example of this 
sin), the present writer would interpret Fichte as meaning 
4 impulse from non-Ego, contraposited, ideated, as if without , 
by the Ego it-self ', and ' first awakened ' as * eternally 
realised, once for all> as well as realised throughout all 


time in unending succession '. This interpretation is sup- 
ported by Schwegler's whole account of Fichte ; and that 
account seems to be fair and correct as against Hegel's 
cavillings and carpings, which seem to be almost ' malice 
prepense ' (!), in order to set off his own originality. To 
prick the big bubble of Hegel's big claim, it is enough 
to observe that Fichte begins with a Living One, and that 
One, the Heart's Desire of the whole Universe of living 
beings, the Self, ' for the sake of which is dear, whatever 
else happens to be dear/ (as the Upanishat says); while 
Hegel begins with three, and three life-less, soul -less, ghosts, 
Being-Nothing-Becoming, outside of Me, there, in front of 
Me. Even Kant, from whom, according to Stirling, Hegel's 
industrious exponent, Hegel borrowed very much even Kant 
craved for f and could not find, a Single Principle from which 
all could be deduced ; but he did come to have an inkling that 
the Self is that Single Principle, the * thing -in-itself ' behind 
both Mind and Matter. Thus: "The 'I think' must be 
capable of accompanying all my ideas ; otherwise, there 
would be presented to my mind an idea of something which 
could not be thought, and this means that the thought would 
be impossible, . or, at least, that it would be nothing at all 
for me ; . . . the proposition that all the various elements of 
our empirical consciousness must be bound together in one 
self -consciousness > is absolutely the first principle of all our 
thinking" quoted from Kant, by Edward Caird, in The 
Critical Philosophy of Kant, I, 353. 

Why so much dissertation about the Self ? Because 
It is the One Central Fact of Vedanja and of all Indian 
thought, the one sure and certain Single Reality of the 
Universe ; One, yet all^enveloping, all-regulating, all-deducing- 
producing-inducing. Atma, as J?aram-Atma,JPraJ;yag-Atma, 
Jiv-Ajma, Sutr-Atma, Bhut-Atma, Jagad-Atma, pervades 
Samskrt literature. And Hegel and Stirling cannot avoid 
sensing Its light, even through closed eyelids. Stirling (op. 
cit.), pp. 28-29, earnestly exhorts, in the very spirit of the 
Upanishats and the Yoga- Vasishtha, the would-be student of 
Hegel to practise meditation on " Abstract or Pure Being, 
Abstract or Pure Existentiality, the Hegelian Seyn . . . Let 
there be no stone, no plant, no sea, no earth, no sun, no idea, 


no space, no time, no God let the universe disappear we 
have not yet got rid of Is. Is will not, cannot, disappear." 

But, please, let the Self, you, your-self, who are exhorting 
others to meditate thus let your-Self disappear. Does 7s 
remain after that ? If it does, how do you know that it does ? ! 
Stirling again says : " Ask yourself, What would there be, if 
there were just nothing at all, and if there never had been 
anything neither God, nor a world, nor an existence at all ? 
Ask yourself this and listen ! Then look at the question itself, 
and observe how it contains its own dialectic and contradic- 
tion, in ^>r-supposing the Being it is actually supposing 
not to be ! " But, please, add to the question ' Neither a Self, 
your-Self ', and listen ! Who is left to listen ? ! The question 
as worded by Stirling, when it says ' nor an existence at all ', 
does not mean, ' not even your own existence ', but surrepti- 
tiously implies that your own i.e., your-Selfs existence is left ; 
for indeed it is impossible for any one to imagine his own 
existence abolished, (see p. 22 supra). We do not know 
if Stirling ever tried to perform that feat. His question pre- 
supposes Being, truly ; but what Being, whose Being ? 
Whatever Being he meant, that Being inevitably pre -supposes 
Self, whose Being, or which as Being, is the only Being that 
is absolutely, unshakeably, unabolishably sure and certain. 

Stirling cannot help contradicting himself on this point. 
At p. 24 of his book, he says : " Hegel as it were swoons him- 
self back into infancy, trances himself through all childhood, 
and awakes when the child awakes, that is, with reflection, but 
retaining a consciousness of the process, which the child 
does not. It is a realisation of the wish that we could know 
the series of development in the mind of the child ". Inci- 
dentally, this is one of the exercises suggested in Yoga ; and 
a simpler form of it is do not get out of bed in the morning too 
quickly, but practise awaking slowly, and intro-specting the 
gradual stages from dim to clear consciousness ; for, speaking 
very broadly, by the Law or Fact of Analogy, viz., that the 
small is as the large, the microcosm as the macrocosm, a 
complete day of an individual life is like the whole of that 
life, and this latter again is like the whole of the life of a 
whole Human race or nation, and that, again; like the 


Cosmos-Chaos, Evolution-Dissolution of a whole globe, or 
a whole Solar System ; and so on. 

Now, Stirling goes on to say that when the child awakes, 
" conceivably there is a sense of being or the vague wide 
idea, Being ; there is no I in it ; I is the product of reflexion." 
This at p. 24. But at p. 67, he contradicts himself crassly : 
" The notion then as being, as is, as the absolutely first 
crude, dim, dull, opaque, chaotic consciousness, brute / am, 
the first flutter of life, .\ . is only in it-self latent, undeve- 
loped ; " and again, at p. 99, " that which lives, and all that 
lives, is thought ; / find my 7 to be a constituent moment,** 
(better say, locus, focus, centre, basis) " of that all of thought. 1 ' 
Here, Stirling, unwittingly, helplessly, admits the primacy of 
the Self. At the end of his Annotations to Schwegler, he claims 
for himself only the role of a " humble Christian philosopher ", 
and on the last but one page (p. 750) of The Secret of Hegel, 
he claims for Hegel that he " has no object but once again to 
restore to us and in the new light of the new thought 
Immortality and Free-Will, Christianity and God ". But 
he forgets that in the Bible, " God said unto Moses, I AM 
THAT I AM ; and he said, Thus shalt thou say to the 
children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you " ; and 
again, repeatedly, " 1 am the Alpha and the Omega, the first 
and the last." The Rg-Veda, in the magnificent Nasa- 
dlya hymn, says: " Neither non-Being was, nor Being. 
Only the Self breathed, without air. It breathed Its own Self- 
affirmation, Self -positing, Sva-dha. Death was not, nor 
deathlessness, nor day, nor night, nor space, nor any orbs 
therein. Deep darkness lay in the embrace of deep darkness. 
Nothing-Else-than-It was, Tas mad-Any a t-Na pa ram 
k i n c h i 4 as a. And in it moved Primal Desire, Kama, seed 
of Universal Mind. Who knows It ? Perhaps It knows It-Self, 
perhaps not ! " (For texts from other scriptures, of other 
religions, to the same or similar effect, the reader may see the 
present writer's The Essential Unity of All Religions, Index- 
references, ' Self ', c God ', ' I '). 


4 Other ', 64 times ; and the word * This ', as equivalent to 
' Other ', also, a few times. On p. 255, ' Self ' occurs 29 
times ; on p. 256, 18 times ; on p. 257, 20 times. Please note, 
this is Hegel's own writing, only translated. The word ' Self * 
occurs, in greater or less abundance, on many other pages, 
generally in peculiar combinations with other words. An sick 
(in, at, or by Self), fur sich (for, by, or with Self), An Hjidfur 
sich (in and for Self) this triad is the very skeleton, the frame, 
on which are moulded all the tissues and the flesh of Hegel's 
system. Following compounds are found all over the place ; 
it-self, for-self, m-and-for-self, self-diremption, self-union, 
self-conservation, self-retention, self-reference, self-separation, 
self -duplication, self-mediation, self -consciousness, being-iriit- 
self, being-for-self, being-within-it-self, being-in-it-self-ness, 
be-ent-in-it-self, self-identical-within-it-self, self-to-self-re- 
ferent, in-it-self-ness ; and so on and so forth. Yet to give 
precedence to Being-Nothing-Becoming over Self (and It's in- 
cluded Not-Self i.e., This Other, and Not) this, to the Vedanja 
view, is a very grave, very misleading, error ; though, of course, 
every error has its use, if it act as incentive to further trial, 
until finding. 'Self, 'Other' (Skt. ijara, Gr. heteron) 
' This ' (Skt. e t a t , i d a m ) these words are in the very 
spirit of Vedanta, which uses equivalents pointedly ; but 
Hegel fails to describe the Relation between the Three, 
satisfactorily, or even at all. Fichte, as said, makes a much 
nearer approach, without quite grasping, it seems. 

Stirling (in whose own expositions of Hegel, the word 
' self,' or its equivalent ' ego ' or ' sich ' occurs, e.g., 27 times 
on p. 51, and 29 times on pp. 121-122, to take instances at 
random) says at p. 53 : " Hegel's secret is very much the 
translating of the concrete individual into the abstract 
general or universal. He is always intelligible when we keep 
before us the particular individual he is engaged translating ; 
but let us lose the object, the translation becomes hopeless." 
But why write thus abstractly ? Indian seers and sages 
enjoin the study of Veda- Vedanta and Itihasa-Purana, 
Philosophy and History, Abstract and Concrete, side by side, 
in the light of each other. So only are both lighted up. 
To teach a secret code without explaining the meaning 
simultaneously; a shorthand system without the longhand 


equivalents ; geometry without the figures : is futile. When 
Hegel ' descends ' into concrete illustrations, rarely, he is not 
only intelligible but interesting and informing. But he, " in 
genera], vouchsafes abandantly, dry, abstract allusion, but 
never one word of plain, straightforward, concrete expla- 
nation. Information in Hegel is, for the most part, but 
a disdainful abstruse riling of us ' : (Stirling op. cit. p. 355). 
There are instances of such deliberate mystification, abstruse 
abstractness, code-language, * riddling rhymes ' and even 
' scornful riling,' in Samskrt literature too, as, f.i., that of the 
mysterious 8800 verses ' of Maha-bharata, by tradition, of 
* Raikva of the car ' and Yajna-valkya in the Upanishats, 
of Dharma-kirti (Buddhist author), of Shri Harsha (poet and 
a-4vaijl casuist-sophist). But these are not regarded as 
models ; and the 8800 so-thought ' mysterious ' verses of Veda- 
Vyasa are explained by some scholar's, very simply, as being 
only the first draft, which Vyasa himself, later, expanded 
to 24,000, and his disciples and grand-disciples, subsequently, 
to a hundred thousand verses, by successive additions, some- 
what as the successive editions of an encyclopedia * grow 
from more to more '. Mystery-mongering is a very old 
trade ; it attracts many customers, though it repels others. 

Particularly surprising in* a person of Hegel's great repu- 
tation is his shallow, supercilious, self-conceited criticism of 
the V6$anta of Bhagavad-Gita, and of Sufism ; (pp. 188-192, 
Wallace's 'translation of Hegel's Philosophy of Mind). It 
is obvious to anyone who has studied Gtfa and the better 
known Sufi writings with any care, that that criticism is based, 
not on knowledge, but on ignorance. He says, " They are 
systems which apprehend' the Absolute only as substance . . . 
The fault of all these modes of thought is that they stop short 
of defining " (i.e., they do not define) " substance as subject 
and as mind ". To us, in view of what has been said above, 
regarding Hegel's treatment of Being and Self, this criticism 
is like ' the thief shouting Stop thief ' ; is imputing to an- 
other the fault which is his own. No system of thought, no 
philosophy, has so expressly and emphatically declared the 
only real substance to be the Supreme Self and Subject, as 
the Vedanta. The case of ' mind ' is different ; it is the Self's 
Nature ; about which, later on. . 


The substantial value of Hegel seems to be what the 

* popular ' or * general ' mind has decided ; and the * popular ' 
mind (because it reflects the element of Truth in the Univer- 
sal Mind, at least as often as that of its Opposite, Untruth or 
Falsehood or Error, which also is present in the Universal 
Mind, by inevitable Duality-wi thin- Unity), has concluded 
that the things of permanent use in Hegel are, a fuller working 
out of the method of thesis-antithesis-synthesis which he 
borrowed from Fichte ; that the process of the world means 
that the Spirit goes out into Nature, as into something other 
than itself, and then returns to itself with a fuller content of 
knowledge, and fuller self-consciousness, as in a * perfected 
man ' ; and that every individual, as much as the universe, 
is a whole, a whole of wholes, a circle of circles. But all 
this has been said by many others also, in other and some- 
times better words, and needs completion by Vedanta. 

Hegel says (Wallace, The Logic of Hegel, 1st edn., 
p. 62) : " When the notion of God is apprehended only as that 
of abstract or most positive being [ most real being* in the 
new edn., of 1892], God is, as it were, relegated to another 
world beyond ; and to speak of a knowledge of him would be 
meaningless. Where there is no distinction of elements 
[' no definite quality ', in the new edn.] knowledge is impos- 
sible. Mere light is mere darkness ". This is not unintelli- 
gible, though * / am ' is knowledge of a sort, and without 
any definite quality. And the last two sentences show that 
the sensationally and paradoxically worded proposition, ' Pure 
Being is pure Nothing ', is capable of being understood into 

* pure ' common sense ; as thus, when we are day-dreaming, or 
twiddling our thumbs, and a person asks * What are you 
doing ? ', and we answer ' Oh nothing ', we mean ' Nothing 
particular, nothing that matters, nothing worth while noting 
or remembering '. So, Hegel's ' Beginning * means the 
passing of that factor of Being which belongs to Something, of 
some particular Being, into Nothing ; and vice versa ; other- 
wise, abstract Being and abstract Nothing would be " relegated 
to another world beyond, 1 like " abstract God ", and " to 
speak of a knowledge of them would be meaningless ". And 
it is, necessarily, with some such particular specificate 
determinate Beginning, with some object that has ' begun ', 


(and is also ending, is passing from birth to death and death 
to birth, in the metabolism of a perpetual round of anabolism- 
katabolism, necro-biosis, incessant integration-disintegration, 
existence-non-existence), that ordinary thinking (Hegelian 
Perception-Conception-Understanding) as well as philosophi- 
cal thinking (those three plus Hegelian Reason) also begin. 
This thinking, of course, pre-supposes the consciousness of 
the * thinker- 1 * ; which consciousness is vague in ordinary 
thinking, and clear in philosophical ; and becomes full 
(All-) Self-Consciousness, as the very climax of Reason (or 
' Speculation \ in Hegelian terminology). 

-As Hegel himself says (ibid.) : " God must be simply and 
solely the ground of every thing, and in so far, not dependent 
on anything. . . . The demonstration of reason no doubt 
starts from some thing which is not God. But, as it advances, 
it does not leave the starting-point a mere unexplained 
fact, which is'what it was. On the contrary, it exhibits 
that point as derivative, and called into being, and then, God 
is seen to be primary and self -(Self-) subsisting, with the 
means of derivation wrapped up and absorbed in himself 
(Self) . . . The original antecedent is reduced to a con- 
sequence". By such interpretation, and by bearing in mind 
the implicit perpetual assumption of Self by Hegel, (the 
failure to announce which, clearly, at the very beginning, can 
only be counted as a disastrous omission), removes much 
obscurity. It will be noticed by the careful reader, however, 
that Hegel is only quietly copying Fichte here, and very 
uncouthly too, by substituting the much less intelligible third - 
person term ' God ' (somewhere in " another world beyond "), 
for Fichte's sun-clear first-person term * I ', ever-near, ever- 
dear, here, there, everywhere. This is a theme capable of 
much expansion, requiring a sentence or more for every 
sentence of Hegel ; and cannot be pursued here any 

Hegel's own language, summarised by Schwegler, and 
quoted above, (pp. 74-75, supra) is " The absolute . . . returns 
out of self-externalisation, self-alienation, back into its own 
self, resolves the heterisation of nature, and becomes, at last, 


actual self-cognisant spirit, 1 ' This seems to be the "the 
notion," " the notion of the notion," " the absolute," " the 
Idea ", " the Reciprocity which is the notion " which Stirling 
repeats ad nauseam , without once ' defining ' it ' definitively ', 
to the accompaniment of much dramatic exuberance, efferve- 
scence, exclamation, exultation, and attempt at exposition. 

Elsewhere, Hegel says, (Wallace, op. cit, p. 289) : *' As 
Fichte was one of the earliest among modern philosophers 
to remark, the theory which regards the Absolute or God as 
the Object and nothing more, expresses the point of view 
taken by superstition and slavish fear. . . , The salvation 
and the happiness of men are effected by bringing them to 
feel themselves at one with God . , . God in the Chris- 
tian religion is also known as Love. In his Sow, who is 
one with him, he has revealed himself to men as a 
man amongst men, and thereby redeemed them. This 
religious dogma is only another way of saying that the 
antithesis of subjective and objective, has been already over- 
come, and that on us lies the obligation of participating 
in this redemption, by laying aside our immediate subjectivity, 
putting off the old Adam, and learning to know God as our 
true and essential Self. And as it is the aim of religion and 
religious worship to win victory over this antithesis of sub- 
jectivity and objectivity, so science and philosophy too have 
no other task than to overcome this antithesis by the medium 
of thought. The aim of knowledge is to ... trace the 
objective world back to the notion, back to our innermost 

Now, all this is good sound Vedanta, Gnostic Mysticism, 
Sufism, and the right way to interpret religious dogmas and 
myths. And many passages in Hegel, and many more in Fichte, 
read almost like translations from the old Indian books; 
especially does page after page of Fichte's " The Vocation of 
Man ", breathe the very spirit of Gita, Upanishats, Yoga- 
Vasishtha. But something more is wanted than German 
or other Western thinkers have said. So we will take leave 
of them now, and pass to the original ancient Vedanta, 
where the keystone, the crown of them all, is to be found. ' 




YAMA, Lord of Death, Ruler of the next Vorld into which 
souls are ' born ' after ' dying ' out of this ; than whom, 
as Nachiketa said, there could be no better giver of 
assurance against mortality, no truer teacher of the truth 
of life and death ; gives this last answer : " That which 
all the scriptures ponder and repeat ; that which all the 
shining, glowing, burning, lights (ascetic holy souls) 
declare ; that for which the pure ones follow Brahma- 
charya, life of virtue, study, sacri-fice to Brahman ; that 
do I declare to thee in brief it is AUM." 1 

What is the meaning of this mysterious statement, 
repeated over and over again in a hundred ways, in all 
Samskrt literature, sacred and secular ? Thus : 

The Prashna-Upanishat says: "This, O Satya- 
kama, desirer of truth, is the higher and the lower 

1 Katha-Upanishat, I, ii, 15. Besides the special significance of 
AUM, (pronounced as OM) expounded here, one of its ordinary meanings. 
as of its Arabic and English transformations, AMIN and AMEN, res- 
pectively. is 'yes, 1 'be it so* . In G*#J, the first line of the verse is 
replaced by, 

' th,e Imperishable One Whom the knowers of the V&Ja declare, Whom 
the passionless sinless self -controllers merge themselves' into.' 


Brahman this that is known as the AUM. Therefore, 
strong-based in this as his home and central refuge, the 
knower may reach out to anything that he deems fit 
to follow after, and he shall surely obtain it." ' 

The Chhandogya says : " The AUM is all this ; the 
AUM is all this." * 

The Taittinya says : " AUM is Brahma(n) ; AUM is 
all this." 3 

The Mcindukya says : " This, the imperishable AUM, 
is all this ; the unfolding thereof is the past, the present, 
and the future; all is AUM." 4 

The Tara-sara repeats these words of the Mandukya, 
and says again : " The AUM this is the imperishable, 
the supreme, Brahma(n) ; it alone should be worshipped." 5 

Patanjali says : " The declarer of It is the Praoava ; 
jap a-litany of it is (not mere mechanical repetition of 
the sound, but) exploring, discovering, realising, its full 
significance." 6 

I v, 2 

2 Bffeft qSfcj U1*K *&$ * I Hi xxiii, 3. 



I Yoga-surras, i, 25. 72. 

va is a name for the 
hich re-wov-ates. make 
thing, including the 

The word Pra-nava is a name for the sound AUM ; it means. 
etymologicaliy, ' that which re-wov-ates. makes new. rejuvenates* every- 
thin includin the mind's outlook. It is the life-breath of the 


Such quotations may be multiplied a hundredfold. 
What is the meaning of these very fanciful-sounding 
utterances ? Many profound and occult interpreta- 
tions of this triune sound have been given expressly 
in the Upanishats themselves, also in Gopatha Brah- 
mana, and in the books on Tantra ; but the deepest and 
most luminous of all remains implicit only. 1 For if the 
above seemingly exaggerated statements are to be justified 
in all their fullness, then, in view of all that has gone before, 
AUM must include within itself, the Self, the Not-Self, 
and the mysterious Relation between them which has not 

universe. It has many names in Samskrt taraka ortara, udgitha, 
sarva-vin-mati, sarva- j3a-tabi ja, pratibha, etc. Manyof 
these have been collected, and the special etymological significance of 
each indicated, in my Samskrt compilation, Manava-Dhanna-Sara. 

1 The reader may feel inconsistency between the decrial of ' mystery- 
mongering ' at p. 104 supra, and the reverence shown for riddle-like 
scripture-texts here. The differentiating test is in the motive. Where 
there is wish to swindle, to gain money, or ' kudos ' and blind worship, 
or both, from gullible followers, there we have the ' charlatan '. (It 
arouses mixed feelings to remember that the ' great philosopher ' 
Schopenhauer calls the ' great philosopher ' Hegel a ' charlatan ' !). 
Where there is affectionate wish to arouse only deeper, more earnest, 
genuine curiosity and search for the highest and most consoling Truth, 
as in the case of loving parents and teachers, there the temporary 
mysteriousness is justified, nay, desirable, or even necessary ; for the 
too easily gained is often not appreciated, is even equally easily thrown 
away ; easy come, easy go '. In the case of the Logion, here endeavour- 
ed to be expounded, this risk is really serious. Some will think, 
' Mere tautology, truism, trash ! ' ; others ' Only an ingenious juggle 
with words'. Pew will ponder sufficiently deeply to realise its very 
great significance. Therefore Yama wished to avoid the subject, 
when questioned by Nachikita (p. 1. supra), and told him, ' Earnest 
seeker is even rarer than wise teacher ; very subtle and evasive, 
difficult to seize, because so very simple, is the Truth ; marvellous it it, 
therefore the speaker of it wouders, and the listener wonders more '. 
But times and circumstances change ; as explained in The Mahatma 
Letters and H.P. Blavat sky's writings, Spiritual Wisdom has itself to 
go out, at special junctures in human history, which recur periodically 
and cyclically, seeking worthy 'vessels', receptacles for itself , facing 
ridicule and rebuffs. 


yet been discovered in any of the preceding answers 
that mysterious Relation, which, being discovered, the 
whole darkness will be lighted up as by the Sun ; the 
Relation wherein will be combined Changelessness and 
Change. If it does this, then truly is the Indian tradition 
justified that all knowledge, all science, is summed up 
in the Vedas, all the Vdas in the Gayatri, and the 
Gayatrl in the AUM ; then truly are all the Vedas and 
all possible knowledge there, for all the W,orld- Process is 
there. The Self, the Not-Self, and their mutual Relation 
these three, the Primal Trinity, the root-base of all 
possible trinities, exhaust the whole of thought, the whole 
of knowledge, the whole of the World- Process. There is 
nothing left that is beyond and outside of this Primal 
Trinity, which, in its Unity, its tri-une-ness, constitutes 
the Absolute which is, and wherein is, the Totality of 
the World- Process the World-Process, which is nothing 
else than the Self or Pratyag-atma, the Not-Self 
or Mula-prakrti, and their L 1 1 a or Interplay ; the 
Three-in-One constituting Param-Atma. 

But how can these three be said to be expressed by 
a single word ? The immemorial custom of summing up 
a series, or of expressing a fact, in a single letter, and 
then of joining letters, thus significant, into a single word 
of which many examples are to be found in the Upani- 
shats gives the clue here. 1 Each letter of this word 

1 This ancient method of expressing a profound truth by assigning 
to each of its factors a letter, and then writing down the letters as a 
word, meaningless, a mere sound, except for the meanings thus indicated, 
is perhaps not familiar to, and therefore may not commend itself to. 


must be the expression of a fact, and the juxtaposition 
of the letters must signify the relation between the facts. 

The first letter of the sacred word, A, signifies the 
Self ; the second letter, U, signifies the Not-Self; and 
the third letter, M, signifies the everlasting Relation, the 
unbreakable nexus of Negation, by the Self, o/ the Not- 
Self between them. 

According to this interpretation of the AUM, the full 
meaning of it, would be the proposition, Ego Non-Ego 
Non (est) 9 or I Not- 1 Not (am), which sums up all 
the three factors of the World-Process into a single pro- 
position and a Single Act of Consciousness. 

A plain example of this method occurs in the Chhan- 
dogya* : " The name of Brahman is Truth, or the True, 
sat yam, which consists of three letters, sa, ti, and 
yam.Sa is the Unperishing ; Ti is the Perishing; 
Yam holds, binds, Relates the two together." The 

modern thought. These * mystic words, ' of which so many are found in 
ancient writings, and, later, in Gnostic and Kabbalistic works, are regard- 
ed as jargon by the modern mind. Yet in these same words, ancient 
wisdom has imbedded its profoundest conceptions, and AUM is just 
such a word. The method is- known as akshara-mushti or akshara- 
mudra, ' handful ' or * diagram-seal ' of letters. (World- War II began 
in Sept. 1939 in Europe, and closed there in May 1945. with the 
surrender of Germany ; it began in Asia in Dec. 1941, and closed in 
Aug. -Sep. 1945, with the surrender of Japan ; it has created scores of 
such code-words, temporarily ; thus, USOWI means t/nited States Office 
of War /information). But OM as pure humming sound also, has deep 
significance ; it is the primal sound-continuum of Nature, the first 
garment of God, the first sensuous manifestation of the Self ; it is 
probably what is meant by ' the Word ', in the Christian Bible, where 
it says that " In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with 
God, and the Word was God ". 

i srfa 5 9flr t^rrft sftfa si^KFfa, *r, fct, 
w ^Ri^f aSff^f i 

VIII. iii, 5, 


' unperishing ' here means nothing else than the unlimited 
universal Self, Pratyag- atma; the 'perishing' is the 
endlessly perishing, ever-renewed and ever-dying, ever- 
limited Not-Self or M ula-prakrt i ; the nexus, that 
which holds and binds the two together, is the unending 
relation of Negation by the One of the Many-Other, in 
which Relation, the two are constantly and inseparably 
tied to each other, in such a way that the two together 
make only the ' number-less ' Absolute, in which the 
three, two, and even one, all disappear in the number- 
transcending and all-number-containing circle of the 

A similar statement, again using almost the same 
words, is made in the Brhad-Aranyaka. 1 " Truth, 
s a t y a m, verily is Brahman. . . . The gods contemplate 
and worship the truth, sat yam, only. Three-lettered is 
this sat yam; sa is one letter, ti is one letter, and 
yam is one letter. The first and the last letters, 
im perishables, are true ; in the middle is the false and 
fleeting. The False is encompassed round on both sides 
by the True. The True is the more, the greater, the pre- 
vailing. He that knoweth this he may not be over- 
powered by the False." Here sa, the first truth, is Being; 
and yam, the second truth, is Nothing, for both are 

tin TO i 

i v, v, i. 


imperishable ; the middle is Becoming, the ever-fleeting 
and ever-false. In other words, the Self is reality ; the 
Negation, of the Not-Self by the Self, is also reality ; 
the Not-Self is not reality, it is only appearance, 

The Devl-Bhagavata says l : " Why, by what means, 
from what substance, has all this world arisen ? How 

I I. xv, 51-52. 
And again : 

I VII, xxxii, 2. 

"*I*(alone was, in the beginning)-Not- Another (i.e., no-thing-else,, 
O Lord of Mountains \) ' such is the form or nature of the Self* which 
is called Consciousness or Para-Brahma." 

The Vishnu-Bhagavata (commonly known as Shrimad Bhagavata, 
Ot simply as Bhagavata) also has some verses in almost the same words : 

The orthodox commentator, it is true, explains this as meaning : 
' I alone was in the prime of time, and nothing else, neither the 
existent, nor the non-existent, nor even Prakrit which is beyond both ; 
I was afterwards also, and I am all this, and what remains behind, that 
also am I/ But the preceding and succeeding verses, saying : "This 
is the deepest and the highest secret, g u h y a and r a h a s y a ; knowing 
it you will not fail in spirit throughout the ages," seem to permit of 
a more ' secret ' meaning and unusual interpretation, thus : ' I-(alone was 
in the beginning) -not-another (which might be existent or non-existent 
or other than both) ; in the end also I ; i.e., after that which is known as 


may I know all at once, by a single act of knowledge ? 
Thus Mukunda- Vishnu pondered within himself, in the 
beginning. Unto him that sovereign Deity, Bhagavati, 
uttered that which giveth all explanations in a single 
half-verse, viz. : * I, Not Another, is (i.e. 9 am) alone verily 
this eternal all.' " This, it seems, is the plainest state- 
ment available in the Purana literature, after the V6da, 
in which an endeavour is expressly made to sum up the 
World-Process in a siugle sentence. 

The Yoga Vasishtha says 1 : " I, pure consciousness, 
subtler than space, am not anything limited such is the 

This has been negated, that which remains, that am 1." Elsewhere, the 
work repeats ; 

^3" I VI iv 47 * The same JPtMiftfMif 

repeatedly describes the Supreme in phrases or by epithets which find their 
full significance only in the Logion expounded here, thus : 

* the Self whose character is * the not-many consciousness *. f 
III. v, 23 ; or 33^351 cl^%3s 3Rr3y^ ^W[ I ' It is Brahma(n), It is the 
Supreme Cause, the One, the Not-Another,' VI, iv, 30; or g^i 
3*TT, 'the Supreme whose form is not-This,' X, ii. 42: or 
^^l 3fM^3F3K, 'Thou art the ever wantless, 
changeless Brahma(n), Not-Another, Other-than-all-This,' VIII. xii, 7. 

Nirvana-prakarana. Purvardha. cxviii, 9. 

The Antibhuti-prakasha-sar-oddhara has also a shloka (157) which 
describes Brahman as a n - i d a m, Not-This : 


eternal buddhi (idea) that freeth from the bonds of 
samsara, the World- Process." 

The Yoga and Sankhya systems describe the sup- 
reme consciousness of K6vala-ta, Kaivalyam, Sole- 
ness, One-ness, L-one-(li)-ness, On(e)li-ness, (their word 
for moksha), as being of the nature of the awareness 
that Purusha (the Self) is other- than-sattva (i.e., 
Prakrti, sattva being the finest representative thereof). 1 

The * great hymn ' addresses the Supreme thus : * 

* Thou whom the dazzled scripture doth describe 
As being Negation of what Thou art Not.' 

Glta also has a verse which may be literally trans- 
lated : * Than the / anything Other is Not ; in the / is 
all This woven, as gems are strung on a thread.' s 

Put into one sentence, such descriptions can take no 
other form than that of the logion, Ego-Non-Ego-Non 
(sum). 4 

Such are a few of the utterances of sacred literature 
that at once become lighted up when the light of this 

'An-I4 an*. Not- This, has been declared to be the form, the 
nature, of Brahman. Such is the name of that which is Nameless. 
Such is verily the truth. So have we heard/ 

: or 

i, verse 2. 

i sifrd, 33 irfiwr & i va. 7. 

4 More texts are gathered together in a Note at the end 
of this chapter. 


summation is brought to bear on them. Thus does 
the Pranava, the AUM, the sacred word, embody in 
itself the universe ; thus does it include all previous ten- 
tative summations ; thus is it the very heart and essence 
of the scriptures ; so only is the tradition justified that 
all the universe is in the Pranava. Herein we find that 
what before were the parts of a machine, apart and 
dead, are now assembled, powerful, and active as an 
organism. Herein we find the two great scripture-texts 
combined into one statement, that gives a new and all- 
satisfying significance to them. Herein we see all 
Hegel, and far more; and the three propositions of 
Fichte compressed into one, which is a re-arrangement 
of his second. 1 

l .See p. 85, supra. sift 3?T. Brhaf Up. 1-4-10 ; 5? ?f 

^T, 4.4.19 ; Katha. 4.11. See also p. 47 supra. " It is difficult 
to find a single speculation in western metaphysics which has not been 
anticipated by archaic eastern philosophy. From Kant to Herbert Spencer. 
it is all a more or less distorted echo of the Dvaita, Advaita, and Vdantic 
doctrines generally " ; H.P.B. The Secret Doctrine, I. 49. 

A western writer says that Hegel was ' ' the first who succeeded in 
making the history of philosophy intelligible, by showing that it is not 
a mere succession of conflicting opinions, but a gradual unfolding of 
more and more comprehensive interpretations of reality ". ' First in the 
west ' we should add ; in the east, the Puranas, several thousand years 
before Hegel, (and now The Secret Doctrine), have made the history of 
philosophy, and the philosophy of history also, intelligible, and far more 
intelligible. But Hegel's eloquent, and true, sentences, on the subject, 
deserve to be quoted, as pertinent to the text. " Firstly every philosophy 
that deserves the name, always has the Idea " (we may say, ' the Divine 
Plan', 'the Logion 1 , M ah a- v aky a, the Scheme of the World- 
Process in the Universal Mind) " for its subject-matter or contents; and 
secondly, every system should represent to us one particular factor or 
particular stage in the evolution" (manifestation)" of the Idea. The 
refutation of a philosophy, therefore, only means that its limits are 
passed and that the fixed principles in it have been reduced , in it to an 


And it is not only a rearrangement of it, though 
that is important enough, but more. If the statement 
that " Being is Nothing " is not only external to us but 
unintelligible and self-contradictory, the statement that 
" Ego is not Non-Ego " is not yet quite internal, though 
certainly consistent and intelligible. It does not yet 
quite come home to us. The verb 'is, 1 and the order of 
the words in the sentence, make us feel that the state- 
ment embodies a cut-and-dried fact in which there is no 
movement, and which is there, before us, but away from 
us, not in us. The negative ' not ' entirely overpowers 
the affirmative * is/ and appropriates all the possibility of 
significance to itself, so that the rhythmic swing between 
the Ego and the Non-Ego, between us and our surround- 
ings, which would be gained by emphasising and bring- 
ing out t;he force of the affirmative * is ' also, is entirely 

organic element in the completer principle that follows. Thus the 
history of philosophy, in its true meaning, deals, not with the past, but 
with the eternal and the veritable present ; and in its results, resembles 
not a museum of the aberrations of the human intellect, but a pantheon 
of god-like figures. These figures are the various stages " (factors) " of 
the Idea, as they come forward one after another in dialectical develop- 
ment* 1 (cyclic manifestation) : Wallace, Logic of Hegel, 1st. edn., pp. 
135-137. We have only to add that all these ' interpretations of reality ', 
* philosophies ' ' god-like figures ' fall under one or another of the three 
main ones: arambha. paripama, adhyasa orvivarta, cor* 
responding to Dvaita, Vishisht-atjvaita, Acjvaita ; or theism '(deism), 
dualism, (monistic) non-dualism; or the theories of popular, scientific, 
metaphysical causation; or (substantial) realism, (materio-energic) 
transformationism, (ideational or imaginative) illusionism. ' Ab-err- 
ations of the intellect ' also, have their necessary place among these as 
' self-alienating ' materialism, a-vidya. And philosophy in corres- 
pondence with the World-Process, Universal Mind, Cosmic History is 
always treading the cyclic round of the same three, in ever new words 
*nd settings and surroundings, ever fresh morning-noon-evening, simple 
childhood, complex middle age, and sage eld. All Evolution is such, 
biological as well as psychological; forward, then backward, then 
further forward. 

P., CH. VIl] 'IS' MEANS ' AM ' 119 

hidden out of sight, and only a bare, dead, negation is 
left. But now we change the order of the words ; and 
the spirit of the old languages, the natural law underlying 
their construction, comes to our help. We place the 
Ego and the Non-Ego in juxtaposition, and an affirmative 
Relation appears between them first, to be followed 
afterwards by the development of the negative Relation, 
in consequence of the negative particle. And, more than 
this, we replace the ' is ' by ' am,' the ' est ' by ' sum, 9 
as we have every right to do ; for, in connection with the 
Self, with I, A h a m , * is ' has no other sense than 
'am'; and in place of Non-Ego, An -ah am, we 
substitute ' This,' Etat, for we have seen their equiva- 
lence before ' and will do so again later, in the section 
on Mula-Prakrti. Our logion therefore now runs as 
"Aham Etat Na," * "I This Not (am)". In the 
Samskrt form the word corresponding to ' am,' trig., 
a s m i , is not needed at all, for it is thoroughly 
implied and understood. But as soon as we have 
the logion in this new form, " Aham Etat Na," we 
see that there is a whole world more of significance 
in it than the dry statement of the logical law of con* 
tradiction, " A is not not-A," " Ego is not Non-Ego ". 
It is no longer a mere formal logical law of thought ; 
it is Transcendental Log-ic, Supreme all-comprehending 
Law of all Being ; Thought which is identical with 
All Reality. The one law of all laws, the pulse of 

1 Ch. IV. p. 38, Supra, 



the World-Process, the very heart-beat of all life is 
here, now. The rhythm between the Self and the Not- 
Self, their coming together and going apart, the essence 
of all Change, is expressed by it, when we take it in two 
parts ; and yet, when we take the three constituents of it 
at once, it expresses Changelessness also. 

As a man seeking for the vale of happiness, may toil 
for days and nights through a maze of mountain-ranges, 
and come at last to a dead wall of rock, and find himself 
despairing, and a sudden casual push of the arm may 
move aside a bush, or a slab of stone, and disclose a 
passage through which he may rush eagerly to the top of 
the highest peak, wondering how he had failed to see it 
all this while it looks so unmistakable now and may 
behold, spread clear and still before him, the panorama of 
the scenes, of his toilsome journey, on the one side, com- 
pleted and finished by the scenes of that happy vale of 
smiling flowers and fruits and crystal waters, on the other 
such is the finding of this great summation. All the 
problems that bewildered him before, now receive easy 
solution, and many statements that puzzled him formerly, 
in the scriptural literature of the nations, begin to be- 
come intelligible. 

After finding the truth of this great logion for him- 
self, the enquirer will find confirmation of it everywhere 
in the old books, as well as in the world around him. 

NOTE I. It should be noted here that the references to 
the Upanishats, Puranas, etc., are not made with any idea of 
supporting the logion by "appeals to scripture '. Rather, the 


intention is to suggest a new way of working with the sacred 
books, which may be of use to some readers ; for few will 
doubt that it is a great joy to find that what is dear to 
us has been and is dear to others too. Whether any 
definite proofs will or will not be found by experts and 
scholars, that the logion was really meant by the AUM, to the 
ancients, does not affect its importance as an explanation and 
summation of the World -Process. The logion came to the 
present writer first in 1887, as the needed explanation of the 
universe, in the course of his studies in Indian and Western 
philosophy. He then endeavoured to find confirmation of it 
in Samskrt works, but vainly, for thirteen years. Till the 
summer of 1900, when these chapters were first drafted, it 
remained for him only a guess and a possibility that the AUM 
meant the logion. This guess was justified, for him, in the 
autumn of 1900, in a most remarkable manner, the story of 
which has now been told in the Preface to The Science of the 
Sacred Word, a summarised English version of the Praqava- 
Vada oj Gargyayaqa, the three volumes of which were pub- 
lished respectively in 1910, 1911 and 1913, while the first 
edition of The Science of Peace was published in 1904. 
As to whether that * remarkable manner * will prove con- 
vincing to others, is for the future to decide. In the mean- 
while, it should be repeated here that the logion should be 
judged on its own merits, and that the main purpose of 
quotiing from the Upanishajs, etc., is to help on the thought 
of the reader, by placing before him the thought, embodied in 
those quotations, as at least working in the direction of the 
logion. To those interested in the method of thinking out- 
lined here, the work will serve as an introduction to the 
Pranava-vada> where they will find many illuminative details. 

NOTE II. In view of the vital importance of the Logion 
as well as the strange-ness of it, some more texts are recorded 
below, in support. 

Wf fft: SR ^f 5Rnpft SMRWRt cfcf: 

^r: s5 

Vishnu Puraqa, 1. 22. 86. 


Literal translation would be : ' /, Hari, all, this, Janar- 
dana, not, other, from which, cause-effect-product, (mass, 
multitude) such, mind, whose, not, his, (i.e., to him), any 
more, Becoming-born (i.e. 9 world-born), pair-ills, happen '. The 
current commentary by Ratna-garbha summarily explains 
this as, * From the understanding that Vishnu (Hari, Janar- 
dana) is all the world, there results cessation of samsara 
(process of births and deaths) '. If the reader is satisfied 
with this, well and good ; if not, then he may give special 
attention to the words ' I ', ' This ', * Not Other ', and arrange 
the sentence (as he can, without any violation of Skf . gram- 
mar) thus : * / not thts-Other (is the Supreme Conscious- 
ness or Idea), from which (and in which, arises and proceeds 
all) the mass and multitude of causes and effects (which 
constitutes the World -Process) he whose mind is (become 
identified with) such (Consciousness), for him there are no 
more any (mental) ills produced by the countless pairs of 
opposites that are born from (and make up the World-Process 
of) Becoming; (such) 7 (is) Hari (har-vatiduhkham 
i t i Harih, who destroys all sorrow), and Jan-ardana 
(janam ardayati, ends all rebirth).' Opposites conflict ; 
conflict distresses ; as Buddha said in his first sermon, on 
the Four Great Truths, " To meet what we dislike, causes 
misery ; to lose what we like causes misery ". Conflict of 
dual, polar pairs, is the root of all misery, K 1 e s h a. 

I Bhagavata, 11. 13. 22-24. 

Op. cit. 2. 2. 27 ; also Chhandogya, 8. 4. L 

('The Self is Not-Many') Not-Many-ness is the Self s 
. . . Only /-Not-Other-than-I understand this well. . . . 
There is no sorrow, no age-ing decay, no death, (i.e., no fear 
of these), in the heart, c h i 1 1 a , of those who, by the bless- 
ing of the Self, have realised (the Self as) Not-This '. 


Chhandogya, 7. 23. 1 ; 7. 24. 1. 

4 There is no Joy in the (or in being and feeling) small ; 
only (the feel of) Utmost Greatness, B h u m a , is Bliss. 
Where (and when, the Self) sees Not-Another, hears Not- 
Another, knows No-Other (than It-Self), that is B h u m a , 
Maximus Ultimus, (In-fini-ty beyond compare). Where 
(the small individualised personalised Self) sees, hears, knows, 
An-Other, (feels that there is An-Other, that there are Others, 
than it-Self, which is and are independent of it and limit it, 
hem it in, on all sides), that is (the feeling of being) small, 
(the finite). In-fini-tude, Bhuma, is Im-mortality ; the 
small (the limited) is mortal.' 

IT w 3ft wrt ^ffir^f: i s 

I Brhad, 1, 4. 1-2. 

1 The Self al-one was, (and was aware of It-Self even) 
as a man, puru-sha, person (is, and is aware). It looked 
round. It saw None-Other-than-Self. It said / am I Its 
name therefore became Ah-am. It thought Non-Else-than-I 
(is there).' 

Let the reader carefully consider the meaning in the 
Glta, of 3flt-3F3r-%c!r: (8. 14), aRKTOT (8. 22 ; 11. 54), 3R?q- 

we: (9. is), sR^r: (9. 22), 3R5*HTT^(9. so), 3R5$* (12. 6), 

3fflF*Hltfta (13. 10). Of course there is the prima 
facie simple devotional meaning, * whole-hearted devotion to 
Krshna only and no other '. For the temperaments which 
are content with this, and seek no further, there is nothing 
more to say. For the unsatisfied and further-enquiring spirits, 
there is the other meaning also, beneath the surface, implying 
the Logion. Let the reader reflect carefully whether this 
latter brings any special comfort to his questioning, arguing, 
intellect, his head, as well as to his (partly selfish and partly 
unselfish) heart. 


Let the reader similarly dwell upon the puzzle-words 
of the Katha Upanishat, 

I 2. 8, and 

I 2. 20. 

Shankaracharya, in his Bhashya, gives three or even four 
alternative and doubting explanations of the first sentence ; he 
reads it with ??%:, and again with swflf:. After pondering on 

those, let the reader endeavour to see if the following inter- 
pretation throws any light into the obscurity : ' It is not un- 
approachable, not inapprehensible that Supreme Mystery, 
subtler than the subtlest atom ; if It be described by (or as) 
Not- Another '. Our-Self must apprehend the Self ; It must be 
seen with one's own eyes, not-with-another's ; and It must be 
apprehended as I-Not-Another. Shankara's plain, simple, 
straightforward explanation of the second sentence is, ' Who 
other than I (Yama, who am instructing you, Nachik6Ja) is 
of sufficiently subtle intelligence, to know that God, D v a , 
who is the reservoir of all contradictions, who is M a d a , 
Elation, Pride, Joy, as well as a- M a da, Non-elation, De- 
pression, Sorrow, both at once ? ! ' Such a claim, such a chal- 
lenge, seems to imply lack of due modesty, and plenitude of 
undue aggressiveness, which are not worthy of a teacher of 
Vedanta ! One expects such to be benevolent and reverend ! 
Yama could scarcely have been so conceited when dealing 
with such a solemn subject ! (It must be admitted, though, 
that some of the teachers of Brahma-vidya, in the Upanishats, 
behave very vulgarly and rudely, e.g.j Raikva of the cart ' ; 
and Yajna-valkya, in particular by the descriptions of his 
doings in the, Upanishats as well as the Puraijas, which des- 
criptions cannot be explained ' mystically ' was a very 
aggressive and now and there even criminal person, though, no 
doubt, of great intellectual power and influence. Yoga- 
Bhashya and Bhagavata and other Puranas tell us that 
remnants of rajas-tamas persist for some time even after 
the vision of the all-embracing Self. Even after the supply 
of fuel has been cut off, embers continue to smoulder for 
some time. This is plain psychology ; nothing mysterious ; 
so long as the body lasts, the wisest and most self -controlled 


sage remains liable to fits of passion). Let us translate this 
second sentence as follows: * Who Else- than -I can know 
that God who is Mat (I) A-(Not) A-Mat (Not-I) ; how 
otherwise than as I-Not-Another can that God be known ? ' 
The very out-of-place pugnacious challenge becomes trans- 
formed into the declaration of a profound truth. 

H. P. Blavatsky's The Secret Doctrine throws precious 
light into the dense darkness of many ' allegories * and 
4 blinds ' of the V6das and Puranas, and also of the scriptures 
of other dead and living religions. She has indicated (op. cit. 
I, 314-315; V, 371, etc., and in her other great work, Isis 
Unveiled, and other writings also) that the works now going 
under the name of Shankara are not all written by the original 
first or Adi Shankara-acharya ! ; that much ' sacred writing ' 
on ' occult * subjects has been withdrawn and hidden away, 
for historical reasons, by the custodians of m a t h a - s 
(abbeys, convents) ; that new compositions have been sub- 
stituted by later Shankar-acharyas (the name has become the 
official designation of all the successive heads of a number of 
math a-s, like ' Pope ') ; and that even in the genuine writ- 
ings, ' blinds ' are often used to mystify the in-alert student, 
who is not in deadly earnest, is therefore easily thrown off the 
scent, does not question persistently, and even gives up the 
study in disgust as worthless twaddle. 

Let us pass on to other texts. 
3Tf ^ 5^ l-Sp^Rt I Varaha Upanishat, ii, 7. 

* / al-one (am and is) bliss, Not -Another '. 
flt 3TS <ref if ^ 3?wjt arftc! t Maha-bhnrata, Anu-shasana- 
parva, ch. 168. 

' That / on(e)-ly (is and am), there is Not -Another 
than I '. 

In terms of 3^c , there is a very curious and remarkable, 
riddling, jingling, alliterative, abracadabra-like aphorism, in 
the Nyaya-Sufra-s : 

: I. 2. 2. 30. 

1 The Secret Doctrine says that the first Shankar-acharya appeared 
eighty years after Buddha's dis appearance. The list of successors main- 
tained at the Sharacja-Pitham a t ha of Dvaraka (Gujerat) supports this. 


The context, in which this is set down, is a discussion as to 
whether 'sound' is nitya, eternal, or a-ni$ya,non- 
eternal, temporal ; and the authoritative commentary, Vatsya- 
yana's Bh&shya, tries to explain it very briefly in relevance 
to the context ; but the obscurity is not lighted up, at least 
for the present writer. Another interpretation is therefore 
suggested here, after putting a semi-colon after the first 
two words, and another after the next two : ' (The Self is) 
Other -Than-Other, (i.e., the Self is Self alone, is not anything 
other than It-Self) ; because there is No-Other-Than-It, 
therefore is It (describable as) Not-Another ; thus, there is 
Negation of Otherness (i.e, the Self is Negation of all Other- 
than-Self) '. In other words, the Self is ' I-this-Not '. Com- 
pare this with a literal word for word translation : ' Another, 
than another, because of not-other-ness, Not-another, such, 
absence of other- ness ' ; or, if we read the last word as, not 
a - b h a v a but, b h a v a, then, in the translation, the last 
three words would read ' presence or being or existence of 
other-ness '. 

The Mandukya-kanka-s are 100 verses by Gauda-pada. 
They expound the meaning of the Mandukya Upanishat. 
Gauda-pada was the guru of Govinda, who was the guru 
of the ShankarS-charya, (seventh or eighth century A. C.) 
whose Bhashyas on the Karikft-s etc. are current. The last 
two verses belong, it seems, to the same class of ' mystical ' 
xitterances as the texts above dealt with. They are 

SIR 1 -*pnr flft 


Word-for-word translation is : 'Steps (proceeds, moves succes- 
sively step after step), not, Buddha's knowledge, in (or amidst) 
d h a r m a-s (functions, attributes, properties, qualities), Tayi's, 
all, d h a r m a - s, also, knowledge, Not, this, by Buddha, saidv 
Difficult to see, very profound, unborn, same, skilful (proficient. 


or famous), having known, the condition (state, status, pa da), 
Not- Many -ness, salutation, we make, as our strength (is or 
allows) '. Shankara puts in supplementary words to fill up 
gaps, and construes the verses in his own way, which is not 
clear and satisfactory to the present writer. He winds up by 
saying that ' Buddha has not said this, which has been ex- 
pounded here (by Gauda-pada, and which is the genuine 
Vdanta), which Buddha has only come near but did not quite 
attain '*, Shankara avoids the fact that one technical desig- 
nation of Buddha, in Ma hay ana Buddhism, is Tayi. The 
word is explained by Prajna-kara-maji, in his commentary, 
Panjika, on Shanfi-deva's Bodhi-charya-vatara (3. 2). It 
means ' Spreader of knowledge (from Skt. t a y, to spread, 
protect, preserve), who does not actually enter into the Nir- 
vana or Pari-nirvaija state, though able to do so, but continues 
to keep in touch with the human world in order unremittingly 
to help souls and guide them on the Upward Path.' The 
Maha-yana tradition is that, for this purpose, Buddha wears 
a body of subtle ethereal matter, formed by his own wiJJ- 
and-ideation, nirmana-kaya; (Secret Doctrine, V. 364 
et seq.); and gives the needed help mostly by spiritual 
thought-force, shubha-anu-dhyan'a; sometimes by over- 
shadowing and inspiring a specially qualified human being, 
a v e s h a, and * spreading knowledge ' through him ; rarely, 
by actually taking birth in a human body, avatar a. 

Gauda-pada may well have had access to some of 
the lore subsequently losj, in the turmoil of foreign inva- 
sions, and by changes in the public's tastes and interests. 
One school of Vedantins says that Tayi means ' thief 1 , 
and Buddha is called so because he stole the esoteric 
knowledge from his brahmana guru-s and published it to 
the world ; (Secret Doctrine, ibid.). The word t ay u occurs 
in the V6da in the sense of thief. It will be remem- 
bered that the word ' Buddha ' means ' enlightened with 
spiritual wisdom ', ' wise ', ' he who has known ', generally ; 
and also Gautama, * the wise one ', ' the enlightened one ', 
specially. Shankara explains 'Buddhasya tayinah', 
of the first line, in the general sense : ' The knowledge of 
the wise man who has seen the Highest, does not move 
to other d h a r m a s , but remains fixed in its own h a r ma, 


as light in the sun ' ; (the man in the street would think 
that the light of the sun does nothing else than spread to 
all quarters and to far distances !) ; ' it is t ayi, continuous, 
like a k a s h a, spare. T a y- i n a h , which means s a n t a n a- 
v a t a h , may also means puja-vatah, or it may mean 
prajna-vatah; i.e. it may mean * spreading ', or receiving 
or giving honor and worship, or possessing subtle intelligence 
and insight or intuition '. Such are Shankara's explanations 
of the first line, various, alternative, doubtful. But he cannot 
avoid taking ' Buddhna ' of the second line in the special 

To the present writer, the c mystical ' and real and 
consistent sense of the verses seems clear, if attention is 
fixed on the words ' Na-Etat ' and ' A-Nana-tvam ', ' Not- 
This ' and ' Not-Many-ness ' : * The Awareness, the Consci- 
ousnes, of the enlightened soul, as of Buddha the Tayi, is 
moveless, un-moving, does not move in successive function- 
ings, na gharmeshu kramate, (as the personal mind 
does, experiencing cognitions, emotions, volitions or actions, 
one after another). Buddha declared that (the Consci- 
ousness, ' /-Am-) Not-Thts ' includes, once for all, all function- 
ing, all knowing. Such is the very subtle, very profound, 
Truth, very difficult to see the Truth of the Unborn, 
Undying, Self-luminous, Ever-the-Same-ness. It is the 
High State of Being whose sole all-comprehending character- 
istic is the Consciousness " (the One / is and am) Not-Many 
(i.e. not these countless This-es) ". Unto that Supreme 
State of Consciousness, we make reverent salutation, and 
we direct and open our minds to It with all our power of 
concentration and devotion '. 

Mme. H. P. Blavatsky does not appear to have made 
anything like a specific mention of the Logion, but hints of 
the Idea are to be found scattered here and there in The 
Secret Doctrine. Thus she quotes (IV, 197) a reference 
made in a Hebrew mystic book, to " the Negatively Existent 
One ". The only way to bring home to ourselves, the sense 
of this sense-less-seeming expression, seems to be to interpret 
it as ' the One Self, I, who exists, i.e., realises Self-Existence, 
by Negating Not-Self. It has been repeatedly indicated 


before, that the firm and clear apprehension of the nature of, 
and of the distinction between, succession- less Eternity and 
succession-full Time (past-present-future), is utterly indis- 
pensable for the comprehension of the Logion. H. P. B. has 
some very significant sentences which clearly suggest this ; 
" It must not be supposed that anything can go into Nirvana 
which is not eternally there ; but human intellect, in 
conceiving the Absolute, must put it as the highest term 
in an indefinite series. . . . Those who search for that 
highest) must go to the right source of study, the teachings 
of the Upanishads, and must go in the right spirit ", (V, 533.) 
As the Upanishads say *W tpr ^ Stf wfa | ' Being already 
Brahma, he becomes Brahma. To become Brahma, to 
attain m o k s h a, is only to remember what had been forgotten, 
that one is Eternally Brahma, is Eternally Free ; or, in 
terms of Time, that one has always been, is now, will always 
be, * Naught-Else than Brahma ', Free from all limitations. 
Incidentally, H. P. B. writes (V, 395) : " He fa Brahm- 
Ajma) alone could explain the meaning of the sacred word 
AUM. . . . But there existed, and still exists to this day, a 
Word for surpassing the mysterious monosyllable, and which 
renders him who comes into possession of its key, nearly the 
equal of Brihrnan." It is difficult to make sure whether this 
is to be taken literally ; and what the last word ' Br&hman r 
means, whether Brahma or Brahma. It is well known that 
H. P. B. was fond of quizzing, mystifying, testing, her 
followers and questioners. It is not impossible that she 
casually threw out the idea of " a Word far surpassing " etc., 
to see whether her readers had steadiness enough to secure 
and make sure of what was within reach, and would study the 
Upanishats to find ' the highest ' ; or would fickle-mindedly 
run off after a ' far surpassing ' will-o'-the wisp. There are 
sects in India today which teach their followers that their deity 
is fourteen degrees higher than the Vedanja's Para- Brahma. 
The Upanishats make no mention of any such word ' far sur- 
passing AUM '. Of course, as merely sound (an intensification, 
modulation, of this same primal ' seed '-sound, so to say), 
there may be another sound, more ' powerful * for purposes 
of producing practical effects, as the roar of a steam-siren is 


more powerful than the hum of a bee. But so far as meta- 
physical significance is concerned, Tri-Une AUM is exhaus- 
tive and Supreme, once for all. Outside the Infinite Eternal 
Changeless sole Subject, the pseudo-infinite ever-continuingly 
temporal changeful multitudinous Object, and the affirmative- 
negative Relation between them outside these, there is 
nothing left to know. But, of course, the details of parti&uttir 
subjects and objects and relations are endless, exhaus'tless ; 
they require the totality of in-numer-able physical and super- 
physical (both Material-and- Psychical) sciences and un-coun li- 
able Time and im-measur-able Space, to master and exhaust. 

Buddha, shortly before passing, said to Ananda : " I have 
preached the truth without making distinction of exoteric and 
esoteric. In respect of truths, I have no such thing as the 
plosed fist (baddha-mushti) of those teachers who keep 
something back " ; Maha-pari-nibbana Suit a, 32. But, on 
an earlier occasion, " While staying at KosambI in a grove of 
trees, he asked his disciples : Which are the more, these leaves 
which I hold in my hand, or those on the trees in the whole 
of the grove ? They answered : Of course, those on the trees 
are immensely more. Then he said : So too is that much more 
which I have learned and not told you, than that which I 
have told you. And I have not told you because it would 
not profit you ; would not increase your moral purity, self- 
control, self-effacing philanthropy ; would not conduct you to 
Nirvana, extinction of selfishness " ; Sawyutta, v. 437. 

The reconciliation is that what Buddha taught openly was 
the fundamental principles of Metaphysics and of the Ethics 
issuing out of that Metaphysics Unselfishness because of the 
Universality of the Self the principles most indispensably and 
vitally needed for righteous individual and social life ; he did 
not thus publicly teach the details of any ' occult ' sciences 
and arts of y o g a-s i $ cl h i s, which were taught only to these 
few who had been tried and tested and prefected in virtue. 

Should the ethico-philosophical principles and practices 
of good citizenship be taught broadcast, or the methods of 
making * atom-bombs * ? 

As to why an air of * mystery ' hangs round even the 
metaohvsical exolanation of AUM. see fa. ODD. UQ.subra. 


Let us now examine another old text this time an utterly 
plain and direct statement of the Logion. It occurs in the 
great work of Ayur-Vda Medicine, Charaka, so named after 
its author. The current tradition, (much disputed by orienta- 
lists), is that Patanjali (born in the north-west of India, in 
2nd century B. C.), began as a brahmana follower of the 
Veda- d bar ma ; and, as such, wrote his Maha-Bhashya, 
4 Great Commentary ', on Paijini's Aphorisms of Grammar, 
and also re-arranged and renovated the old Yoga~Sutra-s, 
Aphorisms of Yoga; and then, discarding Vdic ritualism, 
became a follower of Buddha, and, under the name 
of Charaka, ' the wanderer ', wrote the great^ work on 
medicine, largely utilising pre-existing material. (' Charaka * 
has other meanings also). In Charaka, as also in the equally 
famous, equally classical, equally honored and studied, but 
much older work on Medicine, Sushruta, the principles of 
Sankhya-Yoga (almost a synonym for Vdanta in those 
days, vide Gita) are made the basis of the" principles and 
practice of Medicine ; because mind and body, psyche and 
physique, are inseparable, and act and react on each other 
constantly. Charaka utilises the psychological and metaphysi- 
cal principles of Sankhya-Yoga-V6danta, which were only 
refreshened by Buddha, who had studied Sankhya with 
Alara Kalama, and Yoga with Rudraka or U^daka Rgma- 
putra. We find these two very remarkable verses in Charaka : 

Sharira-sthana, cb. i, 152-153. 

Translation, in accord with the standard commentary of 
Chakra*p&ni t is: "All this world, which appears and dis- 
appears, which is born and dies, all this is a perpetual series of 
causes and effects. All that results from a cause has a begin- 
ning and therefore an ending ; being limited at one end, it has 
a limit at the other end also ; and, being transient, is painful, 
is inseparable from misery; it is Not-Self, a- svam ; it is 
non- Eternal: it has not been created by the Self, which is only 


a Spectator and not an actor, which is only a Witness of the 
Show. A feeling of identification with this phantas-magoria, 
a feeling of its being ' I ' and ' Mine ', s v a - { a, arises 
through A-v i $ y a , PrimaJ Error ; and it (the feeling) per- 
sists only so long as the b u 4 4 h ' the V i d y a , the right 
knowledge, does not arise, viz., the Consciousness ' I-am- 
Not-This', Na-Efat-Ahara, and ' This-is-Not-Mine ', Na- 
Ef at- Mama, by means of which Consciousness, i.e., hav' 
recovered which Consciousness, the Knower, J n a h , l*pt,. 
transcends, rises superior to, becomes sovereign oicount- 
This '. In other words, his Inner Peace cannot be Exhaust. 
any more by the turmoil of the * world ', the ever-' wfej have 
a-midst which his body lives ; in his mind, heart, sc <\ m \ 
has become free, emancipated, from all doubts and | le 
Jlvan-rnukja, and is no longer enchained, bouna Dy, 
subject to, the ' This,' i.e., this ' object '-world, or any- 
thing in it. 

The first of the two verses above quoted, is only a version 
in slightly varied words, of aphorism 2. 5, of Yoga-Sutra. 

"The khySJi (awareness, feeling, sense, notion, thought, 
idea, consciousness), belief, that the perishing-impure-misery- 
ful-Noo-Self (body) is the Eternal-Pure-Blessed-Self this 
is A-Vidya, Ne-Science, Primal Error, Original Sin '. 

Another aphorism, very germane to the subject under 
treatment, is, 

an* s*-ftw *HNt-fow nw ^r ^ ft^F-^r ? R i 3. 54. 

The authentic comment can be studied in Vyasa's Bhashya. 
Without contradicting it, the following rendering may perhaps 
be found to throw some more light upon it : 4 The Awareness, 
the knowledge, that results from Discrimination, v i -v 6 k a , 
(between Purusha and Prakrji, I and This, i.e., from 
negation of the latter by the former), is devoid of succession 
is a - k r a m a , and comprehends at once, all objects and all 
ways (i.e., manners, methods, of the workings of all objects) 
that knowledge is T a r a k a , deliverer, emancipator, which 
carries the soul across (the ocean of doubts and fears and 
miseries)'. Taraka is one of the many names of the 


PraQava, AUM ; (see fn., p. 109 supra). There are a fair 
number of quite technical words (and, of course, ideas) which 
are common to Yoga-Sutra and Bhashya and books of 
Mahayana Buddhism, and some of these latter throw much 
light upon the obscure sentences of the former. That it is 
so, is natural, after Buddha's studies, mentioned before, of 
Sankhya and Yoga. 

Yoga Vasishthti repeats again and again, 
****&**%: I 
* Not-I-(This-) Body, Not-Mine, (This) Body.' 

Finally, we find, in Buddha's own words, the origin 
of the Charaka-verses. 1 In a discourse to his Bhikshu-s, 
in the town of ShravastI, Buddha says : 

W, fimc%, arfiw ; ^ arfN 3 5^ ; V $:^ a* 
wffir; ^amnr a $3 *w, ^ft?*far, 5? ^ srarft i 

Samyutta Nikaya, Pt. Ill, Khandha-Vagga, pp. 22-23; 
repeated in the same words at pp. 44-45. 

The Samskrt form of these Pali words is : 

4 Bhikshus !, form is not-eternal ; the not-eternal is the 
painful ; the painful is the Not-Self ; the Not-Self is Not- 
This-Mine, I-This-Not ; This-is-Not-My-Self '. 

Buddha has, for some centuries now, in bis own home- 
land, and therefore naturally in the west, been debited with 
the absurd view that the Self is only a stream of sensations, 
etc. ; that there is no Supreme Eternal Self ; and that Nirvapa 

1 I had noted down long ago, on the margins of my personal copy of 
The Science of Peace, 2ndedn.,p. 110, the English translation from 
some book ; bat had inadvertently omitted to note down the name of the 
book and the pages. My very worthy friend. Acharya Nar^ncjra Pe*va, 
very learned in Buddhist Pali and SanskrJ literature (Principal of the 
non-official National College, Kashi Vigya-Pltha, of Benares, and member 
of the Legislative Assembly of the United Provinces, who has spent many 
years in jail as political prisoner, and has been released only in June, 
1945), has very kindly hunted up, at very short notice, and supplied me 
with, the original Pali texts and Skf. translations. 

9 ??: is the masculine, Jgc1t( is the neuter, form of the same word, 


means complete annihilation ; (see fn. pp. 33-34, supra). 
William James seems to have propounded the same view, in 
modern times, viz., that the Self is only a stream, as a 
challenging jeu d y esprit, rather than seriously ; his own firm 
belief in a permanent ultimate Self has been proved above by 
his own words ; (pp. 122-3, supra). Careful orientalists are now 
beginning to see the light, and ^to understand that what 
Buddha * denied/ even as Vedanja ' negates', is the small self, 
the ever-changing personality. Mrs. Rhys Davids, in the new 
edition of her Buddhism (1934, H. U. L, series), has 
candidly admitted the mistake of her earlier view ; has well 
explained the causes which gave rise to the extraordinary 
misunderstanding in India and passed thence to the west ; has 
shown that Buddha always tacitly assumed, as undeniable 
and indisputable, the Being of the Universal Self, Brahma of 
the Upanishats ; and has ably propounded the right view, 
that, to Buddha, Nirvana meant only the annihilation of 
the small selfish-self, i.e., of selfishness; (see especially, 
her pp. 198-210). What element of truth there is in the very 
human craving for, and belief in, 'personal immortality', 
will be discussed in a later .chapter. 

Besides these causes there was another and far worse cause. 
This was* the wicked and wilful perversion of Buddha's teach- 
ings, under the stress of bestially sensualist appetites, by some 
sects of his followers. The worst and most infamous of 
these is the Vajra-yana sect ; its professions, i.e., theories, 
are much the same as those of the Charvaka-materialists, 
* there is no soul, no life after death, no right and no 
wrong, no sin and no merit, therefore eat, drink, and be 
merry as you .best can, while you are alive '. Such a theory 
is obviously indispensable to justify the sect's practice, which 
is the same* as that of the Vama-marga Tantrikas, 
the ' Black Magicians of the Left-hand Path ' ; vide the 
Guhya-Sam&ja-Tantra or TathZ-gafa-guhyaka, Baroda 
Oriental Series)." Such >sects "have grown up within the pale 
of every religion, dead or living, even as darkness gathers, 
under the lamp. Accumulation of immense wealth in the 
vihSra-s, matha-s, (Christian) abbeys, * Vatican' -s r 
(Muslim) Khaniqah-s, dargah-s, etc., has always led to such 
foul consequences in religious * palaces ', even as in secular. 


As to the Self, which his later sensualist followers denied* 
Buddha is reported to have said, on one occasion : * The 
material form is not your -Self, not the Self ; sensations are 
noc the Self ; conformations and predispositions are not 
the Self ; the consciousness is not the Self ' ; (Vinaya, 1. 23). 
The word Self, repeated so often, is specially noteworthy ; 
the word ' consciousness ' here means particular conscious* 
ness of particular things. Elsewhere, again, Buddha says* 
^....flWcft 3fflRr 9Tfa; Samyutta Nikaya, 1. 75, (Udana, 47). 
In Skt., * ftrarat SflWfT (31RIR:) ffftrat (ffcfacl );' there is 
nothing anywhere which is dearer than the Self '. This is 
only what the Upanishad said much earlier, 

' All that is dear, is dear for the sake of the Self ; the Self i$ 
the Best and the Dearest '. 

George Grimm, in his book, The Doctrine of the Buddha* 
T/ie Religion of Reason (pub : 1926, by Offizin W. Drugulin, 
Leipzig) describes Sariputja as saying to Yamaka (pp. 166, 
167) : " All corporeal form what-soever,...all sensation,. ..all 
perception,.. .all activities of the mind whatsoever,... all con- 
sciousness, is not Atma, the Self; the correct view, 
the highest knowledge, is :_' This is not mine ; this am I 
noti this is not my Ego, Ajma '..." Grimm does not men- 
tion references ; but the first part of the translation seems 
to be of a text of Samyutta Nikaya, Pt. Ill, op. cit., from the 
Dialogue of Sariputta and Yamaka, p. 115; and the second 
part is a translation of the Buddha's words, quoted before/ 
The two seem to have been mixed up by Grimm ; not sur- 
prising, since the first part is also only a repetition by Sari* 
putta of what he had heard from Buddha. The vital words 
(italicised by me) ' This I am Not ' are there ; so too ' the 
highest knowledge ' ; but did Grimm realise the Infinite 

Skt. version : 3: 


Significance that blazes up in those very same words if we read 
them with capital initials and arranged as ' I -This- Not (am) ' ? 
On pp. 500-502 of his book, Grimm writes : M The 
Buddha has not become untrue to Indian thinking ; rather'is 
his doctrine the flower of Indian thought. He is * the trite 
Brahmin* (brShmat?a) who has completely realised the 
Upanishads . . . What would it mean to deny the Atta 
(Ajma), to deny thereby my-self, me (My-Self, Me), the 
primary fact which alone I cannot doubt ? For am I not the 
most real thing of all for my-self (My-Self), so real that the 
whole world may perish, if only I, this all and one ( A 11 -and - 
One, All-One, Al-One) for every single individual, remains 
unaffected by the general ruin ? " This is all good and sound. 
It indicates the new trend towards the true interpretation 
of Buddha's 'view,' darshana, as identical with that of 
the Upanishads. 

The battle between Vidya and A-Vidya, Truth and 
Error, gods and titans, angels and devils, cor-rect-ors and 
per-vert-ors, is ever-lasting. When the Not-Self threatens 
to black out the Light of the Self altogether, the Self shines 
out strongly in Krshija-s and Buddha-s and Shankara-s, and 
Negates a.nd brushes aside the Not-Self. 

_ Many verses of the Dhamma-pada> relating to ths 
Atmg, read almost like translations of Gf/0-verses One 
famous counsel to his Bhikshus, uttered on other occasions 

Other Pali sentences, in the same context, rendered in Skt., are : 

etc. ; 5f , ^iTOl etc. 3?TcW J 

I Samyutta Pt. Ill, pp. 113-115. 
Elsewhere (U<J5na, Vagga 8. p. 80), Buddha says : 
Skt. version) 3jfel, fif^: !, aTSTRT, WJjf, 3f^i^*d ; 5ft 
etc., 5T ? 

'Bhikshus!, there is That (Self) Which is Un-born, Un-begun. 
Un-create, Un-compounded. Were there not Such, emanation oC all 
that is born, begun, created, compounded, would not be known ; nor 
escape from this all and re-mergence back into It '. Thus is the Eternal 
Changeless Partless Self, Atm, asserted by Buddha over and over again. 

p., CH. vn] BUDDHA'S LAST WORDS 137 

also, is said by tradition to have been repeated by him, as 
his last words, just before his Immortal Atma cast away Its 
mortal frame, to those who gathered round' him at that time. 
With that great laudation of the glory of the Suprerne Self, 
and also, repudiation of the Not-Self, of all Other-Than-Self, 
this note may properly be closed. 

3T5|53HEK<JiT I Samytttta Nikaya, ibid., p. 42 ; MahU- 
part -nibb ana Suit a > 2. 26. 

in Skt : 

' Go to the peoples of the earth, my mendicant missioners ! , 
doing the duty of your mission, gently persuading men and 
women into the blessed eightfold Path of Virtue ! Be your One 
Light, the Self ; be your Sole Refuge, the Self ; let No-Other 
than the Self be your Refuge. Be Dharma, which is Brahma- 
in-Practice, Theory- at- Work, Principle -in- Application, be such 
Dharma your Lamp ; be such Dharma, your Refuge ; be 
Naught-Else your Refuge. Be ye Self-reliant; Not-Other- 
dependent.' Nirvana is the extinction of selfishness, and 
of all doubts and fears, all evil thoughts and passions, which 
all inevitably spring from selfishness, from clinging to the 
body, only. It is the extinction of all restlessness and 
discontent of mind. It is attainment of inner reposefulness, 
equ-animity, equ-ability, serenity, undisturbable calm. In 
the living Emancipate, still wearing a body, it has degrees ; 
it grows more and more towards perfection \ therefore the 
books speak of Brahma-vid, Brahma-vid-vara, Brahma-vid- 
varishtha, ' knower of Brahma ', ' better knower of Brahma ', 
* best knower of Brahma '. Nirvana is not power to perform 
any so-called miracles, to * see ' what is going on in Sirius 
or Canopus, or make a continent sink beneath the ocean by 
a mere fiat, any more than it is to make an aeroplane rush 
500 miles per hour, or blast a whole town with a single 
atom-bomb. Nirvana is recognition of, realisation of, reliance 
on, the Universal Self, Brahma, Param-Atma, which pervades 


and includes all selves ; and the consequent or rather simul- 
taneous recognition of, reliance on, and steady pursuit of the 
Dharma which is the ' active ' aspect of the ' re-cognition ', 
viz., tfre constant endeavour to serve all, and help all to the 
same realisation of Brahma and Dharma. Hence, * Be 
Aj;ma and Dharma your Light and your Refuge; and 
Naught-Else '. 



LKT us see now if this summation will give us all we 
want, if it will withstand and resolve all doubts and 

1 The- distinction between Brahma (ending with an unaccented short 
' a '), and Brahma (ending with an accented long ' a ') should be borne 
in mind. The former (in the neuter gender, nominative singular) is the 
same as Param-Afroa, Supreme Universal Self (including Not-Self and 
Negation). It is also often named Para-Brahma ; to make unmistakable 
its distinction from Brahma ; and also to indicate that It is p a r a, Ulti- 
mate, Highest, or rather Beyond compare, Transcendent. Brahma 
(masculine, nominative singular) means the Individualised Ideating and 
Regulating Mind, the Personal God, of a world, a globe, a solar system, 
etc. Brahma is to Brahma as individual to Universal, particular to 
General, singular to Total, part to Whole, whirlpool to Ocean ; one 
focus, among pseudo-infinite foci, of space-filling Boundless Energy. 
The un-inflected base of both words is Brahman. In Skt. script, Brahma 
is SEP ; Brahma, HHT ; Brahman. 

The word Brahma has other meanings also, (a) V&Ja, knowledge, 
science, learning, (6) the class-caste of bra h man a- s, the clergy, the 
learned profession, the men of learning, (c) the vital seed with potency 
of infinite multiplication ; etc. There will be no occasion to use the word 
in these senses in this work. They are dealt with in The Science of 
Social Organization. 

beyond the pairs, i.e. transcending the Relative. 


queries and objections, even as the rod of power wielded 
by Vasishtha swallowed up and made nought of all the 
weapons of Vishvamittra. Let us test it with questions 
the most wild and weird and fanciful. If it fails to 
answer one, it fails to answer all, and we must seek again 
for another summing up. 1 

Aham Etat Na this log ion, in its entirety, re- 
presents with the greatest accuracy that it is possible 
for words to attain, the nature of the Absolute, the 
Absolute which so many names and words endeavour 
to describe the Unlimited; the Unconditioned; the 
Transcendent ; Consciousness that includes Uncon- 
sciousness ; the compactness, solidity, Plenum of 
Cognition (knowledge or thought), of Being, and 

1 The splendid chapter on ' The Perception of Reality ', pp. 283-324, 
of William James 1 Principles of Psychology, II, may be read in this 
connection ; and the claims made for the Logion, here, may be tested 
by the requirements of " the perfect object of belief " laid down there. 
The rest of the present book should be open to the same test, since the 
writer has essayed to build it all upon the basis of the Logion, to 
derive and deduce it all therefrom . Two quotations from James are 
subjoined. " Our own reality, that sense of our own life, which we at 
every moment possess, is the ultimate of ultimate* for our belief "; 
p. 297. (Cf. pp. 22-23 supra \ Shankara, Shariraka Bhashya, on 
which Vachaspati Mishra's Bhamafi is the most respected commentary, 

says: *R?f f| 3ttc*ttsfelcr Sl&fcl J 3 TF9^ ?^> I - ' I : 'Everyone 
believes I am ; none I am not '). At p. 317, James says : " The perfect 
object of belief would be a God or Soul of the World, represented both 
optimistically and moralistically if such a combination could be and 
withal so definitely conceived as to show us why our phenomenal experi- 
ences should be sent to us by Him in just the very way in which they 
come ". In other words, the perfect object of belief should satisfy our 
logical and intellectual requirements, our emotional cravings for happi- 
ness achievable in morally virtuous ways, and our volitional urges for 
activity which would not harm others. 


of Bliss; the Supreme; the Indescribable; the Un- 
knowable. 1 

This timeless thought, this spaceless idea, taken as 
a whole, changelessly constitutes and is the nature of 
Brahman. So taken, it is one thought, one knowledge, one 
omnisciently rounded cognition of all 'this' that is possible 
to know, one omnipotently fulfilled and surfeited desire 
for all * this ', one omnipresently completed action of self- 
assertion and 'thisMotherJ-denial, one single psychosis or 
mood or act of Consciousness, in which there is no particular 
content, but which yet contains the totality of all possible 
particulars ; it is unbroken, pieceless ; there is no motion 
in it, no space, no time, no change, no shifting, no un- 
evenness, but all equality, an all- complete condition of 
balance and repose, pure, stainless and formless, 8 We 
can call it Unconsciousness also, the absence of thought 
or cognition or desire or action or any mood at all. For 
where the This is the whole of the Not-Self, and even 
that is negated, the consciousness that is left may well be 
called Unconsciousness, as that of the state of sound 
slumber ; it is clearly not any particular consciousness, 
such as that wherein the particularity of the This, as a 
this, a that, defines both the subject Self and the object 
Not-Self. And yet it includes the totality of all such 

", TO 

, f, STf, SIRT, sftf 1 ?, fttsrf, etc., are the descriptive 

words used in 


particular consciousnesses, for the Not-Self includes all 
particular this-es. 

Taken in two parts, the same thought gives: (1) 
Aham Etat, I-This, i.e., I am this something other than I, 
a piece of matter, a material or physical body ; and (2) 
(Aham) Etaj-Na, (I am) not this thing which is other than 
I, this piece of matter, this material or physical body. 1 
Here, in these two sub-propositions, inseparable parts 
and constituents of the one logion, we have, as we 
shall see later in details, the whole process of S a rp s a r a. 
S a m ? a r a means a process, (Skt. s r, to slide on, move on) 
a movement, of rotation, for it is made up of the alterna- 
tion of opposites : birth and death ; growth and decay ; 
inbreathing and outbreathing ; waking and sleeping ; 
acceptance and rejection ; greed and surfeit ; pursuit and 
renunciation ; evolution and involution ; formation and 
dissolution ; integration and disintegration ; differentiation 
and re-identification ; emergence and re-mergence. Such is 
the essence and the whole of the World -Process, at whatever 
point of space or time we examine it, in whatever aspect 
we look at it, animate or so-called inanimate, chemical, 
or mechanical, physical, biological, psychological, or 
sociological, in the birth and death of an insect and 
also each rhythmic wing-beat of that insect, or the birth 
and death of a solar system and also each vast cyclic 

1 See foot-note 2, p. 84. The incessant L i I a, Pastime, of the Self 
is the playful endeavour to define the undefinable It-Self ; * Am I this* 
minteral ? *, ' Well, I am this mineral. But no, I am not this mineral. 
And so with all possible pseudo-infinite kinds of minerals, vegetables, 
animals, humans, sab-and-super-humans, and all other kinds of things 
and beings. 


sweep iii space and time of that system. 1 Why the logion 
has to be taken in parts and also as a whole, will appear 
when we study further the nature of the * This.' 

1 Indeed every science and every school of philosophy deals with one 
important aspect of, and gives its own characteristic names to, the 
alternately predominating terms of the ' pairs ' of the World-Process 
Thus : physics speaks of action and reaction ; chemistry of composition 
and decomposition ; biology of anabolism and katabolism ; physiology of 
secretions and excretions ; medicine of growth and atrophy, health and 
disease; mathematics of addition and subtraction, multiplication ami 
division, prolongation and bisection, composition and resolution, the 
static and the kinetic ; civics of competition and co-operation, or inch 
vi dual ism and socialism ; law of right-and duty ; politics of an toe rat, v 
and democracy ; poetry of optimism and pessimism, I' allegro and il 
fienseroso-, history, of 'war' (between human beings), abnormality, 
greater and greater differentiation, excess of love-hate born of primal 
ab-err-ation (out of which proceeds the bulk of the multifarious events 
and complications which make up the subject-matter of history), and of 
'peace,' normality, greater and greater approach to the ' perfectness 
and * completeness ' of homogeneity, serenity, restfulncss (which has no 
history, for ' no news is good news ' ; since the arts of peace are mosth 
arts of war with ' nature ' ; ' war ' and ' peace ' being used here 
in the usual comparative sense, with a hint of the ultimate meta- 
physical sense in which every sr.shti, every manifestation in the 
World-Process, is by a disturbance of the primal equilibrium of tho 
Three) ; psychology, of reminiscence and obliviscence, waking and sleep- 
ing, aroused and focussed attention and dormant and diffused sub-con- 
sciousness, m a n as- presentation and b u d d h i-memory ; philosophy, too, 
of (progressive and regressive) change and absolutist changelessness ; and 
finally, religion, of the worship of Shakti-Power and of Shiva-Peace. For 
the ' pair ' names used by various Samskrt philosophies and sciences, see 
The Science of Religion, or Sana f ana Vaidika phanna, pp. 64 67, 
and The Science of Social Organisation, 'or The Laws of Manu, 
I, 32-35. A work like Rogers Thesaurus shows how the whole 
mental life of man, and all the corresponding vocabulary that he uses, is 
made up of thousands upon thousands of such antithetic pairs. 

The principle, law. or fact of Pvam-Pvam, ' Two-and-Two ' is bo 
fundamental, so pervasive of all departments, all aspects, of Nature, is, 
indeed, so essentially the very ' nature ' of Nature, that some more 
examples of the more important ' pairs of opposites ' may not be un- 
welcome to the student. They all arise, of course, from the Primal Op- 
position of I ' and * Not- 1 '. This ' and ' Not-This '. 

Temperamental types are, first and foremost, of which all others may 
be regarded as varieties, feminine and masculine, prakrti-(s( ri) and 
p u r u s h a ; then, tender-minded and tough-minded (William James) ; 
romantics and classics (Ostwald) ; introverts and extroverts (Jung) ; 


This single logion thus includes within itself both 
Changelessness and Change. It includes the fullness of 

antar-mukha and bah ir- muk ha. in Skt., t.e., in-faced and out- 
faced, in-turned and out-turned, introspective and extro-spective, (Yoga- 
Vedanta) ; inhibitive and exhibitive, niroclha-chitta and v y u \ t h a- 
na-chitta (ditto); precocious dement and hysteric (psycho-analysis) . 
abstractionist artist and sympathetic artist (Warringer) ; Dionysius and 
Apollo (Nietzsche) , sentimental and naive (Schiller) , passive voice and 
active voice, in language (Finch) ; centripetal and centrifugal (Jung) , 
abstract and concrete ; con-centric and ec-centnc ; steady and unstable , 
equilibrated and unbalanced ; credulous and sceptical ; habit-ruled anil 
inventive ; agricultural and nomadic ; peace-loving and warlike , realist 
and nominalist (reconciled in the conceptualist) ; spiritualist-idealist and 
materialist-realist (reconciled in the pantheist), j 5 ii n i - gnostic and 
bhakta-pietist (reconciled in the ' practical mystic ') ; severe (style of 
writing") and flowery ; synthetic and analytic , general and special , 
poetic and scientific ; causalistic (dwelling on past causes as explanatory) 
;ind finalistic (emphasing the final cause or end, aim, future purpose) , 
determinist and vitalist, i e. t necessitarian or predestinarian and liber- 
tarian, or fatalist and free-will-ist (reconciled in the ' illusionist ') r Will- 
to-live (Freud, Jung) and will-to-power (Adler). It will be seen that the 
two terms of each of these pairs often and readily change places, with 
difference of situation and standpoint ; because non-Ego has borrowed 
the qualities of the Ego, and vice versa , Man is part Woman, ;irul 
Woman is part Man. 

Fuller understanding of the cult of Shakti- Power (as distinguished 
from the cult of Shiva-Peace) in India and Thibet, is likely to be helped 
by psychoanalytic literature, and vice versa; (see, e.g., ch. xxxiii. 
' Psycho-path ic Consequences '. of The Sexual Crisis, by Crete Meisel 
Hess, translated by Eden and Cedar Paul ; pub. 1917, by the Critic and 
Guide Company, New York). Cerebral energy and sex energy go 
together ; as the two poles of the one magnet Energy, The complete ex- 
haustion or suppression of either one of the two, means complete loss of 
the other also ; whence the aphrodisiac quality of Ayur-v6dic and other 
tonics for the cure of neurasthenia. But the two energies are as the 
ends of a see-saw ; physically reproductive energy, (generated primarily 
by food, which stands for primal Vital Energy, whence both sexual and 
cerebral energies), has to be continually sublimated into mentally and 
superphysically reproductive energy, by the person who would become 
u r d h v a-r 6 1 a s yogi, * whose seminal energy always streams upwards ' . 
In connectio'n with socialism, G. M. Hess notes the simultaneous rise 
of two opposed pairs, " (1) the woman emancipated from sex, i.e.. 
the de-sexed, versus the woman emancipated jor sex i.e.. the very 
highly sexed who yet wants to be free ; and (2) Ascetics versus Aesthetes." 
(among men) . Amazon and hetaira were the correspondents in old Greece. 
Renunciants of the world and pursuants of it. among men as well as 
women, are to be found everywhere, throughout history* The many 


the Absolute-Consciousness or Un-Consciousness, from the 
all-embracing timeless and spaceless standpoint of which, 
the Self is seen to have eternally negated, abolished, an- 
nihilated the Not-Self, in its totality, without remainder, 
and so has left behind a pure strifelessness of complete 

aspects of purga-Annapurna, destructive martial power and constructive 
food-and-hfe-giving power, and of Kali-Gauri, ' Dark '-and-' White, 1 
' Hate '-and-' Love,' blood-thirsty sadism and meek masochism, are 
similar pairs of opposites. J. Langdon Davies ' A Short History of 
Women is full of illustrations of how, age after age, country after country. 
" Woman * has been alternately worshipped as supreme goddess. (Ishtar, 
Astarte, seems to be only another form of the Skt. word stri, woman), 
and maltreated as slave ; how every step forward in her emancipation has 
been followed by a step backward in the shape of some corresponding 
bond of disability. Such is the case with the freedom and the bondage 
of men also. So, J. M. Robertson's A Short History of Christianity 
shows, principally in the case of the Christian religion, of course, but 
incidentally in that of others also, how growth and spread, and then 
decline and decay, are marked throughout, period after period, phase 
after phase, sect after sect, by one gain and one pain, one advantage 
and one disadvantage. It comes as a great surprise, now and then, and 
is very informing, to see how Christian priests and rulers made converts, 
and suppressed pagans and heathens, and even mere dissidents belonging 
to other sects of Christianity than their own, with the help of the 
Bible as well as of ' fire and sword ', at one time, under the stress of one 
kind of fanatical motive ; and, at another time, under the stress of 
another kind of motive, political or economic or both, deliberately 
avoided making converts and positively checked the spread of Christian- 
ity. Similar has been the history of the spread of Aryan Vedism, and 
of Islam and other religions. It is patent that the consequences of every 
important scientific discovery and invention are similarly dual, good as 
well as evil, because of the two-fold nature of the human being ; witness, 
the two World Wars of the first half of the 20th Century A. C., and the 
chain of their causes and consequences ; viz., awful misuse of science by 
the greed, pride, lust, jealousy, mutual fear, and hate, of the leaders, 
teachers, rulers, and propagandist-hypnotisers of the nations ; thence, 
vast destruction of life and property and enormous *;z; -employment and 
waste of labor ; and, again, more virulent In revanche. Emerson 's classical 
1 Essay on Compensations ' is only a very brief study of the ' balancings ' 
of Nature. The vast and ever-growing literature of science fn every depart- 
ment of it, including that of Sex, provides instances at every step. Many 
very striking illustrations are to be found in H. G. Wells' The Science of 
Life and Outline of History , of the Law of Polarity, Duality, Two-and- 
Two, which pervades the World-Process and constitutes its very 


balance, utmost repose, Perfect Peace. It also in- 
cludes the pseudo-eternal, the pseudo-infinite, the 
in-de-finite, and, technically, the illusive, mayavic, 
endlessness of incessant identifications and separations, 
on the smallest and the largest scales, of the Self 
and the Not-Self ; each identification being immedi- 
ately balanced up by a separation ; each separ- 
ation at once neutralised by an identification ; sarga, 
creation, and p r a 1 a y a, dissolution, following each 
other in untiring and ceaseless motion of rotation,/ 
c h a k r a, ' cycling ', * circling ' ; in order to imitate 
and show out in time and space, in an ever-futile 
and ever-renewed endeavour, that which is complete,, 
always and at once, in the Eternal and Infinite 

Thus it comes about that the method of true 
Vedanta, repeated super-im-position, ad hy-aropa, of 
an attribute upon the Supreme (object of enquiry and 
definition), and then de-position, refutation and strik- 
ing away, a p a-v a d a, of it, till all particular attri- 
butes have been struck away and the Supreme remains 
defined as the t/n-de-^n-able that method is also the 
method of all thought, (sup-position op-position 
corn-position) and the method of the World -Process, 
which is the embodiment of incessant endeavour to impose 
material Attributes upon the Attributeless throughout 
all time and space, endless at-tempt to de-fine Spirit in 
terms of Matter. 1 

1 See foot-note 2, on p. 84, supra. 


Aham Etat Na ' this transcendent s a m v i t , 
thought, consciousness, awareness, idea, thus, timelessly, 
spacelessly, and changelessly, constitutes and is the 
Sva-bhava, ' own-being ', Nature, of the Absolute, 
which Nature and which Absolute i.e., which Absolute- 
Nature is also, therefore, identical with the totality 
of the World-Process; such totality being attained, 
not by endless addition of parts and pieces of moving 
things in time and space as outside of us ; but by grasp- 
ing of the Whole of the Not-Self, with all time and 
space and things moving therein, as within us ; so that 
Past and Future, Behind and Before, collapse into Now- 
and-Here, and all relative parts are summed up, by 
abolition, in the Absolute Whole. 

All Questions Answered 

What merits and qualifications, or absence of merits 
and qualifications, that may rightly be sought in and 
required of the Absolute, without which the Absolute 
would not be what its name implies, are missing from this ? 
Is not that the Thought which is Independent of all Else ? 
Does it not contain all in It-Self ? The Absolute is the Un- 
conditioned. What condition limits this perfect cognition, 
this Complete Idea, which is its own end and looks to no 
end beyond It-Self, which is also its own means and seeks 
no means out of It-Self for its realisation ? It is One single 
act of Consciousness, which looks not before or after, to 


past or future, but is complete, and complete now, in the 
Eternal Moment, complete here, in the Infinite Point. 
The ' I,' holding the whole of the ' Not-I ' before It-Self, 
denies, in one single moment which includes all time, at 
one single point which exhausts all space, in one 
single act which sums up the whole of the World- 
Process in It-Self, the whole of that ' Not-I ' ; denies that 
It-Self is anything Other-than-I ; a mighty truism which 
abolishes and yet covers all possible details of know- 
ledge, for all possible ' not-I's ' that may be known, 
are summed up in* the * Not-I ' so denied. All possi- 
ble conditions of space, time, causation, d e s h a , 
k a 1 a , nimitta, are within this Absolute idea. All 
contradictions are within it. 1 All the Relative is, and 
all relatives are, within it. Yet it is not opposed to 
them or outside of them ; for it indeed is the very 
substratum and possibility of them ; nay, it is them, 
in their entirety ; for, so taken all together, they 
counter-balance and abolish each other wholly, and 
leave behind only the Numberless Zero, out of which 
all plus-and-minus numbers emerge, and into which 
they merge back again. All divisions are within it ; yet 
it is unbroken, un-divided, consistent, partless and 
numberless, the beyond number, for the One and the 
Many are both within it ; addition neutralising subtrac- 
tion, subtraction nullifying addition, multiplication 
counteracting division, and division completely balancing 

I Tatparya-prakasha Tika 
on Yoga-Vasishtha, VI, PGrvardha, xxxvi, 10. 


multiplication. All possible opposites that constitute 
the factors of s a m s a r a, are present in it, in equation and 
equilibration. It is the reconciliation of all opposites. 
It is nir-gunam, attribute-less. It is guna-bhuk. 
sa - g u n a m, taster, eater, container of all attributes, also. 
Being is in it ; Nothing or Non-Being is in it too. It is 
beyond Being and Nothing. It is Being ; it is Nothing ; 
it is both ; it is neither. 1 Yet it is there, within us, 
around us, unmistakable. It is the whole, and also the 
constant process, of our daily life. " It moveth and it 
moveth not, far is it, yet 'tis near ; it is within the heart 
of all and yet apart from all."* It is the all. All is in it. 
Assertion by it, and in it, gives existence to An-Atma, 
the Not-Self : rejection and denial by it, and within it, im- 
poses non-existence on that same An-A^ma. It sayeth : 
I (am) This ; and the This, the Not-Self, is. It sayeth ; 
(I this) 'Not-Self (am) not ; and the Not-Self is no more. 
But it sayeth both ' these things in the same breath, 
simultaneously. What is the result ? This Endless Pro- 
cess that is ever coming out of nothing into being, and 
vanishing out of being into nothing. We see it plainly, 
yet may not describe it adequately. Truly indescribable, 
a-n i r-v a c h a n I y a, has it been called ; as also has been 
called the World-Process which is It. It is the Vacuum, 

Rg-veda, X, cxxx, 1, 2. 

; Hymn by Shankaracharya. 

: \ Isha-Vpanishat, 


s h u n y a, of the s h u n y a-v a d I, 1 when Self and Not- 
Self are regarded as having neutralised each other in 
mutual Negation. It is the Plenum, gh an am, of the 
g h a n a-v a d I,* which is ever full of both, in the Affirmation 
that ever lies implicit and hidden in the heart of the 
Negation. Two eternals are here in this Absolute, eternal 
1 I ' and pseudo-eternal * Not-I,' eternal Being and 

A few more scripture-texts to the same effect may be cited : 

% 3?ra^ ; t$ f| sraffa sroifa 3lft^fo, ^ f| 

; Chhandogya, 4-15-2 

'The Self is known assamya<j-vama, because all contraries 
inhere in It; It leads forth, It is the commander of, all contradictory 
pairs '. 

: 3JT3<Srf ; Bhagavafa, 4-9-16. 

o/. CIY., 4-17-28. 

1 Salutation, adoration, to the Supreme Self , Parama-Purusha, Sov- 
ereign and Law-Giver of Nature, within Whom contrary energies, 
s h a k t i-s, are revolving day-and-night, a (h a r)-n i s h a m ; Who spurs on 
as well as reins in these opposite- leaping forces (with sure hand) '. 

i o>. at. 2-6-10. 

' Error, False Knowledge, and Wisdom, True Knowledgethe 
Reservoir of both is the Supreme Purusha '. 

The metaphysical reason Why, of the psycho-analyst's 1 ambi- 
valence', heaven -and-hell, sub-conscious under-world of selfish hate 
devilish thoughts, devils, and supra-conscious upper- world of unselfish 
love, angelic thoughts, angels, is to be found here. 

For further texts from scriptures of Vaujika pharma as well as 
other religions, declaring the inherence of utterly antagonistic qualities 
in the Supreme, the reader may look into The Essential Unity of All 
Religions, index-references ' Duality ', ' Opposites ', ' Good ', ' Evil. 1 

1 ' He who holds the doctrine that all is Nothing, a mere Vacuum, 
S h u n y a, or that all arises from and goes back into Nothing, Emptiness/ 
' ' He who hold that all is one gh a n a, Density, Plenum.' 


pseudo-eternal Nothing; yet they do not limit or restrict 
each other in any way, for there is only one eternal, and the 
other eternal is pseudo, is not. Beyond space and time are 
they yet, and therefore beyond limits ; and neither limits 
the other, but rather each necessarily fits into the other, 
or, yet rather, the 'other is entirely lost in the one. None 

can take objection to the eternity of a pure Nothing 

. , , . ^ . : within . 

beside the eternity of pure Being; yet the t\, t^e 

opposed and not identical ; and yet also both inhere in 
and make up the Absolute. If we are inclined to feei 
that * I ', holding up to itself and denying * Not-I ', 
implies a duality, let us remember what * Not-I ' is, 
essentially, and what this denial of it by ' I ' amounts 
to. ' Not-I ' is the Negation of ' I,' and this denial 
of it is the Negation of a negation of itself by the 
' I '/ What objection can there be to the statement 
that " I am not Not-I," " I am nothing else than I " ? 
Is it not purely equivalent to the statement " I am only 
I " ? And if so, where is duality in it ? A difficulty 
seems to arise when we vaguely feel that pure ' Not- 
I ' cannot be equivalent to the totality of all particular 
' Not-I's '. This difficulty will be dealt with, later, in a 
further endeavour to show that pure * Not-I ' is equivalent 
to the totality of all particular ' Not-Ps '. 

1 Compare the Saqiskrt expressions 3??3^ 3i*3^fTffi[ , ' other than 
other/ i.e.. other than-not-I ; and 3RWfc^T^ 3Rffi[ , 'not other than 
other, ' i.e., including the other or not-I within Itself. These expressions, 
occur in the footnote on p. 125 supra. See also f. n.s on pp. 113. 
114. 121. 


The In-de-scrib-able 

Such, then, is the Indescribable of which the Totality 
of the World-Process is the Endless Description. 
Exact, rigorous, scientific description here perforce 
becomes a hymn, which may seem ' mystic ' to the 
unscrutinising observer, yet is strictly accurate, ' rational ', 
' practical ' also. The indescribability of the Absolute 
Brahman is not the result of a powerlessness of thought, 
but of thought's completion. It is indescribable 
if we will use only one of the two sets of thought- 
counters, terms of Being or terms of Nothing, such as 
are used in dealing with things relative and limited ; but 
it is fully describable if we will use both sets at once. 1 

Many are the names of this Absolute, as said before.* 
To fix the nomenclature and prevent confusion, the Eng- 
lish term used to describe it in future in this work will 

A But not in the way of Hegel, see ch. vi, supra. After 
going through the considerations of this chapter, the reader 
will have realised that Hegel should have said, not that 
[Being is Nothing,' but that 'Being is not-Nothing,' or 
' Being is no-Thing. 9 or * Being is no-particular-thing ' ; also 
that, instead of saying this last, he should have said ' Ego 
is not non-Ego ' ; and instead of that, that * 1 is not not-I " ; 
and instead of that, again, he should have said that ' I am 
not not-I v ; and, finally, he should have said that ' I am not 
This/ i.e., ' I-This-Not. % 


ordinarily be the word Absolute, and the Samskrt Brahman. 
Para-Brahman is the same word as the last, with only the 
intensive and eulogistic para, i.e., Supreme, added. One 
other common and significant Sarpskrt name for it, which 
should be specially noted here, is Param-Atma the 
Supreme Atma, Supreme Self. In strictness, the 
Absolute is as much the whole of Not-Self as Self; 
but it is given the name of the ' Supreme Self 9 especially, 
because the human jlva, as will be apparent from what 
has been said in Chapters IV and V, arrives first at the 
Pratyag-atma, 1 the * inward ' or * abstract ' and universal 
Self ; and being established there, it then includes the 
pseudo-universal Not-Self within itself ; and thus realises 
ultimately its identity with the Absolute, which it then 
calls the Param-Atma the Supreme Self, because it is 
first seen, through and as the universal Self, though now 
seen also to contain the Not- Self ; and because the Self is 
the element, the factor, of Being in the triune Absolute. 

flTOTF S*R:, Q^fct, 3Tfa ^ fife ^ I Bhagavafa, IV, xi. 

\ Qg-veda. 

See The Essential Unity of All Religions, pp. 139-140. etseq. t for 
translation of the above, and many more such names, in Vaicjika pharma 
as well as in other religions and languages ; also pp. 96, et seq., for equi- 
valents in the scriptures of other religions, of the Logion ' I-This-Not.' 

TO?R*?T f F^l WH I Sarva-sara Upanishaj. 


"This udglta, this music-sound, the AUM, is 
Supreme Brahman. In it are the Three, well indicated 
by the three letters. Realising the secret hidden between 
them, knowers of Brahman merge therein and become 
free from rebirth. When with the lamp of the Atma, the 
jiva beholds Brahman with all-intentness, Brahman, 
the unborn, the time-less, the pure of all t a 1 1 v a s, then 
he becometh free from all bonds. 1 " 


5, ^ric^T ^r g^cl ^fi: i 

, i, 7, 15 

.4 few more Ancient Texts 

NOTE. Some more texts from Vaidika as well as 
Buddhist writings may be added here, in support of the 
contents of this chapter. 

Vedic Writers 

, iv. 22 

* He who has visioned That Which is Beyond Duality ' 
Which includes all Duals, he becomes free from all bonds and 
fetters of the soul ; sane, equable, tranquil, in all conditions 
of gain or of loss ; satisfied with and welcoming all that be- 
falls ; devoid of all discontents and jealousies. 1 


' Changeless, undecaying, unincreasing, is the state of 
That Which Transcends Duality. To It go those who have 
cast off pride and fear, clinging attachments, blinding infatuat- 
ing desires ; who look equably on the primal Duals, Pleasure 
and Pain ; and devote themselves constantly to meditation on 
that ' Self Beyond Duality '. 

intaff 33%^^; 

si3fr: ; Manu, i. 26 

* The Supreme (It-Self beyond all Pairs, becoming fo- 
cussed in a Brahma, to create this our world) created Pleasure - 
and- Pain (as Primal Pair), and invested all living things with 
them : and (out of the experiencing, by humans, of these two, 
in innumerable settings, forms, situations, the Brahma- Ruler 
of our solar system, or this earth) wove the Scheme of Sin- 
and-Merit and distinctions between Good-and-Evil deeds '. 



' The True Knowledge (I-am-Not-This) and the False 
Knowledge (I-am-This-body etc.) he who knows the Pair of 
both these together ', he crosses beyond death, after having 
tasted and experienced it in consequence of the False Know- 
ledge ; and he tastes Immortality through the True Knowledge 
(which includes the False Knowledge plus its simultaneous 

: I Jsha. 


1 It moveth, and It moveth Not ; 'Tis far, and yet 'Tis 
near : It is within all This, It is without ; It is not large, nor 
small ; not middling, yet the middle ; not -pervading, ail- 
pervading ; with beginning, and beginningless also : not the 
whoje, also the whole ; attributeless, and yet possessed of 
every possible attribute. It is the Fourth which transcends 
the Three, and yet not such (for It is immanent also in every- 
thing which is within the Three) ; It is the Self, It is also the 
Not-Self ; It is harsh (and all-destroying), It is gentle (all- 
preserving) ; heroic, timid too ; great, small ; all-grasping, all- 
abandoning ; flaming, and cool ; facing on all sides, and 
facing none '. 

Rhagavata, VI iv 32 

* Is and is not both, and also all possible other con- 
tradictory qualities abide within that ultimate Reality, which 
Yoga and Sankhya endeavour to describe as equal with all 
and greater than all, as friend of all and foe of all '. 

There is another * mysterious ' aphorism in the Nyaya- 
Sufras, which, like the one quoted on p. 125, supra, is pure 
V6danta, taken by itself ; though, in the context, it is given 
another meaning : 

5T 53^ 9 * ^ arera;, q gv^Kig; , *?S-3ra<ft: efctqfc; iv. i. 48. 

1 Not existent, nor non-existent, nor both, because it has 
not the quality of either.* 

Buddhist Writers 

The famous Bhikkhu, Asanga, who spread Mahay ana 
Buddhism in Thibet, writes in his Mahayana-sutra-Alan- 
kara, V. 1., 


1 Not being, nor non-being ; not thus, nor otherwise ; It 
is not born, nor disminishes, nor decays in any way, nor 
increases, nor can be made purer such is that Pure and 
Perfect Parama-arjha, Highest object of understanding '. 

Another very famous Bhikkhu, Nagarjuna, great chemist, 
discoverer and inventor of metallic preparations, r a s a-s, for 
medical purposes, as well as profound philosopher, writes in 
his Madhyamika K3rika, 

1 Not destructible, nor constructible, not slayable, nor 
procreatable, riot transient, nor permanent, not One, nor Many, 
not coming, nor departing such is It (the Self denying the 
Not-Self). 1 

Gauda-pada, the guru's guru of Shankaracharya, practical- 
ly copies the above, in his Mandukya-K'arika, 32, 


' No in-hibition, no ex-hibition, no bondage, no freedom, 
no craving for deliverance,: no emancipateness such is the 
state of Parama-artha, Highest Object (of knowledge).' 

Mutual Copying 

During the 1200 years of the Buddhist period ot Indian 
history, followers of Gautama Buddha and followers of the 
Vedas reproduced more or less the same old old teachings ; 
varied the words , and often, ostensibly and ostentatiously, 
(though, in private they may have spoken more sincerely and 
made honest confessions even), told their respective disciples, 
* What I am teaching is different from all other teachings and 
quite original.' Human weakness to afford another illustra- 
tion of the inseparable duality * high and noble thought ' and 
4 mean and low motive ' side by side ! 

In Gauda-pada's Karika-s, the words Buddha, Sam buddha, 
Pra-buddha, and Prati-buddha occur repeatedly. In two or 


three places Gautama Buddha is meant certainly ; in some 
others, advanced souls, performing the functions of a Buddha, 
seem to be referred to, generally (see The MahatmU Letters, 
pp. 43-44, regarding " the last Khobilgan, . . . Sang-Ko-pa of 
Kokonor, XIV century ") in the remainder, only ' wise know- 
ers ' are meant. But Vaidika annotators, e.g., Shankaracharya, 
explain all in the last sense only. 

The Beyond-the-Two 

As regards the inclusion of both Pratya-atma and Mula- 
Prakrti in Param-atma, Vishnu Purana, says, 

Glta says, 

3ft, ftfe 3?ffl^t 3$ 3?fq, 

^ : ; xiii, 19-22. 
: ; xv, 16-17, 

6 Prakrti and Purusha (Pratyag-atma), both, are latent in 
Param-atma. The former is changeful ; the latter, changeless ; 
the third, Param-atma, is the highest, including both and 
distinguishable from each.' 

A Sufi's Testimony to the Distinction! ess 

Some beautiful lines by the famous Persian Sufi poet 
and philosopher, Maulana Rumi, on the disappearance, during 
slumber, of all time and space and motion, illustrate what has 
been said on the subject, in the text above. 

Shab, ze zindan, be-khabar zindaniyan ; 
Shab, ze daulat, be-khabar sultaniyan ; 
Nai gham o andesha-e sud o ziyari ; 
Nai khayale in fulan o an fulari : 
Hal-e a'rif in buwad be-khvftb ham. 

' Oblivious is the prisoner of his chains ; 
Oblivious in the monarch of his wealth ; 


The tradesman, of his losses and his gains ; 
The sick man, of his torment of ill -health ; 
And every one, of this, that, great and small ; 
When they sleep as the dead, at dead of night. 
The wise man who has seen the Self in all, 
Oblivious is of all, e'en in daylight.' 



; K atha. 

' The Self -born pierced the senses outwards ; therefore 
the soul looketh outwards, not inwards. One resolute one, 
here and there, turneth his vision inwards, desirous of im- 
mortality, determined to achieve it, resolved to conquer 
Death ; and he then beholdeth, and identifieth himself with, 
Pratyag-Atma, the Deathless Inner Self.' 


AHAM, S I, Self, in the great logion, is Pratyag-Atma. 
It is the inward, abstract, universal Self or Spirit, eternal 

1 55, ' two-and-two ', the paired, the double. 

2 3?, a, is the first letter of the Sarpskrt alphabet, and ?, ha, the 
last ; therefore the two together, between them, exhaust all the contents 
of all possible ' experience,' which can be possibly expressed by all the 


Subject, wherein all j I v a s, individual, particular, 
discrete spirits, selves, or subjects, inhere as whirlpools 
in the ocean, as whirl-winds in the air^ as vortices in 
ether, as points in space. 1 It pervades them all, as the 
genus pervades all individuals. It is all those indivi- 
duals. The * appearance ' of separateness, individua- 
tion, differentiation, is caused by matter, Mula-Prakrti, 
as will appear later. In itself, it is the avyakta, 
the unmanifest, unspecialised. unindividualised ; sheath- 
ed in b u d d h i or m a h a t, universal mind, (corre- 
sponding to the connotation of the plural and yet un- 
breakably unitive, connective, collective * we ')> it becomes 

letters of the alphabet, i.e., language, and which is all overshadowed 
by the transiency, perish ingness, negation, that is indicated by the 
JJ, rn. Therefore, 3?-^-^ are the appropriate vocal symbol of the I. which 
is the only 'expcriencer, ' in whom alone all experience, with its negation, is. 
?, ha, also stands for the a k 5s h a-{ a 1 1 v a, the substrate of sound, and 
the first material manifestation and sheath or body of conscious life, in this 
solar system at least, according to the Puranas ; and it therefore appro- 
priately takes the place, in the name of the individual ego, which is 
occupied by 3, u, in that of the Absolute Ego. 

Nandik-eshvara-karika , 4 . 

1 B h r a m a, b h r a n $ i, is one of the names for the * illusion,' the 
' appearance without reality/ of the World-Process ; a sort of anagram 
of ' Brahman ', and means ' turning round and round, 1 as the opposite 
of the Moveless. This circling b h r a m a of the World-Process is visible 
even to the physical eye, and requires no difficult thinking. The earth, 
the moon, the planets, suns, stars, all revolve ; the seasons, the biological 
functions, psychological, political, economical, social, historical pheno- 
mena all observe cyclical periodicity, which takes on the form of spirals, 
for reasons explained later on in the text. The Self ' makes-believe ' ; 
It believes ' as if ' It is ' this, that, and tfce other not-Self ' ; and then, 
discarding the mask, It comes back into It-Self. 


the supra-conscious, out of which emerge and into which 
merge back again, all v y a k t i s, individuals, manifest con- 
sciousnesses^ particular minds, manas-es, (correspond- 
ing to the singular and separative ' I '). It is the One, 
eka, in a special degree. It is the essence, source, and 
substratum of airsimiianty, sameness, continuity, unity, 
all oneness. It is Ishvara in the abstract sense, the one 
Ishvara of all particular Ishvaras their Self, as also the 
Self, and as much so, of the j I v a s that have not yet 
arrived at the state of Ishvara-hood. It is sometimes 
called the Maya-s h a b a 1 a m Brahman, or S a-g u n a m 
Brahman, Brahman conjoined with attributes, en- 
wrapped in, coloured with, Maya. The Upanishats 
mostly describe it, this Pratyag-Atma, and, leading the 
enquirer to it, finally state that it is identical with 
Brahman. Such aphoristic utterances, apparently, have 
led to the confusion which seems to prevail at the present 
day amongst the vedantis of the various schools, as 
to the relation between Pratyag-Atma and Param-Atma, 
or Brahman. The follou ing great words of the Upanishats 
refer to the Pratyag-a^ma : " Unmoving, it outstrippeth 
the wind ; the gods themselves may not attain to it ; it 
goeth Beyond all limitations ; by knowledge of it, the 
jlva attains to the (first) peace of unity; it is the white, 
the bodiless, the pure, the Self-born, itself uncaused and 
changeless, 1 and causing all things else and all their 

1 A metaphysical axiom in Saipskrt, says, 3f 
' That which undergoes no change has no cause,' or, more briefly, ' the 
changeless is causeless '. Hume uses the words, " What is incorruptible 
must be ungenerable ". 


changes, smaller than the smallest, yet vaster than the 
vastest ; it cannot be spoken of or seen or heard or 
breathed, but itself speaks and sees and hears and 
breathes ; it espouses the enquirer and appears within 
him of its own law, and may not be taught by another ; 
ever it hides in the cave of the heart ; it upholds the 
three worlds ; it divides itself and appears in all these 
endless forms, and yet is best described by saying, ' not 
this/ ' not this V l And then comes the addition ; 
" This Atma is the Brahman." * The meaning is that 
the one so described is the Atma, but the same Atma 
plus the description, viz., ' Not This ' that is to say, plus 
the consciousness that " I am Not Other than I," which 
consciousness is inseparable from, nay,,is the very being, 
and the whole being, and the whole nature of the Self 
is Brahman. 

This Pratyag-atma 3 is the true nitya, the constant, 
the fixed, the eternal, kutastha-nitya, the change- 
lessly and movelessly permanent ; as opposed to 
parinami-nitya, the changeiully persistent and 
ever-lasting, the sempiternal. While the Absolute may 
be said to be beyond Eternity as well as Time or 

1 Vide Is ha. Kcna, and Kafha Upanishajs. 
f Mandukya. 2. 

* This word is not prominently used in the later works on V^an^a, 
but is of frequent occurrence in Bhagavafa. e.g.. Ill, xxxv, 27; III. 
xx vi, 27, etc. Yoga-Sufra, I, 29, appears to refer to the same principle 
under the name of Pratyak-che(ana. Shankar-Scharya, in his 
commentaries on Kena, iv. 6. Katha. i. 3, 11-12, and ii, 1. 1-2, on 
Gauda-paga's Mandukya Karika. 65. and Brahmaputra, I. i. 1, men- 
tions some other aspects, and even senses, of it. Words often put on 
new meanings, as souls do new bodies. 



rather to include them both as Eternity plus Time, seeing 
that Eternity is opposed to Time, and the Absolute is not 
opposed to anything else and outside of it, but contains 
all opposites within itself the word Eternal, as opposed 
to Temporal, may properly be assigned to the Pratyag- 
3tma in its abstract aspect. As such it is ever complete 
and undergoes no change, but is the substratum and 
support of all changing things and of Time, even as an 
actor of his theatrical attires. 

For concrete illustration, take the case ofsushupti, 
sound slumber, awaking from which a person says : 
4 I slept well, I knew nothing.' Knowing Nothing, 
i.e., the Not-Self, he was out of Time literally, he 
was at complete rest in the Eternal, wherein he felt 
perfect repose after the day's turn of fatiguing work ; 
whereout he comes back again into Time and to the 
cognition of some-things, when the restlessness ' of desire 
for the experiences of samsara again overpowers him. 
The further special meaning ofsushupti, the meaning 
of sleep, as of death, may appear later. In the present 
connection, it is enough to refer to this one aspect of it, 
and to point out that the inner significance of the 
expression, * the Self knows no-thing during s u s h u p t i,' 
is that It, in that condition, positively knows what is 
technically called No-Thing i.e., the Not-Self as a whole ; 

1 The words of the Yo^a-system, for the repose and the restlessness 
mentioned in the text, are fw^, n i r o <} h a, and Sgc^TH, vyu^hana, 
restraint and ' uprising,' retirement and enterprise, inhibition and 
exhibition, obliviscence and reminiscence, unmanifest consciousness or 
sub-consciousness or dormant memory and manifest consciousness, rest 
and work, fatigue and activity, sleep and wakefulness. 


for the potency, the necessity, of the Being of the Self 
maintains constantly, before or within that Self, in one 
unbroken act or fact of consciousness, this No-thing, i.e., 
No-particular-thing but mere general This-ness or pure 
Not-Self. In other words, jiva, in the moment of 
s u s h u p t i, passes almost entirely (since, strictly speaking, 
it cannot pass quite entirely, for reasons that will appear 
on studying the nature of the j I v a) out of the region of the 
many experiences of particular not-selves, of successive 
somethings ; passes into the other side, the other facet (and 
yet not other but rather all-including aspect) of that region, 
^12., into the region of the Single, underlying, ever-present, 
One Experience, One Negating Consciousness, in the uni- 
versal Self, of the pseudo- universal Not-Self. That ji va 
does not pass entirely out of the state of awareness or * ex- 
perience,' out of a consciousness which is its very nature 
and essence, is the reason why the thread and continuity 
of its identity reappears unbroken after the soundest 

As with reference to Time, the Self obtains the name 
of the Eternal, N i t y a, coexistently present at every point 
of Time for all the endlessly successive points of time 
are coexistent to, and in, its eternal and universal all- 
embracing consciousness, Now ; so, with reference to 
Space, Its name isVi-bhu, pervasive-being, infinite, 
unextended, or extensionless ; and, again with reference 
to Motion, Its name is Sarva-Vyapi, all-permeating* 
Omnipresent, the simultaneously present at every point 
of space ; for all the countlessly coexistent points of Space 


are simultaneously present in that same consciousness, 
in one point, Here. Introspection on the nature of sound 
Sleep is useful for understanding the nature of Space as 
of Time. In sound sleep we lose consciousness of Motion, 
Time, Space, all. (Thus, a person falling sound asleep 
when his train is standing at one station, and waking 
up when it is again standing at another, cannot say 
whether the train has moved at all and how long in time 
and how far in space he has slept). In slumber we 
'bathe ', are immersed in, Brahman, and are 4 renewed '. 
With reference to Motion, its best name seems to 
be Kuta-stha, rock-seated, or Avi-karl, or A par i- 
n a m 1 , un-changing, the fixed, or, again, Antar-yami 
the inner watcher or ruler. 1 

1 As regards what has been said above about Atma plus ' Not This/ 
an earnest student and scholar wrestled with the idea for long. His 
recurring difficulty was : " Why should not Brahman remain pure con- 
sciousness ; why should there be in It the necessity of a denial of 
another, and so movement ? ' ' Another might take the next step further 
in the same direction and ask : ' ' Why should there be any Brahman at all ? 
Why not let there be Nothing only ? " The case of Bhushundi questioning 
Markandeya, in the Puranas, is similar. More preparation and practice 
in meditation is needed to realise the simple truth. A study of the Time 
and Space and Motion experiences, of dreams and reveries and flights of 
even waking but rapt and absorbing imagination, is exceedingly helpful, 
nay necessary ; and the absence of all such experiences in deep sleep 
shonld also be carefully pondered on at the same time. Until the opposi- 
tion between Time and Eternity is realised, the difficulty about move- 
ment and change will continue. The Yoga-Vasistha stories are very 
helpful in this reference. The whole point is that time and movement 
are within, and negated by, the Eternity of the Moveless All-Consci- 
ousness. The questions at the outset of this note may be more directly 
dealt with, once again, thus : The reply is by a counter query What do 
you understand by pure consciousness 1 Is not pu re consciousness =* the 
Denial of impure consciousness ? How can you talk and think and know 
at all of the pure, except by at the same time opposing it to the impure ? 
And why do you use the word remain ? Is it not that you have at the 
back of your mind the idea of Pure consciousness persisting from one 
moment of time to another, and then to another, and so on endlessly ? 


Two Triads of Attributes 

Out of the relation of the Self to the Not-Self, as 
embodied in the logion, there arises a Triplicity of Attri- 
butes in both. The triune nature of the Absolute the one 
constant and timeless * moment ' thereof which contains 
within it three ' incessant moments (movements, momen- 
tums) of Time, viz., Past, Present and Future imposes 

But successive moments of time cannot be distinguished in pure con- 
sciousness. Successive 'impure consciousness,' i.e., particular, definite 
experiences, sensations, thoughts, emotions, volitions, movements in 
short, mark and make the successive moments of time and points of 
space ; (the words to us may be added, but they are perfectly superfluous 
and useless, for of to others in the strict sense we have no notion and 
cannot speak). (Identifying ourselves with them by turns, we can see 
that) one cycle of a conscious sun absorbed in the act of rolling may be 
as one circuit of a race-course by a horse though in human count, the 
former covers millions of years and billions of miles, and the latter a 
single minute and about half a mile. Each is just one mind-filling 
experience to its experiencer, the equivalent of, so to say, one moment of 
time. The next run will make the next moment ; and so on. When 
there are no such ' impure consciousnesses ' there can be no ' remaining '. 
The next question, " Why not let there be Nothing ? " contains its own 
answer. Surely let there be-Nothing, by all means. But Brahman is just 
this be-nothing, be-no-thing, is-not-this. This is not quibbling. It is perfect- 
ly serious. We cannot think or talk of nothing without also thinking and 
talking of being ; and the two together, at once, are Brahman. If you 
mean-by the words, " Why not let there be nothing? ", only the question 
" Why are there any changing things at all ? ", then the whole preceding 
text is an attempt to answer this very question. If you mean " Why is 
there any unchanging thing?", then the answer, already given in the 
text also, is, again, " A why is not possible to ask, and cannot be asked, 
with regard to what is clearly recognised as really unchanging ". 

1 Compare the verse quoted from Jntlna-garbha in the foot-note 
at p. 21 of Shiva-Sutra-vimarshini, edited and published by 
Mr. J. C. Chatterji, in 1911, for the Kashmir State Series of Texts. 


severally on Self and Not-Self, three gunas, attributes, 
functions, properties, or qualities. These three in- 
Separable ' moments ' in the Absolute may be thus 
distinguished : (a) The ' I ' holds the ' Not- 1 ' before 
itself, and, so facing it, denies it, i.e., cognises 
Not-Self's non-entity, its nothingness. This face-to- 
face-ness constitutes the moment of Cognition, including 
sub-divisions to appear later. (6) This cognidon of 
Not-Self by Self is due to, and is of the nature of, a 
self-definition by Self, a constant definition of its own 
nature to It-Self as being actually different from all 
Not-Self, from all things other than the pure Self, which 
things might possibly be regarded as identical with itself . 
Implied therefore in this Self-consciousness is the Action 
of an ' identification ' and then a * separation ' of Self 
with and from Not-Self. This is the moment of Action, 
having its subdivisions also, (c) The third moment is 
that which intervenes between the other two, the inner 
condition, so to say (for there is no real distinction of 
inner and outer here), of the 'I,' its tendency or 
Desire, between the holding of the * Not-l ' before itself, 

" I invoke, in the heart, the Goddess Consciousness, of supreme 
perfections, whose manifest body is the triple succession, and whose inner 
Nature or Spirit is successionlessness." This work and some others 
belonging to the Kashmir School of Shaivism, which have become avail- 
able since the publication of the first edition of this work and of the first 
volume of the Pranava-vada, show that that school has many ideas in 
common with these. A learned friend has referred roe to the definition 
of Shakti, which appears in the commentary by Yoga-raja on Abhinava- 
gupta's Paramartha-sttra, kSrika 4, as ftsfaSqpTTCW $fct: which, if 
the context allows, and if it is a definition, can only mean that " the 
nature of Shakti is to operate as negation"; see ch. xi infra and 
Pranava-vada, I, 53, eto. 


on the one hand, and its movement into or out of 
it, on the other. This third moment, of Desire, also 
has subdivisions, to be developed later. These three 
moments manifest in the individual jiva as jnana, 
kriya, and ichchha respectively. 1 They will be 
treated of in detail further on. Here it is enough to 
say that these three moments in the Absolute Brahman 
appear in the universal Pratyag-atma as the three attri- 
butes of C h i t, Sat, and A n a n d a, respectively, which 
are the seeds, principia, possibilities and potencies, univer- 
sal and abstract aspects, of what in the individual jiva 
manifest as jnana, kriya and ichchha/ i.e., cognition, 
action, desire. Sat, ' being', is in a special sense and degree, 

1 ?R, ?^5T, f*fc1T. The English words ' know, con. ken, cognise,' 
4 create ' and ' wish ' are apparently derived from (probably etymo- 
logically the same) Samskrt roots, viz., ' jSa, 1 ' kr, 1 and ' ish,' respectively. 

3 In current V^^n^a works, the meaning, as generally accepted, of 

sat, chit, and a n a n d a, is explained to be being, consciousness, and bliss 
respectively. This is not incorrect in itself, but is misleading and vague ; 
it certainly does not bring out the characteristic significance of each. 
The correspondence between the two triplets, mentioned here, which at 
the time this was written was only a guess based upon indications in 
current Samskrt works, was afterwards amply confirmed by the Pra- 
nava-vada. Also, subsequently, I have found a definite statement of it, 
though indirectly, in the Bhumika or Introduction to Guptavaji Tlka on 

' Maha-Sarasvatf, Maha-Kali, Maha-Lakshml 
are only other names for (the powers of) cognition, desire, and action/ 
And again : 

"O Chandl! that art Maha-Sarasva^I or Chi(, Maha-Lakshmi or 
Sat, and Maha-Kall or A n a n <} a, we con-template thec in the lotus ot 
the heart, in order to achieve knowledge of Thy essential being." 


the principle in consciousness of act-ua\ (self-) assert-ion 
and (other-) denial, ac/-ual identification and separation, 
making and unmaking ; it corresponds to k r i y a, which 
alone gives or takes away existence, i.e., manifest and 
particularised being. Chit, * consciousness f in its special 
aspect of cognition, is the mere holding before oneself of a 
not-self and ignoring it, denying it, knowing it to be not ; it 
corresponds to j fi ana, which enables a thing to be known 
as existent or non-existent, true or false. A nantfa, the 
inner condition of the Self between cognition and action, 
is that principle of consciousness which connects the 
other two, is the basis of desire, which leads the j I va 
from knowledge into action. That which in the Uni- 
versal, All-embracing, Omnipotent is A nan da, ' bliss,' 
the fulfilment, or rather fulfilled condition, of all desires 
and wants, is the Eternal want of want, that appears 
in the individual as joy after the fulfilment of a particular 
want, craving, desire, ichchha. What, in the Infinite, 
All-judging, Omniscient, is Chit, consciousness, the ful- 
filled conditidn of all-knowing, is the denial of the 
possibility of all not-selves, is the simultaneous positing 
and denying of all else than Self; that appears in the 
limited jiva as partial knowledge of thing after thing, 
half-truth, the error or a-vidy a of assertion, and then the 
remaining, nish6dha-sh6sha, critical, ' well-judged,' 
vidya, supplementary and completing truth, of the 
denial of things, ' all is vanity,' * vortices of nothing,' 
' much ado about nothing '. Finally, that which in the 
Motionless and Changeless, Omnipresent, is Perfect and 


Peaceful Being, Sat, Being everywhere, that same appe- 
ars, in the finite person, as effort to be, to exist, in place 
after place, time after time, i.e., is action, followed by rest. 
(Be-ing is to ' be-tn-Self * ; existence is ' ow-istence '). 
It should be borne in mind that these three aspects, 
sat, chit, and a n a n d a, are not prior in time to k r i y a, 
j n a n a, and i c h c h h a ; nor are they in any sense external 
causes or creators of the latter. They are co-eval with 
each other in their universal and unmanifested aspect, 
and are identical with the second triplet, which is only 
their particular and manifested aspect ; even as univer- 
sal and particular, abstract and concrete, substance and 
attribute, plural and singular, whole and parts, We and 
I, may be said to be identical. The two cannot be 
separated, but only distinguished, as before pointed out. 
Pratyag-atma cannot and does not exist without and apart 
from jivas, and jlvas cannot and do not exist with- 
out and apart from Pratyag-atma. But while in Pratyag- 
atma, consciousness is Self -Consciousness, which, against 
the foil of the Not-Self, is Self-action or Self-assertion, 
Self-knowledge, and Self-desire or Self-enjoyment, all in 
one, all evenly balanced and equal, none greater than any 
other, all merging into each ; so that Pratyag-atma is 
often exclusively referred to in the Upanishats by only 
one of the three attributes, as only a n a n d a, or c h i t, 
or sat or ananda-ghana, chid-ghana, sad-ghana ; 
jlva is a compound of jnana, ichchha and kriya, 
which, by the necessary fact of their confinement to parti- 
culars, realise their inseparable contemporaneousness 


only in an endless succession ; so that they rotate one 
after the other, two being always latent, but never 
absent, while one is patent. ' 

How and why three moments come to be distin- 
guishable in what is partless, will appear on fully con- 
sidering the nature of the second factor in the triune 
Absolute. 2 

Such then is Sat-Chid-Ananda, Saguna-Brah- 
man, having three attributes as constituent principles 
of its being, three potentialities which are necessarily 
present in it with reference to the necessary nature 
of its two co-factors in the Absolute. But we see 
clearly all the while that it is not personal, not indi- 
vidual, not some one that is separate from other ones t 
not the single ruler of any one particular kosmic system ; 
but is Universal Self which is the very substratum of, and 
is immanent in, all particular Ishvaras, 3 i.e., jivas risen 
to be rulers of world-systems and all jivas therein; 
(Chiefs of hosts of Planetary spirits). 

1 But, by predominance of one function extending over a long period 
in a lifetime, individual jivas become distinguished, despite the perpetual 
rotation of all three, as * men of knowledge,' ' men of action,' and * men 
of desire,' or as men of undifferentiated, unskilled, little-skilled work. 

J See the next chapter. 

3 The technical definition in Samskrt is, ^Q^ ^^JH 3F*W\ 3T $n 
fffiSf: f^{:, " He who can do, or not do, or do otherwise as he pleases ". 
Etymologlcally. $$& ^ (Vtt* " ne who rules, is master, the 
sovereign ". In the full sense, only the Universal Self is Ishvara. 
In the comparative sense, infinite numbers of jivas, at an infinite 
number of stages and grades, are Isbvaras, .ords, masters. A ' lord of 
men, ' a chief, a king, is a ft^Cj n a r-e" s h v a r a. Technically, the three 
Rulers, or, rather, the Triple or Tri-Une Ruler, of a solar system. 
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, are Ishvaras regarded as Three ; they are 
Param-eshvara regarded as a Tri-Unity. 


The triplicity of attributes in the Self is a reflection 
of the triuneness of the Absolute: Self, \vith reference 
to the Self, whose very being is constant awareness of 
It-self, is Chit; with reference to the Not-Self, which 
it posits, therefore creates, i.e., gives to it the appearance 
of existence, and denies, therefore destroys, becomes Sat; 
with reference to the Negation, ceasing from the restless 
turmoil of the Many, it shows forth A n a n d a and the 
bliss of peace. 

Worship of Pratyag-atma 

This Pratyag-atma is in a sense capable of being 
worshipped. Worship and devotion may be directed to 
it in the shape of constant study and re-cognition of its 
nature ; of constant desire to see and feel, by universal 
love, its presence everywhere, and as all selves, and in all 
not-selves ; of constant endeavour to realise such presence 
by acts of compassion and helpfulness and service. Such 
is the worship of the Atma by the ji va who, having 
finished (for that cycle) his journey on the path of 
pravrtti, pursuit, marked out by the first half of the 
logion, is now treading (for that cycle) the return-path 
of n i v r 1 1 i, renunciation, which is laid down by the 
second half of that same logion. To such a j I v a, the 
special Ishvara of his own particular world-system is the 
higher individuality of which his own individuality is, in 
one respect, an integral part ; is the father of his material 
sheaths; and, in another aspect, the high ideal of 


renunciation and self-sacrifice whom he is lovingly and 
devotedly to serve and closely to imitate, as far as may 
be, within his own infinitesimal sphere. 

Students who cannot yet quite clearly grasp the 
nature of the relation between Self and Not-Self in its 
purity and nakedness, cannot yet clearly distinguish 
Pratyag-atma from its veil of Mula-prakrti, but, still, 
more or less vaguely, realise the universality of Self, 
who are in short at the stage of Vishisht-advaita 
such students worship the particular Ishvara of their 
world-system in a vaguely universalised aspect. Still 
other j I v a s, at the stage of Dvaita and of the theory 
of creation, worship only and wholly the individual ruler 
of their world-system, or a subordinate deity, regarding 
him or her or It as the extra-cosmical creator, final cause 
and explanation, of the universe. 

Absolute Brahman transcends and includes all wor- 



WE have dealt with the first factor of the triune Absolute, 
namely the Self. The second factor is the Not-Self. Its 
many names, each significant of a special aspect, are : 


An-atma, Not-Self: A-chit, the non-conscious; An-rta f 
the false ; Jacja, the non-intelligent, non-sentient, inert ; 
Nana, the Many; Jn6ya, the knowable : Vishaya, the 
Object ; Bh&Ja-mula, root of separateness ; Mula-prakrti, 
Root-Nature ; Pradhana, the chief, the root-base, of all 
the elements, wherein they all ' subsist ' ; Matra, the 
measurer, the measure-setter, the delimiter, the de-fin-ing 
or finitising principle, the mother, Matter ; and A-vyakta, 
the Unmanifest. 1 Mula-prakrti and Pradhana are specially 
prominent in Sankhya, and of frequent occurrence else- 
where too. 

arfet, 3^3, sre, *r*r ite, f^nsR, Jfcij?, *5-5Tfft, 

. Each name is significant of an important aspect. 

The word m a t r a has, regrettably, dropped out of current use 
somehow ; it deserves restoration, being etymologically the same as the 
well known English word ' matter' It is used in this sense in the 
Bhagavad-Gita. *?T^I^5Tf^3, W^M 1, ^fan*pf:^T: ii, 14. The 
word avyakta is not specific to the Not-Self, it should be noted ; it is used 
for Pratyagatma, or abstract Self, also for Not-Self, and also for 
mahat-buddhi of Sankhya, the ' great ' diffused Intelligence, uni- 
versal or sub-supra-Conscious Mind, unindividualised by a sheath and un- 
particularised or unfocussed by an act of attention. Mahan-atma also 
occurs, now and then, in the sense of Self plus this Universal Mind. 
Sometimes a k a s h a is also called avyakta, as a substitute for root- 
matter or 'This,' which is the indispensable second basis of universal 
mind, the first being Self. 

The etymology of Pra-krti, is thus explained in ()cvi-Bhaga- 

% IX. i ; 


" The first letter indicates greatness ; the next two, activity, creation, 
emanation ; also, the three letters respectively mean the three g u n a s, 
ttva. rajas, and tamas." 


This Not-Self is by the Necessity of Negation of it 
by Self, which Necessity is the very Nature of the Absolute 
the opposite of Self, in every possible respect and 
aspect ; as is indicated in the fact that some of its most 
characteristic names are made up by prefixing a negative 
to the names of Self. Because of this fact, as the 
essential characteristic of Self is Unity, the very 
essence of Not-Self is Manyness, separateness ; and as 
the marks of Self are Universality and unlimited- 
ness, so the marks of the Not-Self are limitedness, 
Particularity, ever-specifiedness. As Fichte has said } : 
" All reality is in consciousness, and of this reality that 
part is to be ascribed to the Non-Ego which is not to be 
ascribed to the Ego, and vice versa . . . The Non-Ego 
is what the Ego is not, and vice versa." Or, better, as 
reported by Schwegler 2 : "Whatever belongs to the 
Ego, the counterpart of that must, by virtue of simple 
contraposition, belong to the Non-Ego." 

This characteristic consequence of the opposition 
of Self and the Not-Self should be carefully considered, 
together with other aspects of the Nature of the Absolute. 
Solution of the various difficulties, alluded to before 
from time to time, hinges upon it. 

Because nothing particular can be said of Ego, 
therefore everything particular, all possible particulars, 
must be assigned to Non-Ego. But yet again, lest 
the totality of these particulars should become a fact 

1 The Science of Knowledge, p. 83 (Kroeger's English translation). 
* History of Philosophy, p. 246. 

P., CH. X] IN ALL WAYS 175 

different from the Non-Ego instead of identical with it, 
even as positive is different from negative, these parti- 
culars, are paired off into opposites. These opposites, 
again, because particular and definite, are more than pre- 
sence and absence ; both factors have the appearance of 
presence, positiveness, as debt and loan, as pleasure and 
pain. 1 The pain of a debt is as much a positive burden 
on the consciousness of the debtor, as the pleasure of a 
loan is a weight on that of the creditor. 

When we are dealing with the ultimate universal 
and pseudo-universal, viz., Self and Not-Self, Being and 
Nothing, then even presence and absence are adequately 
opposed ; it is enough to prefix a negative particle to 
Self and Being. But when we are in the region of parti- 
culars, this is not so ; positive cold, in order to be 
neutralised, must be opposed by positive heat, and not 
merely by no-cold : a positive debt is not sufficiently set 
off and balanced by a no-debt, but only by an asset ; plus 
is not nullified by zero, but by minus ; a colour is not 
abolished by no-colour, but by another equally positive 
complementary colour. It should also be borne in mind, 
in this connection, that the positiveness of particulars, 
the reality of concrete things, is, after all, not so very 
definite and indefeasible as it seems at first sight, but on 
the contrary, a very elusive and illusive fact. In the 
ultimate analysis its whole essence is found to be nothing 
else than consciousness ; the more consciousness we put 

1 See Yoga-bha$hya, ii, 5 ; " A - v i <J y a is not merely non-knowledge 
but ' opposite ' or wrong knowledge, as a-m i f r a. non-friend, un-friend ly, 
is not merely ' absence of friend ' but a positive foe ". 


into a thing, the more real it becomes, and vice versa. 
That a house, a garden, an institution, falls out of repair, 
or order, and gradually disappears, loses its reality, its 
existence, if it is neglected by the proprietor or manager ; 
that is to say, if the latter withdraws his consciousness 
from it ; is only an illustration of this on the physical 
plane. The essential fact is always the same, conscious- 
ness upholding itself as well as its object, though the 
details differ ; thus, to maintain its objects on the physical 
plane, consciousness employs the ba h ish-kara na, the 
4 outer,' or physical, senses, organs, instruments and means, 
for repairs, etc. ; while on the mental plane it employs the 
1 a n t a h-k a r a n a,' the ' inner instrument '. As in the case 
of the individual and his house, on the small scale, so, on 
the large scale, when Brahma * falls asleep ' and with- 
draws his consciousness from it, his brahm-anda, 1 
world-egg or system, disappears. We should remember 
here that the arrangement of materials which is the house,, 
the garden, etc., is, for all purposes, the creation joi the 
maker's individual consciousness, and that the other 
arrangements of material which he uses as senses, means 
and instruments, etc., are also evolved and created by his 
life or consciousness ; (that functions create organs, and 
not organs, functions, is becoming quite a commonplace 

1 Like so many other facts and laws stated by Saniskrt metaphysic, 
these 'world-eggs/ or 'eggs of Brahman, the Immense, the Infinite/ 
are literal facts, which need no abstruse science or elaborate thinking 
to perceive, bat can be veritably seen by physical eyes. Earth 
Moon, Sun, all the ' orbs * and ' globes ' of Heaven, i.e.. the Immense 
Firmament, Boundless Space, are quite obviously ' eggs ' of the Infinite. 


of at least one school of advanced science now) ; l and 
finally that that material, ultimately' the Not-Self, 
over which he as an individual has no power, is the 
creation of, the result of positing or affirmation by, the 
Universal Consciousness, the Self. If these facts are 
duly taken into account, then the presence of all possible 
kinds of mutually-destructive pairs of * reals,' * concretes/ 

* particulars,' within, and as making up the total of, 
Not-Self, equivalent to Nothing or Non-being in its 
totality, will not appear altogether incomprehensible. 

1 Compare Chhandogycr, VIII, xii, 5, "The Self ideating or ima- 
gining itself as hearing, seeing, etc., became the ear, the eye, etc." 

All creation is a continuation of self. No creation is 
possible without identification of the producer with the pro- 
duct, (comparatively). Every creation is, more or less, a pro- 
creation, /or/fc-emanation, (as of a child). It is positing of 
the creat-uTe, directly or indirectly, as * I-(am )-this '. ' My ' 
is the (comparatively) indirect form of positing ; it is only a 
lesser degree of ' I '. All dissolution is, similarly, denying 
that identity;. ' I-not-this ', or 'not-mine-this '. However 
distant from me, and apparently indifferent to me, yet still 
the stars, the planets, the earth's poles, the earth's centre are 
all ' I ' or ' my ', or ' not so * ; though very vaguely. Whatever 
is of * interest ' to ' me ', is related to me in terms of love or 
hate ; therefore, in terms of ' I * and ' mine ', a h a m - J a and 
m a m a - 1 a, or of ' not I ' and ' not mine ', n a - a h a m and 
n a - m a m a. The Veda hymns, known ascha-ma-ka and 
n a-m a-k a, vividly express this idea : ' The Sun is Mine, the 
Moon is Mine, Indra is Mine, the Wind is Mine', etc., and. again, 

* Not Mine, Not Mine '. To bring home, the fact that mine * 
is only a continuation of ' I ', consider this ; a person ' creates * 
a house for him -self; he feels and wishes, ' a h a m grhl 
s y a m ', ' May I become a house-man,' (hus-band, house- 
owner, house-dweller) ; this feeling, this consciousness, con- 
verts a r a m b h a into adhy-a-ropa or adhy-asa; 
changes creation into self-transformation (which includes 


Countless Paired Positives 

The negative Not-Self thus appears as a mass of 
countless paired positives, d v a m-d v a m, ' two-and- 
two '. These appear as particular and positive when we 
view each of the two factors of every pair separately, 
from the standpoint of the limited. Yet by the fact of their 
being paired into opposites, by the affirmation and nega- 
tion contained in the Absolute, they aie always destroying 
each other by internecine controversy, and thereby always 
leaving intact and maintaining the negativity of the 
negative, considered from the standpoint of totality. In 

p a r i - n a m a) ; it transforms the ' potter ' into the theatrical 
actor *. All authors, more or less, put themselves into their 
creations ; authors of even science-books ; much more of 
novels and dramas. Literal and visible proof, of owner and 
house being identical, are shell-fish, molluscs. In later, 
higher, forms of life, this house becomes more and more, and 
then quite, separate, physically only. The cause, the force, 
which creates a book, a machine, a state, an empire, is the 
ideation- and -will, of some individual self, ' May I be an 
author, a machine- inventor, a statesman, an emperor '. 
Birds fly with wings, fishes swim with fins and tails, which 
are (part of) them-selves ; men fly and swim with aeroplanes 
and ships and submarines which are theirs. Yoga-siddhas may 
re-place the machines which are their s t by organs which 
would be (parts of their bodies) them-selves ; as telescopes and 
microscopes may be replaced by keener eyes and clairvoyance. 
The evolutionist (Lamarckian) view, that ' functions create 
organs ' ; the poet's conviction, that ' the Spirit's plastic 
stress ' shapes all things ; are only corollaries of the above. 
Incidentally, for a very entertaining exposition and defence of 
Lamarckism or neo- Lamarck ism as against Darwinism or 
nee-Darwinism, the reader may see Bernard Shaw's Preface 
to ' Back to Methuselah \ 


other words, the Whole is the summation, and at the 
same time the opposite, the abolition and annihilation, 
of all its parts ; as zero is the summation as well as the 
abolition of all possible plus-figures and all possible 
minus-figures. This paired feature of Mula-prakrti is 
only a reproduction, a reflection, therein, of the essential 
constitution of the Absolute, the opposition of the primal 
pair of .Pratyag-atma and Mula-prakrti, which is neces- 
sarily the supreme archetype and paradigm for all con- 
stitutions within it ; there being nothing outside it to 
borrow from. This being clearly grasped, the famous quill 
of Krug (p. 73 supra) may now be deduced easily. Where 
everything must be, the quill also may be, nay, shall be ; 
and not only the quill, but the agencies that destroy the 
quill. All arbitrariness, all caprice, is done away with by 
this one statement. Arbitrariness means nothing more 
nor less than this : one thing more than another, one 
thing rather than another, without due reason. Where all 
are, equally, and none more than another ; and, further, 
where everything is with its opposite, with its negation, 
with its is not, also, at the same time ; there, there is 
no arbitrariness, no caprice. If we ask, why this particular 
thing at this particular point of space and time, the reply 
is : In the first place, the particular space and time of 
the question have no particularity apart from the parti- 
cular thing which defines them ; so that the particular 
thing and the particular time and space are inseparable, 
are even indistinguishable, almost; are one thing in fact, 
and not three. In the second place, all possible orders 


or arrangements, all possible particulars, cannot actually 

be at the same point of space and time, to one limited 
j I va ; and yet they are all there also, to him, one actually 
and the rest potentially, to satisfy even such a demand. 
And they are there also actually, turn by turn, to that 
same jlva. On the other hand, all possible orders and ( 
arrangements and things are actually present also at any 
one point of space and time ; but they are so only when we 
take into consideration all possible constitutions and kinds 
of j I v a s, and see that any one order corresponds to one 
particular kind of j I v a. Thus, the extreme demand that 
"everything must be everywhere and always" 1 actually,. 

I Bhagavfftct. 

' The seeker for the Truth of Self, should find out That which is 
every-where and al-ways. He should do so by a n u-a y a and v i-a t i-r e k a ; 
by discriminating between what persists and what changes ' ; i.e , by 
the method of agreements and differences, or concomitant variations. 
See pp, 22-23 supra. 

I Yoga-Vastshtha. So far as potential presence 
is concerned, a biological illustration is supplied by the doctrine of bio- 
phores, each containing an infinite number of ids or determinants, 
developing and manifesting by turns. Compare also Leibnitz, Monado- 
logy : "He who sees all, could read in each what is happening every- 
where;" and again, "each monad (jiva) is a living mirror of all 
the universe." Jevons, in The Principles of Science, describes how 
each atom is a register of all the happenings of all the universe. " What 
a wonderful revelation to the historian and artist it would be ... if 
he could stand in a modern gallery and see artists of all ages and gener- 
ations at work, or talk to writers, dramatists, and philosophers of all 
times. Yet this is what the scientist possesses in living intensely active 
Nature" ; The Origin and Nature of Life (Home University Library), 
pp. 71-72. The word ' gene ' is now in vogue in place of Weismann's 
*id\ but seems to mean much the same. It maybe noted here that 
such views as Bergson's, of Creative Evolution, and Morgan's, of 
Emergent Evolution, all assume change, of one sort or another, and da 
not explain it ; while the view, expounded here, explains all possible 
forms of Change as being always within the Changeless. 


as it of course is potentially, is also justified and satisfied. 
Such is the reconciliation of the opposites involved in 
S a m s a r a, and explanation of its endless flux, its a n a d I- 
pra-vaha, beginningless flow, as well as its ever-com- 
pleteness and rock-like fixity, k u t a s t h a-t a. The 
significance of this will appear more and more as we 
proceed ; for while all laws exist and operate and inter- 
penetrate simultaneously and pervasively, they cannot, 
owing to the limitations of speech, be described simul- 
taneously. " Speech proceeds only in succession," ] like 
all other activities of the World- Process. 

We see, then, that the negative Not-Self is a mass 
of positive particulars, and that, at the same time, be- 
cause of its being in inseparable connection with 
Self, it necessarily takes on the appearance of the 
characteristics of Self, and becomes pseudo-eternal, 
pseudo-infinite, pseudo-unlimited, so that matter appears 
indestructible through all its changes. 2 


wr i 

4 No actions, nobody-forms resulting from those actions, no elements, 
are ever completely annihilated. Because they are connected with, 
because they are 'ideated by, the Sovereign Lord of All, the Eternal Self, 
therefore are they also pseudo-eternal, ever -lasting, sempiternal, seeming 
to disappear, but remaining in potentio in that Ideator, and therefore 
also re-appearing, endlessly '. 

A* Sufi mystic, Jill, in his work The Perfect Man, expresses the 
same fact : 'The existence of God is eternal, and the knowledge (of God) 


Though essentially a-sat, Nothing, Mula-prakrti is 
yet pseudo-Being, i.e., existent, sat; though many, and 
particular, and changing, yet it has a pseudo-oneness, and 
a pseudo-universality, and a pseudo-changelessness (of 
laws, all-ways) ; though finite, it is also pseudo-inf)nite ; 
though dying, it is also pseudo-eternal. It is pseudo- 
eternal, because it is, not only dying, but, ever dying ; ever, 
.in order to keep pace, as it must, because of in- 
separability from it, with the eternal Self. It is pseudo- 
infinite, because it is, not only finite, but, everywhere 
finite ; everywhere, in order to avoid separation from that 
same in-finite and omni-present Self from which it may 
never be separated. The same is the case with all the 

other characteristics. 

Why the Logion must be taken in Parts, as well 
as in the Whole 

Let us now pass on to the question why the Legion- 
has to be taken in parts, as well as in the whole. 

By opposition to the Unity and unlimitedness of 
Self, Not-Self is Many and limited. Under these 
necessary conditions, Self denies Not-Self. But while 
pure Non-Being, i.e., the whole of Not-Self, in 
being denied, and in order to be effectively denied, 
becomes simultaneously affirmed, and so becomes a 

is eternal, and the object of knowledge is inseparable from the knowledge, 
therefore it is also eternal " ; quoted in translation, by R. A. Nicholson, 
Studies in Islamic Mysticism, p. 128. 


multitude of passing and mutually-destructive particulars, 
any one of these particulars, by the very reason of its 
being limited, being defined in time and space and motion, 
is, from its own standpoint, incapable of simultaneous 
affirmation and denial. Pure Non-Being may, without 
objection, be affirmed and denied in the same breath ; but 
a particular limited something, which is a-sat and yet sap, 
which is sad-asat, existent and non-existent, cannot be 
both * simultaneously.' And yet it must be both, for 
Absolute-Consciousness contains both the affirmation and 
the negation of it. Reconciliation o/ these contradictory 
necessities, these two antinomies of the reason, the 
solution of this apparently insuperable logical difficulty, 
is found in the ' successive ' existence and non-existence 
of each limited something. Hence the logion appears^ 
(and this appearing is the World- Proces-sion) , as divided 
"in two parts, first ' I (am) this,' and secondly, ' (I) this 
(am) not ' ; first affirmation, then negation ; first the 
positing by Self of its identity with a possible and 
therefore actual ' this/ a piece of matter, and then the 
denying of that identity with an impossible and therefore 
perishing 'this' or piece of matter; first birth, then 
death. This * succession ' is m i t h ya , mythical, a mere 
illusion, 1 an appearance ; because it is true only from the 

1 That the World-Process is an illusion, is, like so many other ' meta- 
physical ' laws and facts, visible even to the ' physical ' eyes. That 
which passes, which is at one moment, and is not the next how else can 
it be named and described than as illusion ? Does it not violate all the so- 
called laws of thought ? Science has been described as organised know- 
ledge. But the World-Process is an Organised Process ; Nature has an 
Organic Unity, is a parartha sanghata, in the words of SSn- 
khva, ' an organisation for the sake of the Self '. Therefore sciences are 


standpoint of the limited. Pass into the non-limitation 
of the Self, by turning the consciousness inwards, when- 
ever and wherever you like, and thence into the fullness 
of the Absolute, and there is no succession. The whole 
of the limited, past, present, and future, is in that un-con- 
ditioned thought at once. The ever-complete and perfect 
balance of the Absolute appears, to the limited, and from 
its own standpoint, as the successive and continuous 
balanc-*tt of things in S a m s a r a. And this continuity of 
succession, this perpetual resurrection and rebirth, repeat- 
ed life and death, this recurrence of existence and non- 
existence, this Becoming between Being and Nothing, this 

only descriptions of portions or aspects of the World-Process as so or- 
ganised. And Metaphysic, the Chief of Sciences, which co-ordinates all 
the others, is therefore only an accurate description of the essential 
facts of the World-Process as completely organised and co-ordinated by 
the Unity of the Self. Hence the Chhftndogya Up.. (6-1-6), ' Knowledge 
of the One is knowledge of the Whole ' ; (see also Yoga Sutra, iv. 31). 
There. is no other mystery than the Mystery of the One Self. The simplest, 
the nearest, and dearest, is the truest and deepest ; as here, so everywhere ; 
as now, so ever ; as thus, so al-ways ; as the atom, so the solar system ; as 
the microcosm, so the macrocosm, There is no break in the Law of Analogy, 
i.e., of Continuity, i.e., of Unity, any when and anywhere and anyway. 
Once this is realised, all facts, happenings, laws, so-called errors and so- 
called truths, i.e. part-truths, all become sg//-evident, (vda, ' seen* ). 
matters for mere description. There is nowhere any originality or 
invention. That they are not self-evident to everyone always, as the ele- 
mentary truths of mathematics are what does this mean ? There are 
primitive or savage races which cannot count beyond the five of the 
fingers of one hand. Are the self-evident facts of higher arithmetic, or 
even the 'elementary ones of geometry or dynamics, etc., self-evident to 
them ? The self-evident facts of higher mathematics are not self-evident 
even to the vast majority of the highly civilised. Yet who that has once 
arrived at and seen them, after the necessary labour of intellect, can 
question their self-evidence ? It is the same with all sciences (and all 
scientific ideas, even those now ' exploded,' each in its own time and place 
and appropriate aspect) ; and much more so, if possible (as it is not) with 
Metaphysic. Even what is called, and rightly called, error, is self- 
evident, in the sense that it is Not-Self-evident, as evident as the Not-Self. 
Numberings, postulates, the directions of force, are all ' arbitrary ' 
assumptions even in exact mathematics. 


equivocation between affirmation and denial, may itself 
be regarded as a third part in the logion ; viz., ' I am 
not this, but am this other this ; and not this either, but 
this other this,' and so on, endlessly completing the 
triplicity which is found every-where because of the 
triuneness of the Absolute. 

Safeguard against Surds 

But lest this appearance of succession should seem to 
introduce something new and foreign to the S v a -b h a v a, 
the Nature, of the Absolute, the safeguard, already men- 
tioned in other words, is provided. While each one of a 
pair of opposites is succeeded in a later time in the same 
place (or space) by the other, it is also coexisted with in 
the same time in another place by that other ; for the 
endless limited positives that make up the pseudo-un- 
limited negativity or non-being of the Not-Self, in order 
to do so, must be constantly paired as opposites, so that 
they always counterbalance each other, and so actually 
leave behind a cipher only, whenever the totality of them 
may be summed up. Thus a constant balance too 
appears in the World -Process, wherein the many 
coexist with, as well as succeed, each other. The truth 
of this may be verified in the daily life of human beings 
as well as the life of kosmic systems. Life to one means 
and necessarily implies death to another simultaneously, 
at the same time, and to that one itself successively, i.e., 
at a later time. Pleasure to one is pain to another, and, 


again, to that one, in the same way. So with the 
rise and decay of the natural kingdoms of minerals, 
vegetables, animals, men, dvas, etc., of human king- 
doms or nations, of planets and of solar systems, at 
the expense and the gain, respectively, of one another. 
That this must be so, is due to the fact that the Totality 
of paired and opposed Matter (positive and negative) is 
fixed, once for all, as the Whole, by that unconditioned 
thought or idea which is the Absolute, and cannot newly 
be added to or taken away from ; that Totality being, as 
said before, always Zero, equal plus and minus. Matter 
is thus uncreatable as well as indestructible. 1 Therefore 

1 There are some very interesting and suggestive statements in the 
Pranava Vada in the connection , thus. Matter has two kinds, 4 ' light 
atoms " and " dark atoms " ; as S h ak ti-energy is " affirmative " and 
negative ".In modern scientific writings too there have been speculations 
about ' ' well-atoms ' ' and ' ' sink-atoms " , " light suns ' ' and ' ' dark 
suns V. " vortex-rings " gyrating or spirating in opposite directions, which, 
when they meet, neutralise each other, and are, to all appearance, 
annihilated, but still persist in potency, in possibility (and therefore 
actuality) of revival, as blja or samskara. 

A friend asked, "With what negative is this positive book to be 
paired off ? " The reply was, " With the things, wind and weather, heat 
and dust of summer, damp of rains, worms of many kinds, which are slowly 
disintegrating it, and will complete its ' non-existence ' some day. The 
book has been formed out of elemental material, and has left blanks, 
emptinesses, in various places, which are constantly calling for a 
restoration of the status quo. Vast buildings have been raised in all 
countries, in the passing centuries ; walls and towers, as in Babel, temples 
and pyramids, as in Egypt, India, Mexico, Peru ; more recently, thousand, 
twelve hundred, thirteen hundred feet high sky-scrapers, like Woolworth 
and Empire Buildings in New York and Lenin Memorial in Moscow. All 
have been built with materials taken from various places. The Positive 
hollows left in those spots are the negative opposites of the positive build- 
ings, which are the negative opposites of the positive hollows, in turn. 
The forces which raised the buildings are perpetually resisted by the forces 
which are craving to restore the status quo. to lead back from vai- 
s h a m y a, heterogeneity, to s a ra y a, sameness, homogeneity. These 
latter began imperceptible wearing down of the buildings simultaneously 
with their erection ; and have completed, or will complete someday, the 


what appears as an increase in one place and moment, is 
necessarily due to a decrease in another place and moment, 
and vice versa. This will appear further in treating of 
the Law of Action and Reaction. 

In these facts, coexistent and successsive, combined 
with the infinity and eternity of Self against which 
they are outlined, and which they constantly endeavour 
to reflect and reproduce in themselves we find embodied 
and manifested, continuous movement of all and 
everything, from place to place and moment to moment ; 
and also recurring return of all and everything, 
though only in appearance and not in actuality, to the 
same position (comparatively, never exactly,), in coex- 
istent surroundings amidst its companion-objects, and 
also to the same position in the successive order and 
arrangement of those objects. 

This thought, if properly followed out, explains the 
Why of Recurring Cycles, in individual as well as kosmic 
life ; why history is always repeating itself, in the 
main outlines ; why every j Iva and all j ivas must pass 
though all experiences and the same experiences, turn 
after turn ; how every finite thing, even a passing thought, 
an atom vibration, the most evanescent phenomenon, is 
pseudo-infinite and pseudo-eternal, i.e., endless and 
everlasting ; why there must be an endlessness of veils 
upon veils, planes within planes, senses besides senses, 
and elements after elements ; why nothing and no one, 

levelling down of them and the filling up of the hollows. It is a common- 
place of geology that mountains turn into ocean-beds and vice versa, by 
slow erosions and fillings and liftings, or sudden cataclysms. 


atom-dust or solar system, is on the whole, really more 
important than any other ; why and how the immortality 
of Self is assured to all ; and how all are yet always 
graded to each other and bound up, in ever higher and 
higher range of Unity, in (every consciousness, because 
all consciousnesses are equally contained in) the One 
Consciousness. 1 

The considerations which explain why the logion 
is taken in two, or rather, three parts, also explain 
how three moments are distinguishable in the Absolute. 
Indeed, the difference between the three parts and the 
three moments is only the difference between the third 
person, on the one hand, and the first and second, on 
the other; between looking at Self and Not-Self as 
Being and Nothing, or as * I * and ' This '. The simul- 
taneity of past, present, and future ; tbe compression 
into one point, of behind, here, and before ; the absence of 
all movement ; these are congenial to the Whole, but are 
not possible to and in the part and the particular. The 
positing, the sup-posing (while denying), of Not-Self 
by Self, the op-posing (while affirming) of Not- 
Self by Self ; the corn-posing of (while negating all 
connection between) the two by means of Negation ; 

1 In Puranic pictography, this fact of the ' end-less continuous 
spiral* of the World-Process is described as the 'coils of An-anta- 
S h 6 s h a ', the ' ever-unfinished, ever-remaining ' Serpent of a thousand 
heads who bears a world on each head See the diagram on p. 432 
of The Secret Doctrine, III. Shesha means 'that which always 
remains behind as Residuum ' ; it also means, in Nvaya, * the means 
which look to an end as their residue ' . The word is derived from s h i s h, 
' to leave a residue '; s h e s h a t i, leaves a remainder ' ; shishyate, 
1 is left behind as remnant '. 


these three facts, while simultaneous in the Absolute, 
where the whole Self deals with the whole Not-Self, 
cannot be such where a particular, limited, not-self or 
4 this ' is concerned. They can appear only in succession : 
first sup-posing, positing, moment of jnana; then op- 
posing (after identifying), moment of kriya;and, 
intervening between them, or, indeed, enveloping them 
both and holding them together, corn-posing, the 
moment of ichchha. Yet, even while so succeeding 
one another, these moments cannot, as pointed out in the 
previous chapter, altogether lose the contemporaneous- 
ness which belongs to them by right of being in the time- 
less and successionless Absolute. This synchronous- 
ness appears in the fact that when anyone comes into the* 
foreground, the other two remain in the background, and 
that these also come forward, turn by turn ; in short, 
they succeed, not only one another but, each other, and 
in incessant rotation. 1 

Thus is the World -Process one vast device, or, 
rather, one vast mass of countless devices, for perpetual 
reconciling of the opposed necessities of the reason. 

Another of the more important consequences issuing 
from the essential nature, the limitedness, the parti- 
cularity and manyness, of Mula-prakrti, may also be 

The distinctions between thought and thing, ideal 
and real, abstract and concrete, are all immediately due 

1 These facts illustrate the metaphysical ' why ' of the continuum of 
consciousness, in one aspect, the theory of which has been propounded 
by James Ward, Stout, and others in the West. 


to this characteristic, and are in reality nothing more 
than the distinction between whole and part. From the 
standpoint of the whole, the Absolute, or even from* that 
of the universal Pratyag-atma, all possible varieties of 
Not-Self are * ideal/ are ' thought,' are parts of the 
* abstract ' Not-Self, are thought, by the Self, as negated ; 
but each such variety, from its own standpoint, to itself, 
is * real,' is * thing,' is ' concrete '. The present, to that 
which is present, is the re-al, while the past and the 
future are idea-1 ; but to the eternal, wherein past, present, 
and future are all present, all is ideal, or all real (the 
name does not matter). Because all is present in the 
Pratyag-atma, therefore memory of the past and expecta- 
tion of the future become possible in the jiv-atma 1 
All this will be discussed more fully, later on, in connec- 
tion with the nature of * cognition '. 

The Special Attributes of Not-Self 

We may now consider those special attributes of 
Not-Self which stand out with prominence in 
Sarnskrt books. They are sattva, rajas, and 
t a m a s. They correspond exactly to the three attributes 
of Pratyag-atma, and arise also from the same com- 
pelling necessity of the constitution, Sva-bhava, 

1 The Universal Mind of Pratyag-atma is the sub-supra-conscious- 
ness of j i v a m , the basis of its memory and expectation, of 
c h i 1 1 a m, the individual mind, which indeed is the individual j i va (or 
jiva-atom)* Chittam is that which ch|aya|i. remembers, 
looks before and after, is conscious, is aware; it is the limited form 
of the unlimited C h i t or C h i \ i. 


essential Nature, of the Absolute, as described by the 
Logion. It is unnecessary to repeat here all that has been 
said in this reference before. It will be enough to say 
that : (a) as Sat is the principle of ' action ' or activity in 
Self, so rajas is the corresponding principle in Not- 
Self, which makes it capable of being acted on, makes it 
amenable and responsive to all activity, gives it the tend- 
ency to active movement, * mobility or motility J ; (6) as 
Chit is the principle of ' cognition ' in the One, so s a 1 1 v a 
is the principle of ' cognisability ' in the Many ; (c) as 
A n a n d a is the principle of ' desire ' in the Enjoyer, the 
Subject, so t a m a s is the principle of * desirability ' in 
the enjoyed, the Object. They correspond, respectively, 
to what appears in the particular, i.e., manifest matter, 
as karma, movement, g u n a, quality, d r a v y a, sub- 
stance ' ; and, again, to the Etat, the Aham, and the Na, 
respectively, in the Absolute.* 

fiCTTfc W, 

I Pevi-Bhagavata, III. vii, 26 

*The ordinary, current, and, so far, almost exclusively accepted 
meaning, as goodness-pafcsjon-inertia, respectively, of sat t va-rajas- 
tamas, is different; as in the case of Sat-Chi t,-Anan4a, being- 
consciousness-bliss, also Glta, ch. xviii, deals largely with these three 
attributes, of Mula-prakrti : and they are also defined in Sankhya- 
K&rika. At first sight]" there seems to be no connection between 
the meanings assigned here to the two triplets of qualities be- 
longing to Self and Not-Self, and the meaning assigned In current 
Samskrt works. When the ordinary v < d a n t i wishes to describe the 
opposites of Sat-Cbi(J-Anan<la, which he vaguely ascribes to Brahma 
(without making any definite distinction between Brahma and Pratyag- 
atma), he speaks of anr, ta-ja<}a-duhkh a, untrue-unconscious- 
pain, as characterising what he. again vaguely, calls SamsSra, 
the World-Process, or Pr a- pa Etch a, the '.quintuplicate ' or the 
'tangled'. This is, for instance, the phraseology employed in 
These current acceptations are by no means 


Such are the three gunas, rajas, sattva and 
tarn as, or, in the order in which they are usually 
mentioned, sattva, rajas, and tamas the great 
attributes of Mulaprakrti. This usual order has been 
changed above, in order to make it correspond with 
the order in which the attributes of Pratyag-atma,- 
S a t-C h i d- A n a n d a, are usually spoken of ; i.e., in 
order to bring out the reflection-and-alliance, the corres- 
pondence, between Sat and r a j a s or action-less Being 
and alterable movement ; C h i t and sattva, or cogni- 
tionless Consciousness and cognisable quality ; and finally 
A n a n d a and tamas, or desire-less Bliss and desir- 
able substantiality. With regard to these it has been 

incorrect, but they are not the ' whole truth ' . They are correct only 
if regarded as expressing one, and a comparatively less important, aspect 
or portion of the full significance. A little reflection will show how 
they naturally arise out of, and are connected with, the interpretations 
given here. The following statement of the various senses, in which 
each of these six words is used in Samskrt, will help to show how thought 
has passed from one shade of meaning to another : 

flc^ sat, is being, existent, real, true, good, also asserted or 
asser table, actual , 

, c h i t, is living, conscious, aware, cognisant , 
, ana nda, is peace, feeling of satisfaction, joy, bliss, 
pleasure, realisation of desire ; 

, sattva, is being, existence, truth, goodness, harmony, living 
being, energy, illuminating power, vital power ; 

rajas, is that which colours, dust, stain, blood, passion, 
restlessness, activity. 

, tamas, is darkness, dullness, inertia, confusion, chaos, pain, 
faintness, sleep. 

Sattva. rajas, tamas, have often latterly been translated as 
rhythm,' mobility, inertia. But these words indicate only one sub-aspect 
of each. Sattvika rajas is rhythm, i.e., harmonious or uniform repeti- 
tion, and the imposition, thereby, of one-ness on a series of many move- 
ments. Rajasa rajas is mobility proper. Tamasa rajas is inertia, persistent 
clinging to a state of relative rest or motion. 


said that ' there is no individual or thing, either on earth 
here or in heaven amongst the gods, which is free from 
(i.e. devoid of) any one of these three qualities "J Their 
inseparability from each other and from Not-Self, and 
therefore from Self, follows naturally from all that has 
gone before. Devl-Bhagavata * states clearly and shows 
how, while one quality may, nay must, predominate in a 
certain individual, the others are never, and can never 
be, entirely absent* even in the case of the high gods, 
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva ; though they are ordinarily 
regarded as wholly rajasa, sattvika, and, tamasa, 

The manifestations and results, but not the causes, of 
these g u n a s , are spoken of largely in the current Samskrf 
works. Nor are any clear and detailed statements as to 
the correspondences between these triplets of attributes, 
S a t-C h i d-A n a n d a, r a j a s-s a 1 1 v a-t a m a s, k r i y &- 
j n an a-ich ch h a, and ka r ma-gun a-dravy a, avail- 
able in the extant books. Of course, it is enough, in a 
certain sense, to group the contents of the World- 
Process under the categories of s a 1 1 v a, r a j a s, and 
t a m a s, because, at present, the Mula-prakrti or material 
aspect is the most prominent in human life ; but full 
understanding of their significance necessarily requires 
knowledge of the other triplets. 

This Not-Self, the second of the three ultimates of 
the World-Process, is not capable of receiving worship, 

1 G*f0, xvii, 40. 
* III, vi, vii, viii, ix. 


or of being made the basis of religious practice, except 
in the way of study, as the object. But even so, be- 
cause it is one of the ultimates, it will necessarily lead, 
in the end, to a recognition of the other two, and so to 
Peace. To single-minded, disinterested, and unselfish 
scientists and students of the world of material objects, 
may be applied the words of Krshna : * They also, ever 
desirous of the good of all creatures, come ultimately to 
Me, the Self.' ' Witness the instinctive, recognition of Self, 
in these statements by a man of science : " Science serves 
life, not life science " ; " The world is an idea, or a sum 
of ideas " ; " The actual problem . . . consists not in ex- 
plaining psychical by physical phenemena, but rather in 
reducing to its psychical elements physical, like all other 
psychical, phenomena." 2 It is not surprising that such 
recognition should often be imperfect and often distorted, 
as witness this other statement of the same man of 
science : " . . . this monistic conception . . . alone holds 
strictly to experience . . . and necessarily sets aside the 
ancient doctrine ... of the wandering of the soul." 3 

1 Gift*, xii, 4. 

2 Max Verworn, General Physiology, translated into English by 
F. S. Lee (1899), pp. 2, 37, 38. ' 

Monism includes Pluralism 

3 Ibid., p. 39. Study of physical science, pursued sufficiently 
far, no doubt leads to monism also ; to the realisation that the World- 
Process is something continuous, unbroken : that the individual is not 
independent, but part of one continuous whole. But the a d v a i t a 
thus reached is generally an external or objective a d v a i t a, so to say, 
one in terms of the third person. Further reflection converts it into 
internal and subjective ; transforms it into terms of the first person. To 
reach a d v a i t a is to attain moksha ; and vichara, viveka, think- 
ing, is the way : pondering, reflecting, discriminating, meditating, 
dwelling on any one of the main aspects or factors of the universe, 

1 consciousness ' (see pp. 26-29, supra), or ' will,' ' cause, 1 ' matter,' or 


It is much to have advanced to a recognition of Self ; 
correction of inaccurate and hasty deductions, is possible 
only on due study of the nature of that Self. That study 
will show how there may be, or rather must be, one Self 
and monism or rather non-dualism, and yet also many 
selves and " wanderings of souls," at the same time. 

'force,' etc. In fact, the seeker may start anywhere, but if he only 
goes on to the end, he will surely arrive at the same goal. But, it should 
be noted and remembered, the intellectual attitude of a b h y as a, perse- 
verant search, must be accompanied by the ethical attitude of v a i r a g y a, 
passionate rejection of the selfishness of the personal or individual self ; 
otherwise the Universal Self will remain hidden ; for the plain reason 
that the eye, which is turned to the finite by selfish desire, cannot see 
that which is in the opposite direction, the Infinite, to which the eye can 
be turned only by tm-selfish desire ; but when it is so turned, it simply 
cannot help seeing It. 

NOTE. Such statements as those of Max Verworn, 
quoted above, have become increasingly common in the half- 
century that has elapsed since the appearance of that sci- 
entist's book. Modern physicists have begun to say, ' Matter 
is only Force,' ' Atoms are vortices of Nothing ; ' which is, 
perhaps, going to the other extreme. (See leading scientists' 
opinions collected in The Essential Unity of All Religions; 
pp. 19-26). Mula-Prakrti (Matter, Matra) and Daivi- 
Prakrti (Force, S h a k J i, from d i v, to shine, to play) are 
not separable; but they are distinguishable. The Secret 
Doctrine says, " Fohat digs holes in Space " ; which holes are 
atoms. The idea seems to be that if you regard Space as a 
Plenum, then atoms are to be understood or imagined as 
holes in it (like air-bubbles in a solid lump of glass), by 
contrast of ' finite individual ' against * In-finite Universal ". 
Per contra, if you look upon Space as a Vacuum, then atoms 
have to be thought of as * solid particles ', for the same 
contrast. A brief look into the 500-pages of minute-print 
Indices (Secret Doctrine, Vol.^ VI of the Adyar edition), at 
references to ' Atom ', ' Fohat ', ' Force ', ' Space ', * Plenum ', 
4 Vacuum ', will convince the reader of the overwhelming 
character of the very numerous and very different statements 
regarding each. After a second and a third systematic 


reading of the whole work to say nothing of the much more 
frequent consultation of particular pages the mind remains 
puzzled and bewildered. At the same time, it also remains 
convinced that the book is not to be lightly put aside, in 
hopeless revolt against its ' mysteriousness ', but must be 
pondered over, again and again. Almost every statement, 
however dis-jointed-seeming, has some important significance ; 
and each successive pondering brings some new and interesting 
aspect into view. Anyway, even one reading of the great work, 
and of The Mahatma Letters, leaves the reader in possession 
of a positive general idea, though cloudy and tantalising, of the 
law of cyclic and spiral in volution -evolution, as governing the 
Whole World-Process, and the subsidiary law of septenates, 
as governing at least the solar sytem to which our earth and 
our race belong. It also gives a very encouraging glimpse 
into, and throws light on, the meaning of Puranic allegories. 

If a few metaphysical principles are drawn from Ve- 
danta, and are firmly held and carefully and diligently applied, 
they may prove a very helpful clue in the labyrinthine 
jungle of facts and ' fancies ' (allegories), set out in the books. 
Their complexity only copies the actual World-Process ; 
and the. books themselves insist, over and over again, on the 
necessity of studying Brahma- vidya, Atma- vidya, Vedanta, in 
order to simplify the complexity, and to understand the 
Nature, of the World -Process, and also to practise successfully, 
the wholesome individual and social life of 'Dharma, which 
brings happiness here and hereafter/ Study of metaphysic is 
strongly advised in The Mahatma Letters, pp. 250, 262. 

The reader is invited to peruse carefully, pp. 79-83 of the 
Proem (in Vol. I, of The Secret Doctrine, Adyar edition), at 
this stage, and consider whether the preceding chapters of the 
present work help to make any clearer, the connotations of, 
and the relations between, (1) " Para-brahman, the One 
Reality, the Absolute, . . . Absolute Consciousness, . . . 
Absolute Negation, ... (2) Spirit (or Consciousness) and 
Matter, Subject and Object. ... (3) Pre-cosmic Ideation . . . 
fons et origo of (3 -a) Force and of all Individual Consci- 
ousness ; . . . (3-b) Pre-cosmic Root-substance (Mula-prakrji), 
. . . that aspect of the Absolute which underlies all the 
objective planes of Nature ; " (p. 80). On p. 81, it is said ; 


" Just as pre-Cosmic Ideation is the root of all individual Con- 
sciousness, so pre-Cosmic substance is the substratum of 
Matter in the various grades of its differentiation. . . . Apart 
from Cosmic substance, Cosmic Ideation could not manifest 
as individual Consciousness, since it is only through a vehicle 
that consciousness wells up as ' I am I ', a physical basis 
being necessary to focus a Ray of the Universal Mind. . . . 
The Manifested Universe, therefore, is pervaded by Duality, 
which is, as it were, the very essence of its EX-istence as 
* Manifestation '. But just as the opposite poles of Subject 
and Object, Spirit and Matter, are but aspects of the One 
Unity in which they are synthesised, so, in the Manifested 
Universe, there is that which links Spirit to Matter, Subject 
to Object.^ This something is called by Occultists, (4) Fohat. 
It is the ' bridge ' by which the (4-a) Ideas existing in the (5) 
Divine ^Thought are impressed on Cosmic substance as the 
' Laws of Nature '. Fohat is thus the (6) Dynamic Energy 
of Cosmic Ideation, or, regarded from the other side, it is the 

(7) intelligent medium, the guiding power of all manifestation, 
the ' Thought Divine '. . . . Fohat, in its various manifesta- 
tions, is the mysterious link between Mind and Matter, the 

(8) animating principle " [ p r a n. a in one aspect, j i v a in 
another ] " electrifying every atom into life." (The figures 
1 to 8, in brackets, have been put in by the present writer, 
in the above excerpt.) 

* Absolute Negation ', ' Absolute Consciousness ', ' I am 
I ', the Why and the How of the origin of Duality in 
or from the ' One Unity ' ; the metaphysical crux of such 
a Relation between Subject and Object, Spirit and Matter, 
as will not falsify the Absoluteness of the Absolute Nega- 
tion ; all these may perhaps be better understood if 
' Absolute Negation * and 'I am I ' are interpreted in the 
light of 'I-am-(Not Not)-I '. ^So, too, Fohat, as 'that 
which links Spirit to Matter/ as * dynamic energy of Cosmic 
Ideation,' as ' intelligent Medium, the Thought Divine 'and 
as * the animating principle ' all this may, perhaps, be 
better understood, if ' I-(am)-Not-Not-I ' is seen as the 
Supreme Logion (or Logos), Maha-vaky a, Great Word, 
the whole of Cosmic Ideation, Thought Divine, and the One 
Supreme Law of Nature ; if it is seen as the Necessity of the 


whirling wheeling round and round each other, in mutual suc- 
cession, of ' Am ' and c Am-Not ', as ' Dynamic Energy ; and 
if the Desire- Will aspect of * Am ' and ' Am-Not ' is seen as 
* animating principle ', and the subordinate Laws of Nature as 
' subsidiary necessities ', issuing like corollaries from the One 
Primal Necessity hidden in the Supreme Logion, and express- 
ed by minor maha-vakya-s. The succeeding chapters 
m^y perhaps help to make the nature of Force- Shakti a little 

The all-important facts or concepts of Space, Time, and 
Motion, also naturally figure prominently, and are referred to 
frequently, in H.P.B.'s great Work (as the Index indicates 
amply). But the metaphysical Why and How of them does not 
appear to have been expounded in it. An attempt is made in 
this work, in the preceding, and further endeavour will be 
made in the succeeding, chapters, to supply this, as well as a 
few other thoughts or things, out of Samskrt scriptures. 

The Mahatma Letters and The Secret Doctrine 

In connection with this topic, of de-finite a-tom (in- 
divis-ible, from Gr. a, not, and tonein, to cut, to divide) and * 
In -finite space, the following quotation from The Mahatma 
Letters, 'pp. 77-78, may be helpful to bear in mind : " The 
whole individuality is centred in the middle, or 3rd, 4th, and 
5th principles. During earthly life it is all in the 4th (Kama- 
rupa, sometimes called Kama-Manas), the centre of energy, 
volition, will." Veda- Upanishats say, Kama- maya 6 v a 
ayam purushah, ' (in-divid-ualised) Man is Desire only ', 
i.e., Desire is the in-divid-ualising, focussing, finitising, de- 
fining, de-limiting, principle. Now, that which is Desire-Force 
in the mental, ideal, ' spiritual ', or ' subjective ' aspect, that 
same manifests as Fohat-Force in the physical, real, 
'material', or objective* aspect, and makes the in- divid-uai 
in-divis-ible a-tom. Fohat ' focusses ' the Universal, concent- 
rates it, brings It to a point, makes it an in-divid-ual, (as ? 
magnifying glass does the diffused sunshine). It does this 
by linking, binding (band ha), the whole and Universal I 
with a part-icle, a part-icular ' this ', an ' a-tom ', an 
up -ad hi, 'l-am-this'. The Secret Doctrine defines and 
describes Fohat and its doings in dozens of ways (vide Index) ; 
but this metaphysical idea will probably help to synthesise 


them all. The chapters which follow, attempt to expound 
this idea further. The Science of the Emotions deals in 
extenso with the view that ' the individual man is essentially 
Desire', and Cognition and Volition- Action are adjuncts; 
and that the fading away of Desire is, per contra, the 
re-universalising of the individual, the resolving and dissolving 
of the whirlpool, its moksha, releasing, back into the Ocean. 





THE third factor in the S v a - b h a v a, own-being, of the 
Absolute is ni-shedha, or prati-shdha, Negation, 
denial, ' Not/ or rather the connecting of ' Not ' with 
' Not-I 'by * I '.' From the standpoint of the Absolute, 
this third factor is not a third, any more than the second 
is a second ; for the third is a negation of the second 

1 *HW ; fMfa, Slfcf-fa. ' Own-being ' may be regarded as a 
variant of ' thing-in-itself ' ; it is ' self -being.' 'being-in-its-self,' the 
peculiarity, personality, individuality of the thing ; ' temperament ' in 
the mediaeval medical phrase ; ' constitutional idiosyncracy ' in the 
modern scientific medical phrase; prakr.ti, nature, in both Samskft 
Darshana, i.e., philosophy, and Vaidyaka, i.e., medicine. 

Mula-prakrti or Matter and Daivi-prakrti or Force, together, make 
up the whole Sva-bhavaof Purusha or Pratyag-atmS. ^f^-^jftwrgt: 
3&3:, 'Force and Possessor of Force are not-different, not -separate 
though distinguishable/ 


which is Nothing, No-limited-or-particular-thing, Not- 
Being ; and, where this is so, it also follows that the first 
is not a first, for there is nothing left to recognise it by as 
a first ; the resultant being a Purity of Peace as regards 
which nothing can be said and no exception taken. The 
full significance of this Negation, which is the nexus 
between Self and Not-Self, will appear when we consider 
the different interpretations, which turn upon it, of the 
logion, each correct, and each exemplified and illustrated 
in the universe around us. Thus, the logion Aham- 
Etat-Na may mean : 

(a) M U A. Not Not-Self (,but only) Self (is). 

(6) U A M. Not-self (is, and) Self (is) Not. 

(c) M A U. (Only vacuity, nothingness is, and) 
Not Self (or) Not-Self. 

<<*) A M U. Self (is) Not Not-Self ; or, Self (is) 
Not (,to the) Not-Self. 

(e) U M A. Not-Self (is) Not Self ; or Not-Self 
(is) Not (,to) Self. 

(/) A U M. Self (is) Not-Self (and also) Not (it). 

(g) A U M. Self Not-Self Not, the Ab- 
solute wherein all possible permutations are. 1 

1 These permutations are based on statements made in the Pranava- 
Vada, an unpublished Saraskrt MS., referred to in Note I at the end of 
Ch.' VII (p. 121, supra). As explained in detail in that work, V6da t 
in the full sense of the word, is Cosmic Ideation, i.e., everything, 
tsee footnote, p. 40 supra) , and the four collections of hymns, currently 
known as the Vldas, in the plural, may be regarded as comparatively 
small but highly important text-books of superphysical art and meta- 
physical science. 

The question may be legitimately asked : If all these permutations 
and combinations of the factors of the logion are, as indeed they 
obviously ought to be, included in Cosmic Ideation, and therefore true in 


Such permutations and combinations of Self and 
Not-Self and Negation give rise to the actual varieties 
of facts in the universe and to the corresponding beliefs 
of man ; now to the prevalence of Spirit, now to the 

their own times, places, and circumstances, is there any final absolute 
truth, independently of time, place, and circumstance ; and is there any 
infallible test of truth ? Who is to judge between the rival claimants of 
truth ? What will decide ? Is it spiritual experience ? But spiritual ex- 
periences differ also ; who is to judge between them ? 

These difficulties may be solved thus. Absolute Truth can be only 
that which totals up, reconciles, and synthesises in itself, all ' other ' 
truths, showing that they are all relative or partial or half-truths., If a 
person says : " No ; errors and heresies are the irreconcilable opposites 
of the truth," then he has to explain how they, (like sin, evil, pain, etc.,) 
came to be. If he says, " By the act of God," then ' God ' is his absolute 
truth wherein the reconciliation is found. What ' God ' means, and how 
he brings home the ' absolute truth ' of ' God ' creating error, etc., will 
remain for him to explain, or rather for the questioner and seeker to find 
out ; for, the person who says errors are irreconcilable and synthesis 
impossible, has no use for- absolute truth, i.e., the Absolute ; he is not 
seeking it and does not want it yet. He is perfectly content with what 
he has got, and it would be a mistake to try to give to him something 
else which he does not want ; as food to one not hungry. If there be 
any special reasons making it right to do so, then the need should first 
be aroused in him. But the craving for Absolute Truth is not easily 
aroused from without, by 'another'. It comes from within, through 
the cyclic processes of life of the individual self. Therefore, among the 
special and peculiar qualifications mentioned for the student of Ve<Janta, 
the seeker after Brahma, is the ethical attitude of v a i r a g y a, revulsion 
from the worldly life and dispassionate compassion for all sufferers, and 
shama, 4ama, uparati, titiksha, shraddha, sama<jhana. 
inner subsidence of desire and consequent serenity, self-control over 
senses, wish for retirement and repose, resigned endurance of whatever 
befalls, firm faith in one-Self and in the guide and teacher one has 
chosen with due care, and collected single-mindedness ; Brhad Up., 
4.4.23; Nrsimha Uttara Tapini Up. t 6; Shankara, Sharlraka 
Bh&shya, I. i. 1. 

^: I Bhagavaja, VI, iv, 41. 

Daksha, reprimanding Narada, (who has led Daksha's young sons 
astray, preaching vairagya to them), says: 'Without experience of the 
sharpness, the intensity, of the objects of sense, there can be no surfeit and 
no real, lasting, revulsion therefrom; the j i v a should, therefore, turn 
from the world, suo motu ; not mis-led prematurely by others.' 


triumph of Matter, again to the reign of p r a 1 a y a ; to 
dreaming, waking, and sleeping ; to subjective monism 
or idealism, objective monism or materialism, sh u nya- 
vada or nihilism, pantheism, solipsism, dualism, ab- 
solutism, etc. (corresponding broadly, not strictly, to 
a, 6, c, etc., above, respectively) and all other possible 
forms of beliefs. 1 All these permutations mean only the 

But as soon as the craving is aroused, the possibility of fulfilling it is 
aroused also. So soon as, and no sooner than, a question forms in the 
mind, the answer begins to form also. In fact the question is the first 
part of the answer. As soon as a person says, " I want the Absolute 
Truth." he means, " I want something which will reconcile, synthesise, 
explain, and not merely condemn and abuse, all truths other or less than 
this ideal Absolute Truth " ; and, as soon as he means that, he is on the 
track of it, he has got hold of a vital feature of it. "It takes two to tell 
the truth, one to tell it and one to hear it " ; *' truth is truth to him who 
believes it " : " the one test of truth is the belief of the believer " , if 
you convince a person that what he has believed so far is not true, then 
you have created a new belief in him \ therefore he, the I, the Self, 
the One We, is the final, universal, absolute test of Truth. ' Self -evidence ' 
is the absolute test and the Absolute Truth. He who asks, " Who is to 
judge?" understands the answer, " The judge must be common, impartial, 
equally benevolent to him, you, me, all the parties , and, here, such is 
the Self ' ' ; and he who asks ' ' What is to prove, ' ' will understand the 
answer, "Self-evidence,'' the evidence of the Self, by, to, and in the 
Self. The western school of thinkers who said ' conceivability ' was the 
test, really meant this. ' Spiritual experience ' is nothing distant and 
mysterious. A//a-pa-roksha, direct ' experience, ' which comes home, 
whether cognitive, emotional, or actional, is such; and whether of 
physical or of superphysical and subtle things. It attains its highest 
degree, its ' re-alisation ', its ' re-ality', its ' act-uality ', when all these 
aspects of the consciousness coalesce, when the individual's cognition 
is so clear and certain that he feels or desires and also acts accordingly. 
The faith that maketh martyrs witnesseth itself. See pp, 22-23, 96, suf>ra. 

1 f fa *HT sreNsra ar3Ri ^faft: 1*1*1 i 

flf sqHKJ gfaJTr^; f^tf PftrofoCTJI Bhagavaja, XI, xxii. 

' The seers have thus explained the fundamental constituents and 
features of the universe in various ways. Each way is just, because of its 
own special reasons. The wise see no conflict and no lack of beauty 
in any.' 

Each preceding view leaves behind an unreduced surd, and conse- 
quent discontent, which grows slowly. When the last view is reached, 

?., CH. Xl] TURMOIL within PEACE 203 

accentuating, in different degrees, of the factors of the 
Logion severally. If we emphasise them all equally, 
then we find the Peace of the Absolute left untouched ; 
because the net result, of the three being taken in combi- 
nation, is always a neutralising, a balancing, of opposition, 
which may indifferently be called fullness or emptiness, 
peace or blankness, " the voice, the music, the resonance 
of the silence " ; because the three, A, U, and M, are 
verily simultaneous, are in inseparable combination, are 
not amenable to arrangements and re-arrangements, to 
permutations and combinations ; and these last merely 
appear, but appear inevitably, only when the whole is 
looked at from the standpoint of apart an A, a U, or an 
M, which is necessarily bound to an order, a succession, 
an arrangement. And yet also the whole multitude 
and Turmoil of the World-Process is in that Peace ; for 
' No-thing,' Not-Self, is ' all things destroying each 
other,' and Negation is ' abolition of all these particular 
things ' ; and ' I ' is that for the sake of which, and in , 
and by the consciousness of which, all this abolition 
takes place. This is the true significance of the Sankhya 
doctrine that Prakrti, Not-Self, displays herself and 
hides herself incessantly, only in order to provide an 
endless foil for the Self-realisation, the amusement, 

no surd remains ; all views are reconciled ; each is seen to have its own 
beauty and duty. From one standpoint, pantheism may appear as a com- 
bination of I and Not-I only, rather than as a permutation of all three 
factors of the Logion. But (f) above may be interpreted as Spinoza's 
pantheism, viz., that A and U, Thought and Extension, (Mind and 
Matter), both, are two aspects of that which is Not-describable otherwise ; 
or as Pope's pantheism, viz., "The universe is one stupendous whole, 
whose Body Nature is and God the soul ' ' . 


of Purusha, Self. 1 In such interplay, both find ever- 
lasting and inevitable fullness of manifestation, fullness 
of realisation, and unfettered recreation. 
Metaphysical Catalysis 

1 Compare H. Ellis, Psychology of Sex, Vol. Ill, p. 95 
(" Love and Pain ") : " . . . The male is active and the female 
passive and imaginatively attentive to the states of the 
excited male . . . The female develops a superadded activity, 
the male becomiug relatively passive and imaginatively 
attentive to the psychical and bodily states of the female. 
. . ." ; and the well-known doctrines, of Sarikhya, viz., that 
Purusha is the actionless Spectator of the movements, the 
dance, of Prakrti ; and of Vedanta, viz., that the juxtaposition 
or coexistence of Purusha and Prakrti, (the metaphysical 
archetypes of sex), superimposes, causes a d h y a s a of, the 
characteristics of each upon the other, by v i-v a r t a, inversion. 

The mere presence and proximity of a person, of one sex 
is enough to produce some excitement (not necessarily lustful 
at all) in a person of the other sex. The Sankhya description of 
Prakrti exhibiting Herself to the watching Purusha, and 
shrinking away ashamed, as soon as the latter loses interest and 
turns away His eyes this is, literally, an expansion, to the 
Universal and Infinite scale, of the facts of daily sex-life ; and 
the latter are, conversely and obversely, the contraction 
to the finite scale, of the Infinite Fact, of the never-ceasing 
Drama of the Interplay of the Eternal Masculine and the 
pseudo- Eternal Feminine. 

r 3*4 %$& gqfa 

Sankhya Karika, 21 and 16. 

* In order that Purusha may see Prakrti and then retire into 
Soli-tude, and that Prakrji may show Herself (and then shrink 
away), the two come together ; as may the lame man who 
cannot walk but can see, and the blind man who can walk but 
cannot see, in order to help each other. Very modest, shy, 


The why of the movement of this Interplay, of to 
and fro, identification and separation, action and reaction, 
has been already dealt with, in one aspect, in the previ- 
ous chapter. It will have appeared from what was said 
there, that the Negation necessarily appears, and can only 
appear, in the limited as, first, an affirmation, and then, a 

We may now consider a little more fully the nature 
of the affirmation and the negation. The statement, 
repeated from time to time, that negation hides affir- 
mation within it, and as preceding it in time, should be 
clearly grasped. In the logion, Ego Non-ego Non (est), 
the bracketed est, (or sum), is the hidden affirmation. A 
little reflection shows that it should be so, and must be 
so, quite unobjectionably ; that thought can detect no 
fault in the fact. Take away the est, not only from the 
sentence but really from consciousness, and the remain- 
ing three words lose all coherent meaning. To deny a 
thing, it is necessary first to describe it r to allege it as 
at least a supposition, a hypothesis ; and to describe it, 
is to postulate for it at least a false, an assumed, 

sensitive, is Prakrty ; for having shown herself, and been seen, 
if the spectator turns away, she vanishes/ The chemical pheno- 
menon of catalysis seems to correspond to the psychological 
phenomenon of " imaginative attention " and its effects upon 
that which is attended to. The watering of the mouth in the 
presence of a tasteful edible ; the expanding of the eyes or the 
nostrils, in that of a beautiful form or color or fragrant 
perfume all these are variants of the same fact. In all cases, 
of course, the perceiver must be ' interested ' and ( pursuant ' ; 
not ' tired ' and ' renunciant '. 


existence. In order that Non-Ego may be denied, it must 
first be alleged as at least a supposition. For this reason, 
and for the reason that affirmation and negation cannot be 
contemporaneous in a single, particular, limited, thing, it 
comes about, as we have seen, that the logion, for the pur- 
poses of the limited, in order that the limited may ex-ist 
and appear and be a fact at all, necessarily falls into two 
parts, (a) Ego Non-Ego, and (6) Non-Ego Non. The first 
contains implicitly, hidden in its stated words, the word 
est or sum, for otherwise it has no meaning ; and the 
second part also similarly contains implicitly within it the 
same word est or sum, which alone gives it any significance. 
For the reasons already partially explained in chapters 
VII and IX, the affirmation and the negation respectively 
take on the form of an identification of Self with Not- 
Self, and of a separation from it. The mere unconcerned 
assertion, in the third person, of the being or the non- 
being of Non-Ego, has no interest for Self ; it has no 
motive for making such an apathetic assertion. Such 
indifferent statement about another would have no reason 
to justify it, to make it necessary, to explain why it came 
to be made at all. It cannot be said that Not-Self is a 
fact, and so has an existence independent of the motives 
and reasons and interests of Self ; because it has been 
settled at the outset that Not-Self cannot be, must not 
be, is not, independent of Self, but very dependent 
thereon for all such existence as it has. Therefore it 
follows necessarily that the assertion and denial of that 
Not-Self by Self should be connected with a purpose in 


Self, should immediately subserve some interest in that 
Self. The only purpose and interest that there can be, in 
that which is Ever-Perfect, "Full, Desireless, and therefore 
Purposeless, is Self-recognition, Self-definition, Self-reali- 
sation, Self -maintenance, Self-preservation, Self-asser- 
tion. The eternal Self requires nothing in reality from 
outside of it-Self ; it is only ever engaged in the one 
pastime of asking : " What am I ? what am I ? am I 
this ? am I this ? " and assuring itself : " No, I am not 
this, I am not this, but only My-Self." This pastime, 1 it 
must be remembered, which, from the standpoint of the 
1 this ' is repeated again and again, is from the standpoint 
of the ' I ' but one single, eternal, and 'changeless act of 
consciousness in which there is no movement. Thus, 
therefore, the affirmation necessarily takes on the form of 
an identification of ' I ' with ' Not-I,' and the negation, 
that of the dis-identification, the separation, of ' I ' from 
4 Not-I '. The logion is not merely a neutral state- 
ment of the non-entity of * Not-I '. 

The affirmation, then, Ego est Non-Ego, not only 
imposes on ' Not-I ' the Being which belongs inherently 
to Self, but also, for the time, makes it identical with 
the Self, i.e., a self ; and at this stage, that is to say, in 
the separation of the two parts of the logion, because 
' Not-I ' is always a particular, a limited something, it 
takes on its most significant character and name, viz., 

1 ^faftil 3 5ft*wfcf*t I Brahma-Stitra, II. i, 32. L i 1 is pastime. 
A western writer has said well that ' ' The history of man is one long 
search for God". Vedn|a and Sankhya-Yoga instruct us how "The 
history of the whole universe is one eternal search-and-finding by Self of 
It-Self ". See f. n. 2 on p. 84, supra. 


' this,' i d a m ', or ' t a t,' as it is called in Samskrt 
books. Side by side, also, with this change of name of 
Not-Self, (which does not mein any change of nature, but 
only indicates the special and most important aspect and 
manifestation of the nature of Not-Self), the bracketed est 
becomes sum, and the first part of the logion becomes : 
* I (am) this.' In continued consequence of that 
same reason, the second part of the logion becomes : 
4 This not (am I),' having the same meaning as, ' I am 
not this/ with a special significance, viz., that in the 
actual World- Process, in every cycle whether it be the 
daily waking and falling to sleep of the individual human 
being, or the s a r g a and p r a 1 a y a, creation and disso- 
lution, of world-systems the I -consciousness begins as 
well as ends the day, the period of activity and manifest- 
ation. The new-born baby's first shut-eyed feeling in 
the morning is the vague feeling of a self, in which of 
course a not-self is also present, though a little more 
vaguely ; and his last shut-eyed feeling in the evening is 
the same vague feeling of a self returning, from all the 
outward and gradually dimming not-self, into its own in- 
wardness and sleep. The order of the words in Samskrt, 
Aham-]tat-Na (as mi), expresses this fact; and it ex- 
presses something additional also, for asm i, ' (I) am,' 
indicates that the individual ' I ', at the end of the day's 
work, is, as it were, fuller, has more deliberate and definite 
self-consciousness, than it had at the beginning thereof. 

The ' this,' it now appears, is, in the first place, 
the u p a 4 h i, the body, the sheath, or the organism, 


which the individualised spirit occupies, owns, identi- 
fies itself with, and, again, rejects and casts away ; and, 
in the second place, it is all the world of * objects ' with 
which the Spirit may identify itself, which it may possess 
and own as part of itself, as belonging to itself, and again 
renounce, in possibility. 

Thus, through the dual nature of Negation, dual by 
reflection of the being of Self and the non-being of Not- 
Self, is kept incessantly moving, that revolving wheel of 
Samsaraof which it has been declared : ' That wherein 
all find living, that wherein all find rest, that which is 
boundless and shoreless in that tire-less wheel of Brahma, 
turneth round and round the h a rn - sa, the swan, because, 
and so long as, it believeth itself to be separate from the 
mover of the wheel ; but when it - recogniseth its own 
oneness with that Self which ever turneth the wheel, it 
forthwith cometh to rest, and attaineth the Peace of Im- 
mortality.' l ' So-ham,' is the jlva that recognises the 

ShvetCtshvatara, i, 6. 

Glta also speaks of the chakra of the World-Process 
di, 16). The ' cyclical ' movement of the World-Process, in 
space and in time, is a patent fact ; its reason is to be found 
in the alternating, rhythmic, succession of the two parts of the 
logion. Chakra, kuklos, cycle, circle, are etymologically 
allied. The same idea, as expressed by bhramaorbhranfi 
appearing in Brahma, ' wandering and straying round and round 
in space,' has been referred to on p. 159, supra. To run round 
and round in circles, as the orbs of space are doing, like puppies 
chasing their own tails, is to be aimless, mistaken, illusion-ed. 


identity of the Universal Ego with the individual ego 
in the words ' Sah Aham,' 'That am I 1 ; whereas 
'ham-sa' (which, as an ordinary word, means the 
migrating swan, recurrently, periodically, flying to and 
fro between the arctic and the temperate zones, between 
cold and heat), is the reversal and contradiction of this 
recognition, and indicates the j I v a (migrating recurrently 

The word b h r a m a covers all these meanings, all these 
analogies. Say that ' chasing one's own tail ' is ' chasing one's 
own Self ', and the aimless becomes the aimful ; the illusion-ed, 
becomes the illumin-ed. To put it in another way : This verse of 
the Upanishat pictures the v i-v a r t a view. Believing it-self 
to be an infinitesimal speck, the j I v a rushes round and round, 
trying to achieve Infinity by encompassing all Space. It does 
so, because, though outwardly believing itself to be limited, 
finite, inwardly it knows it-self to be Infinite ; and the endless 
circling and cycling is due to the necessity of making the 
Outer belief One with the Inner ; and thus abolishing the 
restless and intolerable pain of inconsistency and conflict. 
So soon as the j I v a dis-covers that it is It-Self this Infinite 
Space, that It has that Space within It-Self, instead of It-Self 
being within It, so soon is the v i-v a r t a, reversal f of out- 
look, change of attitude, completed. It is the same with 
Time and Motion. The ' solid ' substantial speck or atom, 
which the j 1 v a formerly identified itself with, in ' empty ' 
Space, now begins to be seem as a ' vacuum '-bubble C koil- 
on ')> a ' vortex of nothing ', (mere ' imagination '), in 'a 
Plenum of Consciousness. There is a reversal, v i - v a r t a, 
in all aspects and respects. The world is seen in a ' new * 
light. Every-thing becomes * new ; ' ' ST '3&IPI 0$ ' *Nt 7 3>dfcf 
fffl c 5T-^: ; * because it makes everything seem new, there- 
fore is it called Pr&-nava '. ' The solid-seeming world doth 
vanish like a cloud, nor leaves a wrack behind ' ; becomes a 
dream, when 'man, most ignorant of what he's most assured, 
his glassy essence ', casts off that i-gnor-ance, a-v i d y a, 
recovers v i d y a, wisdom, assurance of his glassy essence, 
his Self, the Self of all. 


between ' this world ' and ' that world ', and also from body 
to body) which does not recognise its identity with the 
* I '. Two arcs, and two only, and always, are there in the 
endless revolution of this wheel. On the first arc, that 
which is not, ' This,' appears as if it is; it takes 'name 
and form,' ' a local habitation and a name,' and predo- 
minates over Self. This is the Pravrtti-marga, Path 
of Pursuit, whereon the individualised self feels its identity 
more and more with some not-self, separates itself more 
and more from the Universal Self, runs after the things of 
sense, and takes them on to itself more and more. But 
when the end of this first arc of his particular cycle comes, 
then it inevitably undergoes viveka and va i r ag y a, 1 
discriminative, reflective, introspective, intense think- 
ing and surfeit, and turns round on to the other arc, 
the Nivrtti-marga, Path of Renunciation; on 
which, realising more and more its identity with the 
Universal Self, it separates itself more and more from the 
things of sense, and gradually and continually gives away 
all that it has acquired of Not-Self to other jlvas, who 
are on the Pravrtti-marga and need them. Thus, 
while on the first arc, Not-Self, falsely masquerading 
as a self, prevails, and the true Self is hidden, on the 
second arc the true Self prevails, and that Not-Self, or 

1 See pp. 12, 18. V i - v e k a is discrimination between n i t y a and a- 
nitya, the Permanent and the Fleeting ; and vai-ragya is the co- 
efficient revolt against all selfish desire for fleeting things and sorrow- 
pervaded joys. The Permanent appears to the j I v a first as the lasting, 
then as the ever-lasting, and only finally as the true Eternal, the opposite 
or v i - v a r t a of the other two, in correspondence respectively with the 
three answers (chs. ii and vii, supra). 


the false self, is hidden and slowly passes out of sight. 
To him who sees with the ' eye of matter ' only, incogni- 
sant yet of the true Self, the j I v a seems to live and 
grow on the first arc, and to decay and die on the second, 
and be no more at the end of it. The reverse is the case 
to the ' eye of spirit '. What the truth is, of both and 
in both, is clear to him who knows the S v a-b h a v a of 
the Absolute, and the perfect balance between Spirit 
and Matter. 

Inasmuch as ' this-es ' are endless in number and 
extent of temporal and spatial limitation, cycles are also 
endless in number and extent, ranging from the smallest 
to the largest ; and yet there are no smallest and largest r 
for there are always smaller and larger. Again, cycles 
and periods of activity are always and necessarily being 
equally, balanced by corresponding periods of non-activ- 
ity ; and vice versa. Further reasons for this may 
appear later on, in connection with the Law of Action 
and Reaction, and the nature of Death. Thus s a r g a, 
emanation, is succeeded by pralaya, dissolution, and the 
latter by the former, endlessly, on all possible scales ; and 
their minute intermixture and complication is pseudo-in- 
finite. Thus are the names justified, of nitya-sarga, 
continual incessant creation, and nitya-pralaya, per- 
petual unremitting destruction. From this complication 
it results that there is no law belonging to any one cosmic 
system, small or large, which the limited jiva can divine 
and work out, on limited data, with the lower reason, i.e., 
the understanding or m a n a s, of which law there is no 


breach and to which there is no exception ; and, again, 
there is no breach which will not come under a higher 
law belonging to another and larger system ; that ulti- 
mately, ' order ' and * disorder ' are both equally illusions, 
both essentially subjective, both ' such stuff as dreams 
are made of '. The pure or higher or transcendental 
reason or b u d d h i, sees the necessity of both, the 
particular law and the breach of that law, from the 
standpoint of the all-inclusive Absolute. 1 

1 The distinction between b u d d h i and m a n a s has 
been indicated before and will become clearer as we proceed. 
Briefly, Universal Mind, unconscious or sub-conscious or 
supra-conscious omniscience, reason which relates together 
all things at once and is * pure ' from all admixture of moti- 
vation and therefore limitation, obscuration, perversion, or 
aberration by selfish egoistic desire and, so far as possible, 
the manifestation of such pure reason in the individual con- 
sciousness also is B u d d h i. Individual mind, dominated by 
egoism, its vision coloured and narrowed by a particular 
interest, not made transparent and world- wide by the * pure ' 
wish to know all, for the sake of the * deliverance ' of all 
such egoistic mind, manifesting in and by attention to a 
particular object, is Manas. Indeed, such m a n a s is the 
jiva itself. (Vide the quotation from Yoga-Vasishtha in 
the foot-note at p. 32, supra, and Gita, XVI. 17, and III. 29). 

In terms of the logio^, we might put it thus. Universal 
I, ideating jthe whole of Not-I, is Universal Mind, M a h a t, 
Mahan-Atma, Vishnu, etc. ; from the standpoint of the 
individual I, this Universal Mind is the unconscious, sub- 
conscious or supra-conscious ; it is b u d d h i or ' pure ' reason 
or s h u d d h a j n a n a, in the fullest sense, reason here being 
not the step-by-step arguing intelligence, but the all-relating 
awareness, all-grasping intuition. The same Universal, when 
faintly individualised (the * We ' aspect predominant, the 
* 1 ' aspect very subordinate, the egoistic intensity and limi- 
tation unaroused and undefined by strong desire), and 


Having thus very cursorily indicated some of the 
most important features of the Interplay of Self and 
Not-Self in the World- Process, as arising out of the 

ideating the most general aspects of the things that make up 
Not-I, with the faintest trace of succession, is buddhiin 
manifestation, cognising metaphysical, mathematical, scientific 
generalisations. The same I, when ideating not-I's, * this-es ', in 
the predominantly particular and singular aspects, itself being 
focussed or canalised by definite egoistic desire, is m a n a s, 
the outstanding feature of which is ' attention,' whereby the 
1 hot point ' or focus in the field of consciousness changes 
from place to place. (See William James, Stout, Hoffding, 
etc.) The ability to direct this power of ' attention ' deli- 
berately and effectively, by practice in inhibition, n i - r o d h a, 
of psychoses that are not wanted, and in contemplation, 
sam - yama, of, and focussing on, that which is wanted, is 
yoga s i d d h i, achievement, accomplishment (of attentional 
mind-power, mental force ; achievement of which ability is the 
first practical object of applied psychology, i.e., Yoga). 
(Bergson's writings help to illustrate this.) 

In the more definitely individualised I, which is the 
man as above-mentioned, compounded of ' I * and ' not- 1,' 
j I v a ' and ' atom/ the reflection, of the Universal B u d d h i 
above-mentioned, appears as intellect, also called b u d d h i in 
Samskrt, with the function of j n a n a or cognition ; the 
reflection of the ' I ' appears as a h a m-k a r a with the 
function of desire-emotion ; and the reflection of m a n a s 
itself as the man as again, with tte function of conation and 
action. The summation of these three functions is called 
c h i 1 1 a ; which, however, has a function of its own, memory, 
which, again, is, so to say, the Universal Mind in the indivi- 
dual, the infinite storehouse out of which the individual, by 
attention, draws, in succession, what it wants, and into which 
it merges, when the whirling harmonogram of vas ana- 
desire, the will to live as a separate individual, t r s h n, a, 
libido, which makes chitta what it is, disappears in 
moksha orpraljiya (for the time being). The theoso- 
phical doctrine of Atma-Buddhi-Manas seems to be in 
accord with these ideas. 


affirmative-negative nature of the third factor of the 
Absolute, we may next deal with the Cause of the Inter- 
play, from another standpoint than that taken up in 
Chapter X, in connection with the question why parts 
appear in the logion. 

For illustration by analogy, we may say that the 
person in deep sleep represents Absolute Consciousness ; 
just before full waking, while he is taking a pros- 
pective view of the whole of the coming day's work, 
he represents b u d d h i ; when awake and actually en- 
gaged in a piece of the work, man as. At the end of 
this chapter will be found a collection of relevant Samskrt 
quotations in a separate notQ. It seems to be an important, 
perhaps even fundamental part of Yoga-discipline, to * wake 
up ' the soul and make it conscious in the region of what 
is now its im-conscious. A Master has said that a disciple 
progresses through " soul-struggles by night ". The mean- 
ing seems to be that the disciple should fix in his mind, 
during the day, the determinate resolve that he will not 
allow himself to become, in the night, the puppet of his 
dreams ; i.e., of his ' unconscious f lower desires, carnal pas- 
sions, etc., which come out, like thieves in the night, and 
secure indulgence and satisfaction for themselves, by creating 
the images, fancies, phantasies, dramatic scenes, situations, 
of the dreams ; and which, the disciple has prevented his mind 
from entertaining during his waking hours ; (or, in other words, 
which desires of the lower mind have been kept at bay by the 
disciple's higher mind, during the waking hours) ; and that, 
by such fixed resolve, he becomes more and more able to 
struggle against those base fancies ; he can more and more 
consciously prevent them from arising, even during the 
dreams ; and his dream -life, therefore and thereby, becomes, 
so to say, a continuation of his day-life, part of his waking 
consciousness. The same Master has said elsewhere (but my 
memory here is faint and doubtful) that he, the Master, sleeps 
without dreaming at all, the three or four hours, out of the 
twenty-four, that he ordinarily spends in bed. In this way, 
the ' individual ', progressing on the Upward Path becomes 


It has been said that this multitudinous process 
of Samsara takes place through Negation, and the 
word ' necessary ' and its derivatives have been used 
from time to time, all along, in accounting for step after 
step of the deduction. It is clear that Negation, with 
its included affirmation, is only a description of the 
Relation between Self and Not-Self. It stands between 
them as a nexus between two termini. It inheres in the 
two, and is nothing apart and separate from them ; by 
itself it can do nothing ; but, as being the combined 
Nature of the two, it explains, expounds, accounts for, 
and supports the infinitely complex process of Samsara. 
This combination of the Nature of the Two into the dual 
Negation constitutes the Necessity of the movement 
involved in the Logion. 1 This Necessity requires no 
support or justification ; it is self-evident at every step 
of the deduction ; it plainly inheres in, and is part of 

more and more perfectly self-controlled on all planes of his 
being, more and more Master of him-Self. 

Persistent introspection, pratyak-chtana; tracing 
semi- consciously, even during the dream, its occurrence to the 
influence of incidents which have actually taken place in the 
day ; mantra-jap a, continuous inner silent recitation of 
some * sacred words of power ' ; willing and praying to the 
All-pervading ' Power ', for ' power ' to resist evil thoughts, 
and bring in good ones only all this helps the soul to struggle 

1 A fact is a necessary fact, a necessity. Every event is its own 
justification. When a fact is, so to say, violently and arbitrarily disrupted, 
and insistently pieces itself together in a new synthesis, a new form, the 
disruption is said to have been followed by its necessary consequence, 
illustrating the law of causality, which is the Law of Identity, i.e., 
Identity persisting through apparent changes in succession. 


the nature of, the three factors of the triune Absolute, 
which have been sufficiently explained, justified, and 
established, before. For, remember, this nature is not 
three separate natures or even two separate natures, 
belonging to three or two separate, or even separable, 
factors of the Absolute but is only One Single and 
Changeless Nature, the Nature of ' I ' denying that It is 
'Not-I'. Whatever may be distinguished or said of 
Not-Self and Negation, or of their respective natures, 
can be said only by the courtesy of that Supreme Nature 
which is the source, the essence, and the whole, indeed 
the very Nature, of what we call their natures. Bearing 
this in mind, we may easily see that this Supreme and 
changeless Nature is N i-y at i , the 'fixed', A v a s h y a k a-t a, 
Necessity* i.e., the nature of the Whole, that which 
must be always, that which cannot be changed and 
avoided. This Necessity is the One Law of all Laws, 
because it is the nature of the changeless, timeless, 
Absolute ; all other laws flow from it, inhere in it, are 
included within it. It is the Primal Power, the One 
Force, the all-compelling Supreme Energy, in and of the 
World-Process, from which all forces are derived, and 
into which they all return ; because they are inseparate 
from it, are only its endless manifestations and forms. 

1 If ' Necessity ' is derived from ne, not, and cessum, to yield, to give 
up, and means ' that which will not yield ', then it is literally the same as 
8-v aghyaka-ta, that which is beyond vasha or control, that which 
cannot be checked. The word niyati (nitaram, wholly, y a m, to 
control) is used frequently in Yoga Vftstshtha, in the sense of ' fixed ' 
necessity. D i s h t a is another Samskft word with an allied sense, 
4 destiny ', ' fated ', ' ordained ', ' doomed ' ; from dish, to direct, 
order, point out the direction (d i s h a, d e s h a) in which to go. 


Its unbreakable and unalterable Oneness and Complete- 
ness appears in the facts of the Conservation of 
Energy ; and of Motion (which undergoes transformations 
only, and never suffers any real reduction, so that the 
distinction between static and kinetic is at bottom 
illusory, apparent only, and, in reality, one of only com- 
parative degree) ; and the Indestructibility of Matter, 
which manifests in ever-new ways, ever-new qualities, but 
is never changed in the Total quantity ; for the Absolute 
may not be added to nor subtracted from. It is Absolute 
Free-Will, which is called in the sacred books by the 
name of Maya-Shakti, Impersonal Goddess of a thousand 
names and a thousand hymns ; ! who alone is in reality 
worshipped by every worshipper, either as Nirguna 


JR, urcrf, STTR sr f sisfS, 

T: ?fcf 3f STff r t 

f)evl Bhagavata, VII, xxxii, 

' ShaktL becomes an Efficient Cause, n i m i t ta, by conjunction with 
Consciousness, Chaitanya; and a necessary Condition, concomitant. 
s a h a-k a r i, (orsadharapa, a-prthak-siddha, upa-karana) 
in transformations of objects. Some call Her Tapas, some Tamas, Jada, 
A-jnana, Maya, Prakyti, or Aja. Shaivas name" Her Vimarsha ; Vaidikas, 
A-vidya. Such are Her many names in the Nigamas, traditions, of 
different thinkers and worshippers.' 

I Ibid. t III. vi. 


Vidya or as Saguna A-vidya; because she ensouls 
all the million forms that human beings worship, 
each according to his heart's desire. It includes in 
itself the characters, or rather the single character, of 
all the Three Ultimates, and it thereby becomes an- 
other expression for and of the Absolute, viz., Becoming. 
Thus, a hymn, personifying Shakti in imagination, 
utterly inseparable though she is from the Absolute, 
and therefore impersonal, exclaims : ' Thou art the 
consort of the most high Brahma.' ! This Necessity is 
the cause of all causes, karanam karanana m, a and 
all other so-called necessities are but reflections of it. 

We may appropriately consider the meaning of 
' Cause ' in this connection. From the standpoint of 
psychology, as has been shown over and over again by 
various acute and accurate thinkers in many lands, the 
world is an endless succession of sense-impressions; and 
the idea of absolute necessity, which we associate with 
the successions that are described as cause and effect, is 
a mere hallucination produced by the fact that a certain 
succession has been invariable so far as our experience 
has gone. This view is correct so far as it goes ; but 

ef wro 3p*n | ibid.. VII, xxvui. 

' When men wish to express contempt for a (feeble, lethargic, inert, 
spineless) person, they do not call him Rudra-less or Vishnu-less, but 
Shakti-less, Power-less, Energy-less. We meditate on Her, the Sovereign 
Goddess of the Universe, as the very Meaning, the whole significance, of 
Pra-nava, AUM.' 

Shankara, Ananda-Laharl. 

220 LILA, THE FINAL why [SC. OF 

only so far as it goes. It does not go far enough. It 
does not explain satisfactorily the * Why ' of the halluci- 
nation. Indeed, some holders of the view refuse to deal 
with a ' Why ' at all. They content themselves with a 
mere description, a ' How '. But others will not rest 
within such restrictions. They must understand how 
and why there come to be a ' How , and a ' Why ' at all 
in our consciousness ; how and why we talk of ' because ' 
and * therefore ' and * for this reason '. It is true that 
every so-called law of nature is only 4< a resume, a brief 
description, of a wide range of perceptions," l but why is 
there any uniformity in the world at all, such as makes 
possible any such resume or brief description ? 

The explanation of all this is that each * why/ each 
generalisation, each law, is subsumed under a wider and 
wider law, till we come to that final and widest law, the 
Logion-, which is the resume^ the Sva-bhava, the nature, 
of the Absolute, which, Sva-bhava, because of its Change- 
lessness, requires no further l why '* 

1 Pearson's Grammar of Science, p. 132, 1st edn. 

3<^ 3?5fton I ' The unchanging is the uncaused.' 
The series of ' why's,' with reference to actions, ' Why did you do this ? ' 
' Because of this,' ' Why that ? ' ' Because of that,' etc., ceases when 
the reply comes, ' It was my pleasure '. Few people ask further, ' Why 
was it your pleasure ? ' There is an instinctive recognition of the fact 
that the pleasure, the Will of the Me, the Self, is something final. But 
if any should ask that question also, the reply is but an expansion, or 
another form or aspect, of the same fact, viz., that all ' things ' are in 
the I ; i.e. t all ' this-es,' all conjunctions and all disjunctions with all 
possible things, i.e., all possible pleasures (i.e., desires and fulfilments 
of desire or will for conjunction), and also all possible corresponding 
reactive and necessarily implied pains (which also are ' pleasures, ' sfal, 
being willed by the Self, sub-consciously, as fulfilments of desire or will 
for disjunction) are Mine. In other words, ' It was, and is, and will be 


A cause is asked for by the human mind only when 
there is an effect, a change. We do not ask ' Why ? ' 
otherwise. We ask it because the very constitution of 
our being, our inmost nature of unbroken unity as the 
one Self, ' I am I,' ' A is A,' revolts against the creation 
of something new; against A disappearing and not-A 
appearing; against A becoming * not-A,' i.e., becoming 
B, C, etc. We cannot assimilate such an innovation ; 
there is nothing in that inmost nature of ours to 
respond to it. Our whole being, our whole nature, 
insistently demands Continuity, Identity, in which is 
to be found Changeless Immortality, and without 
which our Eternity would be jeopardised ; for if any 

my pleasure to undergo all possible experiences, including this one, 
which you ask about '. In the f n. on p. 50, supra, is stated the 
question which Vidura, sorely exercised in mind, put to Rshi Maitrdya. 
Maitreya answered him in words which may be interpreted in two ways ; 

: I Bhagavat*. Ill, vu, 9-10. 

' This is the Lord's Ma-ya which denes all nay a, logic, reason, all why 
and wherefore this, viz. t that Ishvara, the Sovereign Lord of the 
Universe, the Ever- Free, appears as a humble creature bound in bonds 
of all sorts; that, without any art ha, meaning, purpose, without 
rhyme or reason, senselessly, the Supreme Man turns Him-Self inside- 
out, upside-down, reverses Him-Self, becomes the Opposite of what He 
really ;is. The Witness of all, sees Him-Self, appears to Him-Self, as to 
a by-stander, as if He had cut off His own head, as jugglers do ' ' 

Such is the plain meaning of the words ; but, equally plainly, it is 
not a satisfying reply to Vidura 's question. The real reply is in the 
riddle of the words, y a t nayena virudhyate. They admit of 
another interpretation, by separating the single-seeming nayena into 
two, n a and y 6 n a. In Skt., the gloss would run : 5$ flf ^31, fr^, $R 

; ' The Illusion is that This, E t a t, which, 


thing could be annihilated, why might not I also be 
liable to the same catastrophe ? We therefore inevitably 
break out with a ' why ? ' whenever we see a change. 
And the answer we receive is a * because,' which endea- 
vours to resolve the effect into the cause, in the various 
aspects of matter, motion, force, etc., and shows that the 
effect is really not different from the cause, but is identical 
with it. And we are satisfied, our sense of, and our 
craving for, Unbroken Unity is soothed. 1 Causality is 
the reconciliation between the necessity, the fixed unity, 
of Self on the one hand, and the accidentality, flow and 
flux, manyness, of Not-Self, on the other. 

is the Opposite of the Lord, Self, is Not.' In this way, the LI la, Play, 
is seen to be static, eternally frozen, changeless ; not kinetic, moving, 

This may, no doubt, appear a forced explanation. But we know 
well that 4 mystic ' writings are full of such riddling rhymes, and that 
the ' the kingdom of Heaven has to be taken by storm '. 

1 See foot-notes, ch. II, pp. 7, 9, 11, supra. Hoffding's treatment 
of the problem of causation, in Outlines of Psychology, ch. V-D, will be 
found useful in this connection, as explaining in modern terms, 
vikara- orparinam a-v a d a, which may be called the scientific 
conception of causation. Hoffding himself holds it, as distinguished 
from what he calls the popular conception of causation, corresponding 
to a r a m b h a-v a d a. The last stage of thought in this resnect, 
which may similarly be called the metaphysical conception of causation, 
is vivarta-vada, next dealt with in the text, and briefly defined 
in Paftcha-dashl, xiii, 9, thus : 

-a fcra! 

' The false appearance of changes of states in the Changeless One, 
as of a snake in a piece of rope in the dark, isvivarta, vortex, 
turning round, facing round, opposition ' ; false appearance as 
distinguished from really passing from one state into another. 

Or, in Vdanta-sara t thus, 
The corresponding definition of vikara is, flflr^^tyW SWT 


But, all the same, it is only a subterfuge, an evasion, 
a mayavic illusion ; it is only * the next best thing ' ; 

?rg^tf<cT: I ' Appearance of change, when there is no real change, is 
vivaria; change, when real, and in a real substance, is v i k a r a '. 
Another way of describing the three stages is this ; 

(1) *BTJT (STTCWHcO *$ 3W31, WraLBtt; 'The effect is non- 
existent before its birth ; it is existent, real, after birth ' : this is the 
Nyaya-Vaisheshika view. 

(2) *w (seTO:) iwfq *?<i, qsara; ^ e^ ; wri^TOif? sifJro, 

3W ^?r?cR Ipf, cW qfalR:, f33>ft: ; ' The effect is existent before 
as well as after birth, because it is not really different from the cause, 
but only another form of it ' ; this is the Sankhya view. 

(3) ^T^f ^ 3fft 3?*Kl , q^7^ 3ffq, ' The effect is non-existent, 
unreal, untrue, before as well as afterbirth, i <-., appearance ' : this is 
the Vedanta view. 

The reconciliation of all these is thus : A r a mb h a-v a d a (Nyaya- 
Vaisheshika) may be said to be true with reference to the new form, and 
to the k a r t a, the doer, actor, maker, the efficient cause, whose 
s ha k t i, power, will, creates or brings into manifestation, the new form ; 
in other words, produces the transformation, the change, the newness. 
P a r i n a m a-v a d a (Sankhya) is true with reference to the u p a d a n a f 
the material cause, the matter or substance which is transformed. 
Vivarta-vada (Vedanta) is true with reference to the One Nature of 
all the Factors taken together at once, from the transcendental stand- 
point (as distinguished from the empirical or experiential standpoint 
which sees things in succession, one after another). 

This Transcendental View of Causation, or absence of cause-and- 
effect succession, does not in the least diminish, much less destroy, the 
experiential value of the Law of Karma, and does not give countenance 
to any immoral anti-nomi-anism, i.e., absence of (moral and other) law, 
as that ' You may do what you like '. Of course, in a way, it does say 
to the ' emancipated soul', ' You are/ree now, since you know, and are 
therefore a law unto yourself, and you may do what you like ' , but it 
also adds, ' but be prepared for the painful consequences of sin, for you 
know them also. ' Every elder guardian, when handing over property to a 
ward who has attained majority, says ; ' This is yours, to utilise or to 
waste, as you please : you know the consequences of each way. 1 

Sankhya says, ^JR^T 3?ft^ 3T53TO, (^TO ^T^R), ' cause is unmani- 
fest, effect is its manifestation '. In other words, Undifferentiated Uncon- 
scious is Cause ; differentiations are effects. All effects exist simultane- 
ously in the Cause. The Unconscious Whole is the Cause of each part, 
each 'conscious'. The Darshanas, ' views,' philosophies, up to Sankhya. 
believe in the relation of cause and effect ; also that the former invariably 


not the best. For, in strictness, the merest change, 
the passing of something, a mere form, state, condition 
only though it be, into nothing, and of nothing into 
something, is impossible, impossible to understand. True 
satisfaction is found only when we have reduced change 
to changelessness. Then we see that there are no effects 
and no causes, but only steadfastness, rock-fixed-ness. 
Such steadfastness and shakelessness is its own necessity, 
and requires no external support. We find it in the 
Logiori, wherein all possible sense-impressions, all possible 
conjunctions and disjunctions of Self and Not-Self, 
are present once for all, and therefore in all possible 
successions. These pseudo-infinite and mutually sub- 
versive successions make up the multitudinous order 
as well as disorder of Samsara, World- Process, which 
is the Contents of the Logion. And the shadow of 
the ever-present Necessity of the Logion, on each one 
of these successions, is the fact, and the source, of 
the belief about ' cause and effect,' * reason,' ' why/ 
' therefore,' etc. Each one of these successions, because 

precedes and the latter succeeds. Vedanta does away with this, as with 
all other views ordinarily held, by its v i v a r t a, inversion, of them all. It 
cannot be said definitively that the cause ' precedes ' and the effect 
' succeeds ' as a generalisation. The seed precedes and the tree 
succeeds, no doubt ; but only in the sense of a particular seed and a 
particular tree. Otherwise, the tree (another particular tree) precedes 
and the seed (another particular seed) succeeds ; and the relation is 
reversed. Therefore, you may say, in the case of any given event, not 
that the cause precedes, but that what precedes is the cause ; 
not that the effect succeeds, but that what succeeds is the effect. From 
undifferentiated a-vyakta arises differentiated v y a k t a ; from chaos, 
cosmos ; from the homogeneous, the heterogeneous; and vice versa ; and 
this, necessarily, as a rule, not as an accident. This being so, it cannot 
be said that such and such a thing is always necessarily cause, and 
such and such another, effect. 


included in the necessity of the Logion, appears as 
necessary also, as a necessary relation of cause and effect. 
Yet it never is in reality necessary, for every law has an 
exception, and every exception is under another law, as 
said before ; it is only an imitation of the One real 
Necessity. The counterpart of this truth is that every 
particular free-will, while not reality free at all, appears 
free by imitation of the Absolute Free-will ; and Necessity 
and Free-will obviously mean exactly the same thing in 
the Absolute, Aham-Etat-Na, which is and includes the 
totality of endless Becoming. 1 We may express the same 
idea in other words, thus : Each one of the endless flow 
of sense-impressions, of motions, of successions, is an 
effect, of which the Totality of them is the One constant 
Cause; or again, the Absolute, or the Uni-verse, is Its Own 
Cause ; or, yet again, the necessity of the Nature of the 
Triune Absolute is the One Cause of all the possible 
variations, details, movements, which fall within and 
make up that Tri-unity, all that endlessness of Becoming, 
as One Effect. 

The Whole is the Cause of each Part within it. This 
is what we have to studiously realise in this connection, 
in order to understand the nature of Cause, Necessity, or 
Shakti-Energy. The simultaneous, the changeless, the 
ever-complete, the Absolute, is the cause of the successive, 

1 Consider the etymological meaning of ' automatic,' viz., 'self- 
moved, ' ' self-willed, ' ' free-willed. ' But it has come to mean the reverse, 
viz., ' mechanical,' ' non-free,' ' mechanically necessitated to work in a 
certain way.' Autonomous is now used for ' self-determining,' ' self- 
governing ', ' self -willing.' Both extremes meet in the Absolute Self. 



the changing, the partial, which, in its full totality as Not- 
Self, is always contained within that Absolute. When 
we so put it, the idea of causation presents no difficulty. 
But it may be said that the difficulty disappears because 
the essential idea of causation one thing preceding and 
giving rise, by some inherent, mysterious, unintelligible 
power, to another thing which succeeds is surreptitiously 
subtracted from the problem. To this the reply is that 
there is no such surreptitious subtraction, but an entirely 
above-board abolition and refutation of that so-called 
essential idea, and of every thing and fact that may be 
supposed to be the basis and foundation of that idea. We 
show that the idea of necessary causation, by some limited 
thing, of some other limited thing, is only an illusion, 
and a necessary illusion ; in the same way in which the 
idea of any one of many individuals being a free agent, 
having free-will, is an illusion, and a necessary illusion. 
The one universal Self is free, obviously, because there 
is nothing else to limit and compel it. Here the word 
' free ' may, from one point of view, be well said to have 
no significance at all ; but from another, it has a whole 
world of significance. Now, because every self is the Self, 
therefore it also must be free by inalienable birthright. 
And yet, being limited, being hemmed in on all sides, by 
an infinite number of other selves ; each of which is, like 
itself, not only the Self, but also a self, because identified 
with and limited by, a not-self; how can it be free? The 
reconciliation is that every individual j I v a feels free, but 
is not free ; it is free so far as it is the One Self, and it is 


not free so far as it has made the ' mistake/ a - vi dy a, of 
identifying itself with a piece of Not-Self. It is now 
generally recognised, and so need not be proved in detail 
here newly, that the idea of necessity, present in our idea 
of causation, is a purely subjective factor ; not created by 
anything or any experience ' outside ' of us (except in the 
metaphysical sense in which the 4 subjective ' includes 
the ' objective,' in which the * outside ' also is ' inside/ 
or, as said before, the ' without ' also is ' within ')/ The 
outside world shows only a repeated succession, which 
by itself is never sufficient to substantiate any notion of 
invariable, inherent, necessary, power of causation. The 
validity of ' inductive ' generalisations does not come from 

1 * This is without, i.e., outside me,' and ' this is 
within, i.e., inside me or my mind/ ' this is objective and this 
is subjective,' ' this is tiling, this is thought, 9 ' this is ideal, 
this is real % all these are thoughts, ideas, experiences, plays 
or forms of consciousness which alone creates, and distin- 
guishes between, both the factors of each of these pairs of 
opposites. ' This is a thing, and not a thought ' is still a 
thought. But the distinction is made, and therefore there 
must be some truth in it also. The truth is twofold : (a) the 
percept of only the individual consciousness is a ' thought,' is 
ideal ' ; that of the universal consciousness is a * thing/ is 
4 real ' (pp. 59, 189-190, supra) ; and (b) the relatively perma- 
nent, intense, strong ' thought ' is a thing/ and the weak, 
passing 'thought/ contradicted and abolished by other and 
more permanent thoughts or things, is only a ' thought '. The 
distinction of individual consciousness and universal consci- 
ousness is made and grasped by the former identifying itself 
with the latter, and then recognising that the former is 
included in the latter, as part in whole. Cf. Hoffding, 
Psychology, pp. 130,206,208; and Yoga- Vasishtha, gener- 
ally, on bhavana-dardhya or vasana-ghanata 
4 hardening of imagination ', ' density of desire '. 

228 'DESTINY' is 'PAST KARMA' [sc. OF 

the number of instances observed. Limited data cannot 
yield unlimited conclusions. No addition or multipli- 
cation of finites can make the Infinite. The element of 
necessary validity in inductions is really a ' deductive ' 
fact ; as once, so ever ; as here, so everywhere ; because I, 
that am now and here, am ever and everywhere. This 
element of the idea comes from within us, from Self, 
from our self as willing, as exercising a power of causa- 
tion, from our indefeasible feeling of an exercise of free- 
will ', though that again, because limited and dealing 

1 The question of Free-will and Necessity is discussed in Samskrt 
works, mostly in terms of d a i v a and p u r u s h a-k a r a, ' div-ine will" ' 
or * fate ' and * personal will ' or ' individual effort ', (' person ' and 
' purusha ' are perhaps etymologically the same) ; and the siddhanta. 
the ' established conclusion.' from the empirical standpoint, or v y a va- 
harika d r. s h t i , the stand-point of the limited, finite, separative, 
individualist ego, is, that what is called d a i v a is only accumulated 
previous Karma operating as tendencies, habits, character, leading to- 
corresponding opportunities or environments, etc. 

Prayatna, vyavasaya, krti, are other words for effort, 
determination, volition, as niyati, f^lRf, is another word for fate or 
destiny. B a d d h a and m u k t a are well-known equivalents for ' bound ' 
and ' free ' ; d i s h t a is also used in the sense of ' pre-ordained ' . S v a- 
tantra and para-tantra, sva-chhanda and para- 
c h h'a nda, sv-adhina and par-adhlna, atma-vasha and 
para-vasha, are pairs of words which express different aspects of the 
same idea, viz , self-dependent and other-dependent, self-guided and 
other-guided, self-governed and other-governed, self-willed and other- 
willed, self-determined and other-determined. Cf. f ^ 

(Mahima-stuti) and * q^^ |:^ flEf 3?Tc*Wf ^f^ ' (Manu, iv, 106); 
'The Lord's volitions are not controlled by others ', and ' Self-depen- 
dence is bliss ; other-dependence is misery ' . 

The word aham-kara, in Samskrt, stands for (a) a s m i t a, 
4 1-am-ness,' egoism, the sense of separate individuality focussed and 
concentrated by desire, emotion, vasana, trshna, libido, will-to-live ; 
(6) 'I do, 1 'I make/ 'I act,' (free-will); (c) '/ am the doer, actor. 
maker, of my own doings, etc., accompanied by elation, pride, arrogance, 


with the limited, the material, is naturally always 
resolvable, on analysis and scrutiny, into material 
forces. We thus see that the two ideas are intimately 
connected, nay, are different aspects of the same fact the 
idea of necesary causation and the idea of causation by 

All the meanings are obviously closely allied. From the transcendental 
metaphysical standpoint, the standpoint of the Eternal, Infinite, Univer- 
sal One-Consciousness (of Aham-Etat-Na), or paramarthika- 
d r s h 1 1, all are equally, and together, illusions. This is also a 
siddhanta, or established conclusion, entirely in accord with the one 
afore-mentioned. Cf., 

Glta t xvni, 61 ; iii, 27. 

Following Skt. texts and observations may also be considered here. 
Yoga-Bhashya says : tgcfiffc ^E^W^, ^Tlfhl ^ 3$&. Tn current 

orthodox interpretation is different, but another permissible one is : 


|IH I ' To see the One in the Many, is the On(e)ly Right and True 
View ; to see Many instead of One, is Illusion ' The former is the 
' transcendental ', the latter the ' empirical ' or ' experiential ', view. The 
former underlies n i - g a m a, deduction ; the latter, a n u - g a m a, 
induction ; tarka, oranu-mana, negative or positive inference, 
connects the two. 

Param-arthika satta is ' essential reality of being, in the 
true sense '. Vyava-hari'ka satta is ' practical, empirical, ex- 
istence'. Prati-bhasika sattais 'illusive appearance, false 
existence '. Strictly, the second and the third are the same ; they differ 
in degree ; not m kind, as the first does. 

In the Madhyamika system, of Maha-Yana Buddhism, sam-vrti- 
s a t y a seems to be the equivalent of vyava-harika satta. The 
word param-artha-satya, is common to the Madhyamika school 
and Vedanta ; as, in fact, are, all important ideas and many other words. 


free-will. 1 As the one is an illusion, so is the other, 
neither more nor less. We can understand both, only 
by understanding how the Changing is contained in the 
Changeless that there is in reality no change ; that 

Parana rtha-drshti may also be called sam-purna, or 
samash t i-, or a n a n t a-, or sam a-, or s a many a-, or kendriya-, 
drshti, in different aspects, i.e., the complete, or all-comprehending, 
or infinite, or equal, or universal, or central, (centripetal) \iew. So 
Vyava-hara-drshti would be k h a n d a-, or vyashti-, or 
s-anta-, or, vis ham a-, or, vishesha-; or a pa - k < n d r a-, 
drshti, ' the part-ial, or separative, or finite, or un-equal, or particular, 
or" non-central (centrifugal), view. 

Regarding these views, Maha-bharata says . 

rc g 5TF|: $* 
ferr:, wrra 

3W Vl SgWip:, arita WTO \ Shanti p. ch. 239 

Some call it p u r u s h a - k a, r a, human manly effort ; others d a i v a, 
divine ordainment , yet others s v ab h a v a, (law of) nature. But the 
fact is that the three, pa u rush a, karma, daiva, all three are in- 
separable aspects of the same fact, with reference to p h a la , vrt t i. 
and s v a - b h a v a, fruit (result of action), active movement (striving), 
(law of) nature (which connects the two). 

1 Note here, in these very words, how intimately contra- 
dictions are blended together ; ambi-valence in uni-valence. In 
one sense, the idea of necessary causation, i.e., causation by 
an irresistible power, is based solely on our experience of 
causation by our own unchecked free-will. In another sense, 
necessary and free are the very opposite of each other. The 
word ' auto-matic,' meaning 'mechanically necessary and 
unavoidable,* and also 'self -moved/ i.e., * free/ finds reconcili- 
ation for these two opposed senses only when Autos is 
understood as the Great Self, whose ordinances are neces- 
sarily unavoidable, because there is None-Else, even to op- 
pose, much less compel. In a psychological sense, while each 
choice, each exercise of so-called free-will, is determined by 
the predominant motive, still, inasmuch as that motive is 
nothing apart from or outside and independent of the moved 


there is in reality no succedence an'd no precedence, but 
only simultaneity ; no causation of one part by another 
part, but only the un -arbitrary coexistence of all possible 
parts, by the one Changeless Necessity of the Nature of 
the Absolute ; and that whatever appears as a particular 
necessity of any special Nation between one part and 
another part is only an illusive reflection, appearing from 
the standpoint of the particular parts concerned, of the 
One in that particular ' many '. The Necessity of the 
Changeless we can understand ; indeed we can under- 
stand it so well that we are almost inclined to call it a 
truism. The ' necessity ' of the ' changing ' is what we 
cannot understand, and are very anxious to understand ; 
but we can never understand it, in the way we imagine 
and describe the fact of change to ourselves; because it 
is the very reverse of a truism, its opposite extreme ; be- 
cause it is false, not a fact ; because there is no change. 
Only by understanding this can we understand the 

individual, inasmuch as the j I v a or self entertains the 
motive, identifies itself with it as its strongest wish, therefore 
the individual self feels that it is making the choice, of itself, 
by itself, i.e., of its own free-will, and actually does so. To 
be guided by a motive is to be guided by oneself as identified 
with that motive. From another standpoint, from which that 
motive is not predominant (but some other is, as it must be, 
necessarily, for individual existence means attachment to a 
4 this ' and a corresponding wish or motive), it is regarded 
as something outside the jiva, to be rejected and struggled 
against, instead of being implicitly obeyed as one's very 
inmost self. In Yoga and Theosophy, this other standpoint 
which may be regarded as higher, is provided by the ' subtle * 
body or sukshma-sharira as distinguished from the 
s t h u 1 a or grosser ; these are dealt with in a later chapter. 


whole situation, by reducing change to changelessness ; by 
realising that, while, from the empirical standpoint of the 
successive particular ' this-es ', there appears change, 
from the transcendental standpoint of the universal Self, 
it disappears altogether in the rock-like fixity of the 
constant Negation of the whole Not-Self, i.e., of all the 
parts of the many Not-Self, at once, by Self. 

A slight illustration may perhaps help to make the 
thought clearer. A large library contains billions of 
different permutations and combinations of the words of 
a language, each permutation or combination having a 
connected serial as well as individual meaning. The 
library, as a whole, contains all these at once in an ever- 
complete and finished condition. Yet if any individual 
character out of the thousands whose life-story the 
library contains, endeavoured to picture out its own 
life-story, realise it in every point, it would do so in what 
would appear to it, from its own standpoint, only a suc- 
cession. In the library of the universe, God's Mind, the 
volumes are countless ; each volume, a life-story without 
beginning or end ; sole author, the One Self ; readers, 
pseudo-infinite in number and pseudo-eternal in time ; 
they all also, only the Author Him-Self ; each volume, 
again, tells only the same story, but in an order which is 
different from that of every other. Each jlva-memory 
too is such a library. Or take this other case, which 
may come even nearer home. Each one of us is living 
in the whole of his body, at every point of it, and at 
every moment of time. But let him try to define, 


to realise, to throw into distinct relief, his consciousness 
of every one of these points of his body. So far as he 
can do so at all, he will be able to do it only in succes- 
sion. The whole of the universe, the whole of Not-Self, 
is the body of Self. The latter lives in and at each 
point of the former, completely, at once ; lives in the 
way of innumerable mutually contradictory and therefore 
counterbalancing and neutralising functions ; and it lives 
in each one of these points in the same way as in every 
other. Each point, to itself, therefore, seems to live, in 
these innumerable ways and functions, in an endless suc- 
cession which constitutes its sempiternal, un-dy-ing, life. 

The nature of this endless Becoming, this endless 
World -Pro cess, this cause and effect combined, is em- 
bodied in t hat most common and most significant name of 
Shakti-Energy, viz., Maya, even as the whole Nature of 
the Absolute is embodied in the Pranava. 

Maya, as explained by books on Tantra, 1 is ya-ma 
reversed ; ya and ma 3 being two complete Samskrt words 

1 ' White ' Tantra-shastra is a very important class of Samskrt 
literature, of which only the veriest fragments are now extant. It 
seems to have dealt with many departments of physical and super- 
physical or occult science, especially in their bearing on yoga-practice. 
Most of the books now available under the name of Tantra, are hodge- 
podges of ViSdantic ideas and foul black magic practices and mystery- 

2 For another allied word, bhrama or bhranti, illusion, see foot- 
note at p. 159, supra. J?f, Ma, is also the name for Lakshmi, the goddess 
of wealth and splendour, the mother of Kama, Eros ; and another name 
of Kama is Kan-darpa, meaning elator, ' arouser of pride ', and also the 
opposite, ' breaker of pride.' The significance of this Puranic mythology 
appears when we remember them in the terms of Yoga-sthra ; a-v i d-y a, 
nescience, 'that which is not,' another form of m a-y a, gives birth to 
asmi-ta, egoism, whence arise raga-dvesha, love-hate, and abhi- 
nivesha, stubborn tenacity. JTT also means to measure, to limit; 

234 THAT WHICH Is-Not [SC. OF 

which mean, when put together as a sentence, ' that which 
is not ; ' is as well as not, sad-asat, existent and not- 
existent ; truly mysterious to the outer view. The extant 
Tantra-books dealing with Shakti in a personal aspect, 
give to it a hidden name consisting of the single letter 
* i,' f, even as they call various other gods by single 
letters. 1 This letter stands naturall)' between *a,' 
3T and ' u,' 3, as should also * m,' ^ being only the 
outer sheath of ' i/ though it is thrown to the end, 
because of the fact that it appears as negation after 
affirmation. But this ' i,' placed between ' a ' and * u,' 

and ma-ya is thus only another form of JTT3T, m a t r a, matter, (see 
pp. 173, 195, supra), it is the fimtising, limiting principle, which 
makes the all-inclusive Universal appear as the separate, separatist, 
egoistic, individual and particular. Matter, mother, mates, m*tmx t 
mains, matr, m a t a, all are the same ; from Skt. ma, to measure; 
n i r - m a , to make, create, manifest Matter measures Spirit, defines 
it. sets limits to it, makes it manifest. So does the mother the child. 

It may be noted that asm it a, * I-am-ness ', has three 
stages of growth and development : (a) ' I -am ', sy am, ' may 
I be ', ' mjty I continue to be ', ' may I always be ', ' may I 
never cease to be ' ; (b) ' I am great ', b a h u s y a m, ' may I 
be much more,' ' may I be greater than others ' ; (c) ' I am 
many ', bahudha syam, ' may I be many and yet more 
many ', * may I be more and more numerous '. In other 
words, (a) self-preservation (by food), (6) self-enhancement 
(by possessions), (c) self -multiplication (by progeny). In 
yet other words, the appetites or urges of (a) hunger, (6) 
acquisitiveness, (c) sex. 

Love-hate and the tenacious clinging to that conglomerate 
of thoughts, emotions, volitions, which makes up a separate- 
feeling personality % or individuality or ego-complex, are 
connected with and arise out of all these forms of egoism. 

The subject is discussed at length in The Science of the 
Emotions ; also in The Science of the Self. 
1 See Tara-sara-Upanishat for instances. 


coalesces with and disappears entirely into ' a,' in the 
conjunction which brings out of the joined vowel- 
sounds, 'a* and 'u,' the vowel-sound *o'; lor AUM 
is pronounced as OM. } This is in accordance with the 
grammatical rules, allowing of a double s a n d h i a (coales- 
cence of letters), of archaic Samskrt, the deliberately 
' well-constructed./ * polished,' 'refined,' ' perfected ' langu- 
agq ; the complete grammar of which, if we only had it, 
would show, as tradition says, in the articulate develop- 
ment of vibration after vibration, sound after sound, letter 
after letter, word after word, and sentence after sentence, 
the corresponding articulate development of the vocal 
apparatus, as well as of the world-system to which that 
language belongs.' That this coalescence and disappear- 
ance is just, is plain from all that has been said as to the 
nature of Shakti, which ever hides in Self ; disappears 
into Not-Self whenever Self acts 4 upon that Not-Self ; 

1 This is taken from Pranava-vada, mentioned before. The very 
first aphorism of Panmi's famous grammar is, 3?-f[-3'-0I ; the last letter 
may be regarded as a blind or substitute for JJ^ ; so that the whole 
aphorism is the exact equivalent of A-(I-)-U-M. 

2 Instances of this are frequently met with in such ancient works as 
Ram&yana, Mahabharata, and Puranas. 

3 See on this point, works on Mantra -shastra, Nandikeshvara- 
Karika, Aumk&ra-Sarvasva. etc. 

4 This it does, it must be remembered, in the one single way of 
lending to, and at the same time withdrawing from, the Not-Self, its own 

being. STf ^ 3^' 3%3ftZ 3q*ffi: QW. I ' Purusha, Exed, 

self-contained, like a spectator, witnesses Prakrti ' ; Sankhya-Karika, 
verse 65. This beholding, this witnessing, this ''imaginative attention', 
by Self, is the affirmation by it of Prakrti, Not-Self ; which affirma- 
tion alone gives to it all the existence it has ; it is Consciousness which 
energises and makes possible all the phenomena that physical science 


and goes back again to Self , through and after Negation. 
When we endeavour to consider it apart from the others, 
it will still not be separated from ' m ' ; and then, too, it 
will identify itself with the hidden affirmative, whereby 
power manifests and appears forth, in many-formed 
results and effects, rather than with the overt negative. 
This has been indicated in exoteric Hinduism in the 
relation between Shiva and his consort Gaurl ; Gauri, in 
her many forms, is the implied and affirmative aspect of 
ichchha, while Shiva is its overt aspect of abolition 
and negation only l ; in His being, this Gaurl hides insepa- 
rably as veritable half of His frame, so that hymns 
addressed to Her declare that ' it is only when conjoined 
with her, Primal Shakti, that Shiva becomes able to 
prevail and energise ; otherwise, cannot stir at all V 

deals .with , per contra, the not beholding, the turning the face away 
from the dance, of Prakrti, by Self, is the negation by it of Prakrti ; 
which negation amounts to sleep and pralaya ; it is the Principle of 
Consciousness, in its form of Un-consciousness, (which, in practice, is 
consciousness of something else) which ' dissolves ' the phenomena that 
physical (including psycho-physical) science deals with. 

1 %%, tfSffWl., ?fa flra: ; 'He who sleeps in all, is Shiva '. 

^1=50%, 5% *ft: ; |, ^%-32nffr-H^-$Ff^-3ra^rr3%9 ; ' That 
which goes is Gauh ; that which goes, pervades, produces (young), 
desires, throws away, eats up, is I (== EE, as in ' see ') , She who does 
all this is Gauh-i, Gaurl '. 

I Saimdarya Lahan. 

'Shiva, 1 fll^, minus f, i, is ' Shava ', Sftef y which means ' corpse, ' 
lifeless, powerless. 

Strictly, destruction and negation belong to the Kara or Rudra 
aspects of Shiva ; his creative aspect, in the Shaiva Agama, is called 
Bhava (corresponding to Brahma of the Furanas), and his preservative 


Because of its special connection with Negation is 
this Necessity, this Shakti, treated of together with 
Negation ; not as a fourth ultimate. This ever-present 
Necessity, the very Nature of the triune Absolute, of the 
succession of the World-Process, appears as, and is, that 
which we call Shakti, Might, 1 Ability, Power, Force, 
Energy, etc. In other words, as Negation is the Nature 
of the Relation between Self and Not-Self, so this 
Necessity, which inheres in the combination of the three, 
and is not separable from any, may be regarded as the 
Power of that Nature of Self and Not-Self which makes 
inevitable that Relation. This Relation immediately 
flows from, or better, is only another form of, that 
Necessity, and the Necessity is therefore treated as being 
more closely connected with the Relation, i.e.. Negation, 
than with the other two factors of the Absolute. In this 
Maya-Shakti we see repeated, the trinity of the Absolute, 
the primal impress of which is always appearing and 
reappearing endlessly everywhere. Each of the factors 
of the Absolute repeats in itself, over again, that trinity, 
in the shape of corresponding aspects. In Pratyag-atma, 

aspect, Mrda (Vishnu) ; Shiva stands then for Brahma. Current pairs of 
words are also Shiva-Shakti, Gauri-Shankara, Bhava-Bhavani, etc. But 
Gauri (the White) has also her other aspect of Kali (the black) ; and 
abolition of the world's turmoil is Shiva's Peace 

ftffHT *Wt TO: ( Shiva-Mahima-stuti. 
1 ' It may be,' ' may u be/ from shak, to be possible, to be able* 


Sat corresponds to Etat, the manifest seat of 
action, whereby the existence of Self appears forth ; 
Chit corresponds to Aham, which is the manifest seat of 
knowledge ; and A n a n d a to Na (a s m i) wherein lies 
the principle of affirmation-negation, attraction-repulsion, 
i.e., desire (or want, as negation of fullness, followed by 
fulfilment, as negation of want or lack or limitation). In 
Mulaprakrti again, Rajas, mobility, corresponds to 
Etat; Sattva, illumination, knowability, to Aham ; 
and Tamas to Na(asmi), denial (of Self), darkness, 
dullness, grossness, inertia, heaviness, clinging, material- 
ity (opposite of Self), substantiality, possessability. In 
the Maya-Shakti of Negation, the triplicity appears as 
the energy of : (a) affirmation, attraction, enjoyability, 
a-v a r a n a, enveloping, veiling, corresponding to Aham ; 
(b) negation, repulsion, distraction, flinging away, v i - 
k s h e p a, corresponding to Etat ; and (c) the revolu- 
tion-process of alternation, balancing, samya, a p - 
avarana, sa n-k shepa or prati-shthapana, 
unveiling (the Truth) and steadying (the mind, establish- 
ing it in the contemplation of the Truth), corresponding 
to A nan da, the spiral dance of Shiva, tamas and 
Na. 1 The meaning of this may become fuller and fuller 

1 There is no current triplet of Samskrt words, like S a t - C h i d- 
A n a n d a, or sattva-rajas-tamas, to express the three forms, 
functions, or aspects, of Shakti spoken of in the text above. The words 
used here, at least the first two of them, are met with in the extant works 
of Advaita-Ve"danta, as describing the workings of Maya-Shakti, but in a 
somewhat different sense, explained below. The powers of Srshti, 
creation, emanation, throwing forth, Sthiti, maintenance, keeping 
together, and Laya, or S a m h 5 r a, reabsorption, destruction, neutrali- 
sation, balancing up, which are currently ascribed to Brahma, Vishnu, 
and 1 Shiva, or rajas, sattva, and tamas, respectively, seem to mean the 


as we proceed, for no work that endeavours to describe 
the essence of the World-Process, can help imitating that 
process (going round, and round) more or less, combining 
the simultaneity of all and everything in the Absolute 
with its gradual development in fuller and fuller re- 
petition in the succession of ' the relative ' of the World- 

same three aspects, in essence. Looked at in another way, s a m h a r a 
would be reabsorption or attraction, sr. sh 1 1 would be throwing forth or 
repulsion, and sthiti would be maintenance or the balancing of the 
two. In this view, the correspondences of the triplets would also have 
to be read differently. As to these variations, see the remarks in the 
next chapter. Visarga, vikshlpa, ad an a, i e , ' throwing out, 1 
' moving about,' ' taking back ', respectively is another triad of words 
sometimes used to describe the kinds of Shakti. Static, kinetic, dynamic 
may be regarded as another Shakti-Energy triad. 

See also the note at the end of this chapter on the j n a n a - 
ichchha-kriya s h a k t i s, mentioned in the Pur&nas and em- 
phasised by the Shaiva school of practical and devotional religion-philos- 
ophy. A v a r a n. a would then correspond to j n a n a (cognition, a v i d y a 
and a s m i t a of Yoga) ; v i k s h 6 p a to k r i y a (action, the r a g a 
and d v e s h a of Yoga) , and s a m y a (or 1 a y a of the quartet of 
the hindrances to yoga-s a m a d h i mentioned in Vedanta-works, viz., 
k a s h a y a and ras-asvad a which may be regarded ab the un- 
pleasant and pleasant or hateful and loving varieties of a va r a p a and 
vi k she pa and lay a or sleep) toichchha lor desire, the abhi- 
n i v e s h a of Yoga) . 

The word ' correspond,' in the preceding sentence, means only that 
a-varana (from vr, to cover up, to envelope), 'veil,' 'curtain 1 , 
'wrapping', 'cloak,' which blinds the intelligence, is of the nature of 
'cognition ', but is wrong cognition ; ' I ', instead of knowing Self, and 
knowing It-Self as Self, knows not-selves, and knows It-Self as a not-self. 
So, vi-kshepa (from vi, intensive prefix, and kship, to fling), dis- 
4 trac'-tion, at-'trac'-tion towards a wrong object, being drawn or flung 
astray, corresponds to ' desire ' for a not-self, and includes appurtenant 
' action ' also. To complete a triad, we may add s a m y a, equi-lib-ration, 
or, perhaps better, sva-stha-ta, Sv mahimni prat i - s h thitih, 
return to and abiding in Self, ' firm esta-blishment in the greatness 
of Self.' 

In plain everyday language, Maya is asm it a-k ama-k rodh a, 
4 egoism (pride) -lust -hate, i.e., passionate egoistic desire which veils 
(a-vrnoti) the eyes to the Truth, and then drags (v i-k s h i p a t i) the 
so-blinded person into the wrong direction. A person, obsessed or 
possessed and ridden by a mad desire, shuts his eyes to the truth of 


This Maya-Shakti is said to be the p r a n a and 
b u d d h i, * vitality and intelligence/ of all the world ; I 

things, their due proportion, and the consequences of conduct; and 
rushes insanely in pursuit of that object. The counter-actives of a- 
varana and vi-kshrpa, attachment and infatuation, are v a i-ragy a 
and abhyasa, detachment from the world of sense (by surfeit and 
revulsion) and persistent practice of studious contemplation of Self (See 
The Essential Unity of All Religions, pp. 326, 593-4, of second edn.). 

The following beautiful lines of poetry occur on p 122 of The Mahat- 
ma Letters; they seem to be Master K. H.'s own composition, and 
are illuminative in this connection ; 

" No curtain hides the Spheres Elysian, 
Nor these poor shells of half transparent dust , 
For all that blinds the Spirit's vision 
Is pride and hate and lust." 

Shakti-tray a, ' triad of Shakti ', is referred to in the following 
texts, among many ; they mostly mean the functions of creation-preserva- 
tion-destruction ', the three chief forms of causation -effectuation : 

Bhtlgavata, VIII. in, 28, II, iv, 12. 
clPT ST^fa:, ^T^ISlfcfl^T, 

ti, ch.238. 

I Bhashya on Ganapatj-Atharva-Shirsha-Upanishat, at the 
end of Ahnika-Chandnka 

By the Law of Analogy, broad correspondences would be the triads 
of pr ana-bud dhi-shari r a, biotic-mtelligent-physicochemical ener- 
gies, o jas-sa has-balam, vital-intellect ual-mechamcal 6lan; sym- 
pathic-cerebrospmal-muscular systems ; affectional-(plexal or glandular) - 
sensor-motor organs , k a n d a s (c h a k r a s, p i t h a s) -j n a n e n d r i y a s- 
karmendriyas ; Soma-Surya-Agm , i d a-p i n g a 1 a-s u s h u m n a 
n a d i s, (left sympathic, right sympathic, spinal cord) ; and so on. 

1 Symbolised as Radha and Durga respectively (vide Devi-Bhaga- 
vatci, IX. ch. 50) corresponding to the motor and sensor nerves and 
organs, karm-en<Jriyas and jnan-endriyas respectively. 


it is their whole wisdom and whole wealth ; it is the 
power of desire for the maintenance of the world's things, 
and also for their destruction. Many are its aspects and 
corresponding names. One half of it that which appears 
in the Affirmation, " I (am) this " is a-v i d y a, nescience, 
error, illusion, imperfect knowledge, separative intellig- 
ence, which binds the j I v a to the downward arc of the 
wheel of S a m s a r a. The other half which is embo- 
died in the Negation appears as v a i r a g y a and 
vidya (or viveka, viveka-khyati) satiation with 
the pleasures (and also the allied miseries) of the world, 
and discriminative knowledge, clear understanding, of 
the distinction between Eternal and Ephemeral, which 
lead the same j I v a on to the upward arc of the 
Wheel. In its completeness, it is Maha-Vidya, ful- 
filled and perfected knowledge, unifying wisdom of 
b u d d h i and * pure reason,' which frees the j I v a from 
all bondage, makes of him an Ishvara (in the strict 
and technical sense), and guides his life on that 
second arc in that condition of yoga, union, of reason 
with desire and .action, which makes the true free-will 
of de-liberate conscious universal love and philan- 
thropic activity ; and thus confers true liberty, true 
m u k t i. 

They who desire to grasp, or fling away, the things 
of the world, physical or subtle, worship Shak{i in her 
form of a-v Id y a, or v i d y a, respectively, in one or other 
of their many aspects ; they who desire the wealth and 
fullness of the Spirit, worship her asMaha-VicJyS 



or P a r a m a- V i d y a, the Great Wisdom. 1 Each worship 
leads on, in course of time, by cyclic necessity, to the 

*U, WTOft, 1W, ft, 3$ ! 

W TO ?TO[ 33 3RSK 3?WJ , Mundaka Up p. 1 4. 

As Philosophies may be broadly divided into those of Change and 
those of the Changeless , and activities into egoistic and altruistic (the 
division always being by predominant characteristic, never by exclusion 
or abolition of the other, but only by subordination of the other) , so 
Worships may be also broadly classified into those of Sagupa and those of 
Nirgupa. Nir-gupa, the Attribute-less, is the Absolute , Its worship is the 
steady realisation of Its nature, m and by (1) appropriate perpetual vision 
of the Changeless, the Universal Self, (2) individual-self-denying, renun- 
ciant, other-helping actions, (3) universal benevolence, constant 
prayer for the peace, shanti, welfare of all. Sa-gupais 'possessed 
of attributes ' ; It has as many glorified and magnified shapes as the 
heart-desires and ideals of worshippers. As Nirguna is Shiva, ' Benevo- 
lent Sleeper in all.' so Sagupa is essentially Shakti. ' Wakeful Power/ 
' Ability ' ; and all objects of worship and prayer, from the most 
primitive fetish to the highest gods and ' madonnas ' and ' babies ' 
of the most splendid pantheons and the most elaborate mythologies, 
are but embodiments, more or less concrete, of this Shakti ; and 
all are as real as (neither more nor less real than) the individual 
selves and heart-desires of the worshippers The worshippers 
help the gods, and the gods the worshippers, with exchange of 
appropriate ' nourishment ' , as between all the kingdoms of nature ; as, 
indeed, between a worker and his ' instruments ' ; sometimes the ' instru- 
ment ' is less than, in other cases far greater than, the individual 
worker. (Vide Bhagavad-Git&, vii, 21, and iii, 11.) Prayer is only the 
endeavour of a weaker will to put itself en rapport with, to identify 
itself with, and so draw nourishment and power from, a stronger Will, a 
greater source of Power. 

P r ft p a-p r a t i-s h t h a, ' esta-blishment of p r a p a, life ' , in an 
image ; vivification, vita-lisation, of it by mind-force, intense thought- 
concentration ; by means of j a p a, (litany), etc., is a-v a h a n a, 4 invi- 
tation, bringing in' , n i r - m a p a, ' formation '. of a good or a bad spirit. 
<Jevaorkr.tya, good or bad elemental (or elementary) ; (see Mahattna 
Letters, Index-references, for distinction between the two) ; which spirit 
is as much an instrument (only more living) as an engine, a gun, a 
factory, a steamship, a human or animal servant. 


next. The worship of Maba-Vi<}ya is the same as the 
worship of Shakti's consort, Pratyag-Atma, whose supre- 
macy She ever insists on, and in dutiful and loving 
subordination to whom, and for the fulfilment of whose 
universal law of compassion to all selves, She as 
Gayatri, mother of V&Ias, wisdom-illumined will that 
knows how to draw upon the inexhaustible stores of 
Nature (Shakti herself) confides high sciences and powers 
gradually to the j I v a s walking on the Path of Renuncia- 
tion, for the humble service and helping of all fellow- 
j I v a s. 

One point should be specially noted here. As there 
is confusion in extant Samskrt works between Pratyag- 
Atma and Param-Atma, so there is also confusion as 
regards Shakti and MQla-Prakrti or Prakrtf. And the 
confusion is not unnatural. Because Shakti is con- 
nect-ed with, con-/s-ed in, both Pratyag-Atma and Mula- 
Prakrti, and is herself hidden, there is a natural tendency 
to regard her only as the one or the other. Throughout 
Devi-Bhagavata, for instance, she is now identified with 

As regards the two main classes of ' worship/ u p - S s a n a ; here 
too we have the same perpetual swing between the two ; the worship 
appropriate to n i - v r 1 1 i, Rennuciation, and the worship belonging to 
pra-vrtti, Pursuit. "All ' new ' religions are only re-forms ; from multi- 
farious ' idol '-worships and sectarianisms towards tmi-tarianism and 
solidarity. So, Buddha taught philosophical religion, by reaction against 
the numerous more or less gross and vicious sects and worships that were 
prevalent. But again, by reaction against Buddha's emphasis on the simple 
life and asceticism, ending in nir-vapa ('extinction'); by reaction 
against this, began the worship of thousands of images of Buddha, and 
installation of these in great temples, and luxurious ceremonial. This 
culminated in the worship of hundreds of varieties of Taras, female 
goddesses, and, ultimately, the Bachhanalian orgies and horrors of 
Vajra-Yana. Each object of worship, god or goddess, is but an 
apotheosis and anthropomorphisation of a desire, good or evil. 


Self, mentioned under the epithet of Shiva, and now 
with Mula-Prakrti. Thus, Shakti, personified, is made to 
say : * Always are He and I the same ; never is there any 
difference betwixt us. What He is, that am I ; what 
I am, that is He ; difference is due only to perversion 
of thought.' But the distinction is also pointed out at 
the same time : * He who knows the very subtle distinc- 
tion between us two, he is truly wise, he will be freed 
from S a m s a r a, he is freed in truth.' ! Again it is 
said : ' At the beginning of creation, there were born 
two S h a k 1 i s, viz., P r a n a and B u d d h i, from 
Sam v it, Consciousness, wearing the form of Mula- 
Prakrti.' J Of course it is true, in the deepest sense, that 
Shakti is not different from the Absolute, but only Its 
very own Nature, S v a b h a v a ; and, as Mula Prakrti 
is included in the Absolute, therefore Shakti may also 
be identified with Mula-Prakrti, without which it 
cannot manifest and truly would not be. At the 
same time it is desirable and profitable to make the 
distinction even though a distinction without a differ- 
ence from the standpoint of the limited, wherein 
thought must be and move, and has deliberately to be 

fil ^: I 
3 &IWt 3^^, ^TT^ OTR: I HI, vi 2, 3. 

I IX, 1. 6, 7. 


and move, taken in its partial, * perverted,' successive, 
form. The fact, Also, that the words are different, and 
are used not always interchangeably but often differently, 
implies that a distinction is intended between Shakti and 

In Glta? also, Krshna speaks of his Daiv! Maya, 
dur-atyaya, ' difficult to cross, 1 ' difficult to escape and 
transcend'; his Daivi Prakrti, divine nature or 
power ; and again of his two Prakrti s, apara, lower, 
and para, higher, the former of which, he says, consists 
of the various elements which Sahkhya describes as issuing 
from Mula-prakrti, while the latter is j.Iva-bhuta, (the 
life of) the * jlvas that uphold and carry on the work of 
the world '. The meaning of such passages would 
probably be easier to follow if what has been said above 
as to the nature of Self, Not-Self, and Energy which is 
the Necessity of the Nature of these two, is borne in 
mind. As avidya, this primal Energy turns more 
towards Not- Self and becomes apara-prakrti, which 
name is used to cover not only the force which leads the 
j i v a outwards, but also the objective manifestations of 
Not-Self which it especially brings out, and into which 
it leads the j I v a. As v i d y a, it turns more towards Self, 
and is para-prakrt i, the source of subjective life; nay, 
which, as consciousness, in Self, of Not-Self, is life, and 
so includes all jlvas. 2 As the two together, she is 

1 Bhagavad-Glta, vii, 14 ; ix, 13 ; vii, 5. 

a For another aspect of the fact indicated, that is to say, another 
interpretation of the verse, which, however, is perfectly consistent with 
this, and brings out only another aspect of the truth, see the NOTE 
following this chapter. 


Daivi-Prakrti, in which vi(Jya and avidya 
coalesce into Maha-vidya, regarded not as know- 
ledge, but rather as Shakti, Energy, which utilises all- 
knowledge, for the carrying on of the World-Process. 

NOTE. This note is intended as a continuation of the 
foot-notes at pp. 167, 190, 191, 229, above, in connection with 
b u d d h i and m a n a s, and with the triads of (i) s a t, c h i \ f 
an and a, (ii) sattva, rajas, tarn as, and (iii) srshti, 
s J h i t i, 1 a y a. The first two of these triads, and those of (tv) 
jfiana, ichchha, kriya, and (v) d r a v y a, g u $ a, 
karma, are, as indicated in the text of this and other works, 
of essential importance for clearing up much obscurity and 
confusion in Samskrt literature, and for understanding the 
whole scheme of the World- Process. The correspondences 
with each other, of the various factors of these triplets, hav^ 
been pointed out here, and have been dealt with in detail in 
Praqava-vada. But they are argued here on their inherent 
merits, and, so far, have not been supported by 'testimony * 
from current Samskrt- works. 

It is true that if, as is claimed here, metaphysics; are no 
less * self-evident ' than mathematics, no ' testimony ' is 
needed for the conclusions of the former, any more than for 
those of the latter. But the claim is obviously not admitted 
by very many. Also, while solutions of simpler problems of 
mathematics are undoubtedly clear of themselves at every 
step, yet when we come to more complex ones, even veterans 
of the science are not unof ten glad to have their work checked 
and verified by others. With this idea the following collection 
of quotations and references is given here. 

As said before, the triads belonging to Prajyag-atma and 
Mula-prakrji repectively, viz., sat-chid-ananda and 
sattva-rajas-Jamas, especially the latter, are to be 
found at every turn in the old books. But the vitally important 
triad belonging to Shakti as Cause or K a r a n a, viz., j n a n a- 
ichchha-kriya, is, for some reason, rare. So also is that 
which belongs to Shakti as Condition or N i m i 1 1 a, viz.. 


desha-kala-kriya, or Space-Time- Motion ; k r i y a here 
being sometimes replaced by a v a s t h a or krama or h 6 J u 
or n i m i t 1 a, so that the triplet becomes equivalent to 
place-time-circumstance. Yet without its due application 
in the work of interpretation, the ideas, facts and laws, of 
Brahma- vidy 5. and Atma-vidya, metaphysic and psychology, do 
not become a-p a r - o k s h a, directly experienced'; do not come 
home ; are not realised in the first person. Even in the fanjra- 
literature of the Shakja school, the present writer has been in- 
formed by friends learned therein, Shakti is usually referred 
to as t r i - g u n a, and its three forms of subdivisions are 
mentioned only as satjviki, rajas 1, and t am a si 
s h a k t i s. It is therefore desirable to gather together, for 
the purpose of confirming, with additional confidence ' the 
reasoned faith* of the reader, by means of * trustworthy testi- 
mony ' out of the experience of the ancients, these rare state- 
ments, scattered here and there over distant parts of Samskjt 

The correspondences may first be tabulated for convenient 

Chit Sattva Jnann Guna 

Sat Rajas Kriya Karma 

Ananda Tamas Ichchha Dravya 

The first triad belongs to Universal Consciousness; the 
second to Universal Matter ; the third, to individualised con- 
sciousness : the fourth to particularised matter. It is rather 
curious that none of the earliest, best known, and most studied 
* major * ten Upanishats mentions sattva-rajas-famas express- 
ly. If we include two more among the ' major ', viz., Shvi%- 
ashvatara and Kaushltaki, as is sometimes done, because 
Shankar-acharya has commented on them, then we find that 
Shvet.-ashvatara uses the word tri-gu ij a, without separately 
naming the three ; but Shankara names them as the three. 
The same Upanishat says that ' the s v a-b h a v i k a s h a k t i 
of the Supreme is triple, jnana-bala-kriyft: here clearly, 
b a 1 a, ' power ', ' strength ', stands for i c h c h h a, desire- 
force (see Shveta., iv. 5 ; v. 5-12; vi. 2-4, 8). Among the 
later ' minor ' Upanishats, Jabala, Krishqa, Rama-Purva- 
Tapani, Nada, Tripad-vibhuti-Narayaija, Maitst, Maitrtyt, 


equated with pashyantl ; yet i c h c h h a sits midway too 
between j fi a n a and k r i y a. 

, VII. ch. 32. 

' The Supreme Being, whose garment is *sat-chi(J-anan(Ja', 
appears densified by karma in a material body, which becomes 
the locus of the attributes or faculties of cognition -desire- 
action '. 

, "PI 1, 


i ibid., ch 35 

Goraksha, Muktf-sop&na. 

' Nirukta. VII. ii, i ; See also Gtt&, xv r 12. 

The purport of these last quotations is that ' out of thirty- 
five millions of nerves in the human body, ten are chief ; out 
of these ten, three are the most vitally important, viz.> i d a, 
p i n g a 1 a, and sushumna, which respectively run along 
left, right, and middle of the spinal column, and corres- 
pond with Chandra, Surya, and Agni (i.e., Moon, Sun, and 


Fire, or middle, upper, and lower, orbhuvah, svah, and 
b h u h , or astral, mental, and physical worlds respectively), 
and with ichchha,jnana, and k r i y a '. 

: TO 

! DeviBhag, XII, ch. 4. 
=OTfN?Tr I Ibid.. XII, ch. 4. 

* Thou art sung as the Nature of Mahan-Atma, (Mahat- 
Buddhi) ; thou art hymned as Shabala- Brahma, in Balanced 
Repose : thou art also the Supreme Might beyond all. Thou 
givest us ichchhd-kriya-jnana.' 

(ii) The succeeding extracts show the correspondences of 
iksha kama t a pana, jnana ichchha kriyd, with jn^na 
bala kriya, SarSsvati K&li Lakshmi, chit Snanda sat, 
sattva t^mas rajas, Vishrjiu Rudra (Shiva) Brahmft, and 
Sukshma kdrana sthula (i.e., astro-mental causal- -physi- 
cal) bodies, respectively. 

Guptavatf-tlka on Durg&-sapta-shatl. 

ft f^sg?4 snfa i 

76 iW. on Rahasya-^arya. 


%?: f fpfrrctttifr fl I ptvi-Bhag.. XII, viii. 

Jnana-ichchha-kriya correspond to vijnanamaya-mano- 
maya-praijamaya koshas and Isha-Sutra-Virat or Sarvajna- 
Hiranyagarbha-Vaishvanara and Prajna-Taijasa-Vishvanara 
also. (See Vedanta-sara, and Advanced Text Book of 
Sanatana Dharma, p. 170). 

ir ^?^ hriOT, ?f^ri srf: rei 7 ^^ . ni, 

f fe 

I Nilakantha, Tefed on above, 

How can Maha^Kali and Rudra, the Destructive Aspect, 
be connected with Ananda, Joy ? Joy results from fulfilment 
of Desire : and Desire is Hate as well as Love. The Victor 
in battle triumphs and rejoices. Rudra and Kali are usually 
represented as dancing ; macabre though that dancing be. 

(iii) The same correspondences are supported by the 
following, with the further statement that creation preser- 
vation destruction (srshti sthiti laya) belong to rajas 
sattva tamas respectively- 

cTT: R: I Qevi, Bh&g, I, ii. 

: i ibid., i, 


(iv) Shakti as sa-guna, " possessed of properties,' ' in 
operation, 1 ' functioning,' ' kinetic,' and as a-vidya, ne-science, 
error, passion, is the object of adoration to the * pursuant/ those 
whose minds are turned world-wards ; (in all the thousands 
of different forms of objects of devotion which persons worship 
in any time or clime, in accord with their particular shades of 
heart-desire and stages of intellectual development). As 
nir-guna, * functionless,' static, and as vidya, true-science, true- 
knowledge, realisation, she is revered by the renunciant, who 
wants ' Self-dependence, ' the supreme bliss of moksha, the 
liberty of the H igher Self, * freedom ' from ' dependence on an- 
Other,' which dependence on another (the lower self) is the 
supreme misery. The worship of nirguna Shakti is the same 
as the worship of Shiva (the Supreme Self), who also is said, 
in Puraijic symbology, to bestow moksha. Many schools of 
thinkers and devotional systems of votaries give her many 
names: ' Tapas, Tamas, Jada, A-jnana, Maya, Pradhana, 
Prakrti, Shakti, Aja, Vi-marsha, A-vidyS ; and so on. None is 
despised for lacking Vishnu or Rudra ; everyone is scorned 
who lacks Shakti-Power. She is also known as Mahd-M&yd, 
Niyati, Mohini, Prakrti, V&sand, Bhuvan-eshvari, the Meaning 
of Pranava, the Desire of the Infinite ', 

sftf cir 

g fum: i ibid., \, viu. 

: 4fl3T: ^il^^fif^r: i ibid., v, 


f fcF, 

OT ^ST, 3?^cT 1 *OT% I Madhava, Sarva- 
Darshana-Sangraha. * Purpa-prajfia-parshana '. 

For other verses, whose purport is given above, see p. 218, 
supra. Many other names of Chiti-Shakti-Superconsciousness 
are given in the 5th ch. of Maha Upanishat, which is part of 
Yoga Vasishtha. 


(v) Artha-shakfa (arthyat, ' that which is desired ', is 
arfcha, object, purpose, intention, the thing meant, etc.), 
and dravya-shakti, substance,' the desired object), are used 
in the following, in substitution for, and as synonymous with, 
ichchha-shakti. Bala, strength, power, as a synonym for 
ichchha, we have noted before ; bhakti is also used as such. 

., Ill, vii. 

Vishnu-BhZg., II, v. 
V*., Ill, x. 

; 5? 

.. XI, xx. 


The last three verses say that jfiana-yoga, the yoga- 
method of philosophical meditation, suits those whose tem- 
perament is not that of the men of action, who do not like 
restless activity ; for persons of the opposite temperament, 
karma-yoga, the regulated performance of duties and of acts 
of self-sacrifice, is the best way of achieving the purpose of 
life ; for the man of the midway, or emotional, temperament, 
who is neither greatly attached to, nor strongly detached from, 
the world, the method of devotion, bhakti-yoga, is the best. 
The following verses express the same main ideas in a different 

aft %5, sratfcf sitwq; I Ibid., iv, 

.. xi. xiv. 


Ibid.. IV. xxxi. 

, iii. 

(vi) The sensor organs express buddhi and jnana-shakti ; 
the motor-organs, prana and kriya-shakti. 

i ibid., m, 

i Ibid.. III. xxvi 

It should be noted that, in this chapter of the Bhaga- 
vata, occurs another verse, which says that kriya-shakti 
belongs to aham-kara, whereas our conclusion is that ichchha- 
sbak^i is its proper co-efficient or function or power. This 
is only one of the many inconsistencies and perplexities 
which seem to beset the question. But it is not impos- 
sible to solve the inconsistencies and disentangle the 


perplexities, by careful reference to different viewpoints. The 
fifth chapter of Maha Upanishat, above alluded to, says 
that the same functioning appears now as manas, now as 
buddhi, again as ahamkara. In the ' subtle regions ' of mind, 
even broad distinctions are difficult to fix, because all is 
always in a fluid condition, continual flow and flux. In this 
very instance, the ahamkara which is said to possess kriya- 
shakti seems to be what, in the last section of this note, is 
called manas in contradistinction from mah at -buddhi ; and 
it is said to have three subdivisions, vaikarika-manas, taijasa- 
buddhi, and tamasa-bhutadi, which last is ahamkara proper. 
Vedanta-sara assigns antah-karana to sukshma-sharira (also 
called t a iJ asa i n the individual form and sutratma in the 
universal) ; makes it consist of the three koshas, viz., vijnana- 
maya, mano-maya, and prafla-maya ; and assigns to these, the 
jnana, ichchha, and kriya shaktis, respectively. 

(vii) The three, sattva rajas tamas, are utterly in- 
separable though distinguishable ; they manifest by turns, 
one preponderating, the others subordinated, at any one time 
and place. ' They suppress, support, produce, also, one 
another, by turns, and always cling on to each other '. 

Brahmaputra, II, iv, 22. 


: I Cita, XMH, 40 

., III. vm. 

Sahkhya-Karika, 12. See also Anugtfa, xxi. 

(viii) The characteristics, properties, functions, conse- 
quences, implications, allies, corollaries, etc., of sattva rajas 


tamas are very numerous ; in fact, all phenomena whatever 
are classifiable under these three. The more important ones 
are mentioned in Bhagavad-Glta, chs. xiv, xvii, xviii ; 
Anugita, chs. xxi to xxviii ; Manu, ch. xii. There are 
many seeming incongruities in these statements ; but they 
are mostly reconcilable by the view that sattva corresponds 
to jnana- knowledge, rajas to kriya-action, and tamas to 
ichchha-desire. Obscurity is greatest with regard to the last, 
appropriately enough, one might say, for one of the principal 
meanings of tamas is obscurity, darkness ! Thus, 

*W Slffi, W. ^tf, cWhSTSTftret^ I Khazavata, XI, xxii. 

4 Sattva is jnana ; rajas is karma ; ' quite plain and 
simple ; but * tamas is called a-jnana,' not ichchha, straight. 
In order to make sure that a-jnana is the same as ichchha 
here, one has to go a roundabout way. 

: I S S Vimars/nni, i, 2. 

4 Ajnana is mala, seed of samsara ' ; it is obviously the 
same as a-vidya. The synonyms of a-jnana, given in one of 
the quotations in (iv) above, help to show that it stands for 

Bhagavad-Glta, (iii, 37, vii, 27; x, 11 ; xiv, 517), is 
perplexing. ( It puts together : (a) sattva, nirmalatva or 
freedom from impurity, prakasha or illumination, an-amaya or 
freedom from disease, sukha or joy, jnana or knowledge ; 
(6) rajas, raga or attachment, trshna or thirst for life, karma 
or action, lobha or greed, pravrtti or activity, arambhah 
karmaQam or initiation of new actions and enterprises, 
ashamah or restlessness, sprha or desire (whether emulous 
or envious), duhkha or pain ; (c) tamas, ajfiana or ne-science, 
ignorance, error, moha or confusion and blind clinging, avarana 
or veiling, pramada or carelessness, inadvertence, a-lasya 
or indolence, nidrfl or sleep, a-prakflsha or non-illumination, 
and a-pravritti or non -enterprise, dis-inclination. About the 
alliances of sattva here, there is no difficulty. The connection 
of rajas with raga, trshrjia, lobha, requires explanation ; the text 
says, in full, that rajas is rdgatmaka, 'ensouled by attachment/ 
is trshna-sanga-samudbhava, ' is born of, or gives birth to, 


addiction to the thirst for life, the will to live,' and ' rajaso 
lobhah sanjayatje,' * greed is born from rajas '. The reconcilia- 
tion may be found in these turns of phrase. Pra-mada seems 
to be derived from the same root as the English word 
' madness '. Its fellow-derivatives are madana, the ' mad- 
dener* or Eros-Cupid, mada or pride, also intoxication, un-mada 
or madness, madya, alcohol, etc. Mohana has an allied sense 
also. Tamas, a-jnana, a-vidya, moha, pra-mada, avarana, mala, 
etc., all stand for blind clinging, obstinate arbitrary desire* 
which throws a veil over the luminous eye of reason, blinds it, 
overpowers knowledge, is thoughtless, capricious, un-reason- 
able, is, in fact, the very essence of un-reason, a-jnana. Love- 
Hate, Desire, Passion, is obviously arbitrary Un- Reason. 
Unreasoning passion, as Love, creates ; as Hate, destroys : 
Reason only mediates, mantains, brings about sthiti or 
palana, preserves, keeps up some sort of balance between the 
two, helps to make law and order : as Vishnu-sattva between 
Brahma-rajas and Rudra-tamas. 

Tamas and moha sometimes mean unconsciousness, 
swooning, and slumber. In excessive ' perplexity ' over con- 
flicting desires and interests, ' not-knowing ' what to do, 
persons faint away, and then they come out of that trance or 
slumber with some one desire preponderating. A moment of 
moha or laya, oblivion, ' the waters of Lethe, 1 intervenes at 
every change of ' heart, 1 every change of strong desires or 
states of being, or worlds or planes, every birth-and-death, 
avarana-vikshepa, and constitutes an initiation, a dlksha, 
in which the jlva dives into the Infinite Self or store-house 
of Desire- Energy and energies, and then emerges with a 
' new * experience, of success or failure, a power gained or 
lost. The moment of ' confusion ' experienced by one learning 
to swim, between the imminent drowning and the sudden 
floating at ease, is a familiar illustration. 

Some other helpful texts are, 

I Manu. xii, 24-26, 38. 


ffi: ; 
, cW: %fcf ; 

Rhavishya Pitrana, Madhyama Parva, Bhaga 1, ch. 1 ; 
Kurma Pu ra na , Purva , ch . 11. 

T ^T: fiPIT: I MWi. Shanti, ch. 157, 

* Sattva corresponds to jnana and dharma ; rajas to rdga- 
dvesha and artha ; t amas to a-jnana and kama. Each 
preceding one is higher and better ; dharma is best and should 
ever be clung to. Love, hate, infatuation, elation, pride, 
like, dislike, sorrow, burning jealousy at another's prosperity 
all this is Un-reason ; as also all sinful actions '. 

Foot-Note 2, p. 136, of Secret Doctrine, vol. I, says, quot- 
ing K. P. Telang's translation of the 3 Gita-s (S. B. E. series). 
" The original for Understanding is Sattva, which Shankara 
renders Antah-karana, refined by sacrifices and other sanctify- 
ing operations. In Katha, . . . Sattva is rendered by Shankara 
to mean Buddhi a common use of the word." To this H. P. B, 
adds, " Whatever meaning various schools may give the term, 
Sattva is the name given among Occuk students of the/ 
Aryasanga School, to the dual Monad or Atma-Buddhi, and 
At ma -Buddhi on this plane corresponds to Prabrahman and 
Mulaprakrti on the higher plane." 

(ix) The three functions or properties and characteristics 
of sattva, rajas, and tamas are stated more specifically and 
categorically in the following, in connection with drifta 
or mind. 

Tl f| 5n?TT-S?lff1-f^rfrT-5ft5J^l?t f5T3Nl I Yoga-bhashya, I 

an: i /*.. n, is. 
STIR: I ibid., n, 28. 
TOR! ^ SRft ^ 3tiPn * 'ITW I Gita. xiv, 22. 


Sankhya-Karika , 12. See also 13. 
: \ 

S&nkhya-tattva-kaumudi, 12. 
l I Rhagnvata, III, xxvi 

i ibid , vm, m. 

ft:, ^Nrq Wfl:, 3TTETC<Jr 3??f?%: I 

Foot-note to Shiva-sutra-vimarshini, ni, I 

' The function of buddhi-satfcva is prakasha or prakhya, 
illumination, making known, priti, cheerful joyous affection 
and satisfaction, shanta-ta, peacefulness ; of manas-rajas, 
is pravrtti, chanchalya, kriya, restless enterprising activity, 
a-priti, discontent, ghora-ta, vehemence, dire-ness ; of aham- 
kara-tanias, is s^hiti, niyama, avarana, steady obstinate clinging 
to one thing and veiling of other things, with a regularly fixed 
purpose, and also vishada and moha, cheerless desolate 
yearning and pining, mudha, perplexed and confused as to 
the truth, the right course of action, and as to whether the 
heart's desire will or will not be gained.' 

(See also my Yogct-Concordance-Dictioucrry, pub. 1938 ; 
references and explanations under chitta, pravrtti, sthitji. 
kriya, prakhya, etc.) 

The three inseparable but distinguishable aspects or 
faculties of chitta or mind, the single * internal organ,' 
antah-karana, (in contact with the five external aud at least 
seemingly separate five sense-organs and five motor- 
organs), are buddhi (or mahat), aham-kSra, and manas. 
Chitta is the summation of the three. It is, in fact, the soul 
with three functions, the psychical ' individual,' corresponding 
to the body with three properties (i.e., sensable qualities, 
substantiality, movement), the physical * singular,' viz., the 
anu or atom of which Bhagavata (II, xi) says : 



" The ultimate indivisible ' particular,' ' many ', i.e., 
multitudinous, but uncompounded, i.e., each separate from 
all others, whence arises men's illusory notion of the ' final 
unit ' or the singular is the paramanu." (See also Vaisheshika- 
Sutra, I, ii, 3, 6, for sum mum genus and final singular or 
particular, or " infima species '). 

For all practical purposes, this chi^ta of Yoga is 
manas of Nyaya, its sinjplarising, finitising, principle, 
principle of ' attention,' of the hot place in consciousness ' 
(in William James' phrase), of focus in the field of consci- 
ousness, which is the cause of the actuality of ' one knowledge 
only at a time,' Nyaya SUtra, III, ii, 56-62 ; 'while buddhi 
is the cause of the possibility of all knowledges simultaneously 
included in that infinite field ; but this 'comprehensive ' kshetra- 
jna quality of buddhi is not clearly brought out in current 
Nyaya and Vaisheshika works ; some of these later works how- 
ever distinguish two kinds of cognition, anubhava and smrfi, 
i.e., direct perception and memorial ; and the latter is said to 
cover all three divisions of time, while the former is confined 
to the present. 

Vedanta speaks of * the tetrad of the inner organ, an^ah- 
karaoa-chatushtaya, viz, manas buddhi ahamkara chitta ; 
Sankbya, of mahat (or buddhi) ahamkara manas ; Yoga/ 
of chitta with three shila-s or characteristics ; Nyaya mentions 
buddhi and manas separately (Sutra, I, i, 9), makes jnana or 
cognition (together with other phenomena) a * mark ' or 
characteristic of Atma (I, i, 10), identifies jnana with buddjii 
(I, i, 15), and states the distinguishing characteristic of manas 
to be prevention of more than one * knowledge ' (or ' ex- 
perience ') occurring at one time (I, i, 16). But Nyaya- 
Bhashya (on I, i, 16) says : " Memory, reasoning, acceptance 
of testimony, doubt, intuition, dreaming, jnana or knowledge, 
inferential conjecture, experience of pleasure, desire, etc., are 
' marks ' of manas ; and besides these, also this one peculiarly, 
viz., the non-occurrence of more than one * knowledge ' at a 
time." And Nyaya-vartika-tatparya-tlka (on the same) seems 
to identify buddhi (which as said above is expressly declared 
in the sutra to be identical with jSana) with manas, thus, 

I fsajctS^stf^ sPTrqT IR 


The reconciliation and explanation of all these may be 
found in the statements that, 

, in, l r 

i: \ 

Spanda-karika-vwrti, iv, 20. 

* Chi^ta consists of buddhi ahamkara manas,' ' which 
make up the ' inner organ ' ; and of these, manas expresses 
rajas; ahamkara, tamas ; and buddhi, sattva.' 

3?rc??F 3?0j;^l: I S. S. Vtmarslnni, in, 1. 

I Ibid., Appendix, iv 

/6^., i, 13. 
I Yoga-Vasishtha, Chudala-upakhyana, 

' This three-functioned mind or chitta is anu, atomic, 
because it ' breathes/ aniti, expands and contracts, and keeps 
moving^ incessantly, ata^i, and hence is called the atma-jiva- 
aiju ; Atma, really Omnipresent, therefore motionless, appears 
as moving (atatO when, colored by <fes*Ve-vasana, it puts on 
a-khyati (a-vidya, a-jnana), non-knowledge or forgetfulness 
of Its-Own-Nature, and, instead of Omnipresent, becomes 
arjiu, a limited atom ; when enveloped in the triple organ 
and the five t^n-matras, it is the experiencer-chitta ; this 
sheathing is due to desire, will to live : the essence and 
core of mind may well be said to be desire ' ; while, 
no doubt, the three aspects of the mind are co-equal, yet> 
if a * distinction between the prophets ' may be made at 
all, we would have to say that very soul of soul is 
desire ; for desire, emotion, the ruling passion, makes the 
individuality, the peculiarity and character of the person, 
is the individualising, finitising, characterising, distinguishing 


principle ; any given person feels his separate existence most 
fully and keenly when he is expressing & particular emotion 
most intensely ; creation of krtyas, (Tibetan tulku) ' arti- 
ficial ' elementals and deVas, by means of mantras, i.e., 
manana, ideation, with intense desire, is only an illustration of 
this fact, as also the theosophical doctrine of ' individualising ' 
of souls from lower into human kingdom under stress of 
intense emotion, like ' crystallisation ' under stress of chemico- 
physical forces corresponding to emotions ; ' desire is the 
shakti par excellence, shakti -tama ; ' cognition and action 
are shakfis only with the energy borrowed from desire. 

This is also the significance of the otherwise somewhat 
obscure verse, 


I Git ft, vii, 5. 

' My para or higher prakrti is that which manifests as 
jivas, souls, individuals (of countless grades of definition, 
group-souls, etc., one within another), and thereby carries on 
and upholds this moving world. 1 In other words, this para- 
prakrti is much the same as Daivi-prakrti or Shakti, energy, 
force ; and apara-prakrfi is Mula-prakrti, matter. The three 
gunas, in different aspects, belong to both, as indeed also to 
Spirit or Pratyagatma. 

Energy, force, power, though abstract, in a general sense, 
yet always manifests as, in, and through, concrete ' indivi- 
duals,' human and non-human. Hence inevitable mor- 
phisation of the one Ajma-Shakti, in many degrees of defini- 
tion, first into prafika-s, nature-forces of the Vedas, Agni, 
Mitra, Varuna, Indra, Surya etc., distinguished by functions, 
without ascription of any sharply-defined concrete human or 
other shapes ; and then into pratima-s, more concretely 
anthropomorphic deities of PurUnas, with well-defined but 
changeable shapes in subtler matter, as abhimani devatas, 
ruling over and guiding (not so much intellectually as vitally 
and inspi rationally) masses of corresponding ' nature-spirits ' 
of all kinds, made of subtler or superphysical matter, or con- 
sisting of vegetable and animal bacteria and bacilli (yak- 
shafli and rakshamsi after whom human or semi-human 


races of yaksha-s and rakshasa-s seem to be named, because 
of the prevalence *-of such microbes in their bodies), as also 
' animal- souls ' of masses of animals and men ; and finally 
into quite human and historic deities, avataras, of Puranas 
and other national legends and sagas, ruling more intellectually 
(comparatively) ' rational -souls ' of masses of men. 

The already-quoted verses of Bhagavata (VIII, ii), 
speaking of ' triple Shakft, of the nature of I-feeling, egoism,' 
indicate the same thing as the Gfa-verse. 

This aham-dhlh, 1 -feeling, is aham-kara of S&rikhya and 
Vedanta, and asmita of Yoga, which is but the second stage, 
phase, or form of a-vi$ya, primal Error, by which the 
Infinite illusorily regards itself as a finite ' body, 1 an * atom/ 
and ' finitises ' itself. 

This aiju, or * a$ava-mala/ ' atom stain ' or * atom-sub- 
stance ', takes the place, as the third subdivision of energy, 
viz., samya, mentioned on p. 238, supra, from a different 


: I Shwa-SHtra-Vi.. i, 3. 

We have seen above that manas, chitta, or jiva is aiju : 
Upanishats repeatedly declare that Brahman , Supreme 
A^ma, is * larger than the largest and smaller than the 
smallest/ is infinite and infinitesimal both, (the word for 
1 large/ viz., mahan, having a special fullness of significance 
which will appear m a moment). We have also seen that one 
of the quotations above, from Bhagavata, expressly says that 
the ' atom/ the ' final singular/ is ' many ' and yet also the 
cause of the illusion of singularity, ' oneness/ i.e., of many 
ones. A quotation from Spanda-kartka-vtvrti will help to 
show how ' extremes meet/ and not only meet but are 
identical. / 

3 ! W*!^ ?lcyJJH 5 


1 In transcendental and supreme experience, oneness 
or identity is not distinguishable from * separate ' (or rather 
complete and perfect) singularity (kevalata, of yoga). Sepa- 
rate-singularity which has no fringe of uncertainty of any 
kind about it, cannot be distinguished from true (universal) 
oneness ; and vice versa. In that supreme experience, the 
broad firmament, all-bearing earth, ambient air, blazing sun, 
rolling oceans, rushing rivers, ever-receding quarters of space 
all these are seen to be but portions, projected without, of 
the one my * internal organ * within" i.e., they are all seen 
as constituents of the One impartible Consciousness which 
has illusorily divided itself up into a ' without ' and a ' within f . 
* Empirical ' and ' universal ' Ego are identical. Following 
verses of Yoga Vasishtha, 111. ch. 84, are to same effect. 

SSRt, tf 

: , ST 

* The Chit-element in chifta, is seed of omniscience ; 
the Jada-element in it, is all this Jagat, moving illusion. 
Chitta, mind, contains all the World-Process within itself. It 
should be reflected upon, controlled, cultivated, refined '. 

After all, is it not literally true, that every experience, 
and all that is contained or implied in it and by it, all its 
contents, is a mood of mind, a vr$i of antah-kararjia, i.e n of 
the Self identified with, or imagining It-Self as, an^antah- 
karana ? To think, to say, * this is my-selfs experience, that 


is another-Self f s experience, this mountain is outside of Me ' 
is not all this, My experience or thought ? Is not all distin- 
guishing of one-Self and another-Self, together with both the 
thus distinguished selves, within the One Self which distin- 
guishes ? Indeed there is Only One Self which includes all 
selves and all not -selves, all thoughts and all things, all sub- 
jects and all objects. 

It may be mentioned incidentally, that Pranava-Vada 
makes abam-kara the summation of chitta-buddhi- manas, 
instead of chitta the summation of ahamkara and the two 
others. As said before, this implies only a slight difference of 
standpoint, an emphasis on aham rather than on kara. 

(x) A few quotations regarding the three ' faculties ' or 
' functions ' of this * inner organ ' may help to make the 
subject clearer. 

It is true that the ancient works lay stress on the indi- 
visible oneness of mind, manas, in all its psychoses i.e., the 
psyche's functionmgs, moods, modes ; thus, 

: fft: *ft: * 

3$ *T*f ^4 I Brhad-'Aranyaka, 1, v, 3. 

' Love and passionate desire, resolve, doubt, faith, dis- 
belief, patience, impatience, modesty, clear insight, fear all 
these are but manas, mind/ These psychoses (mind's func- 
tions, mentations), are typical of the scores mentioned in 
different works of various schools of philosophy ; e.g., alo- 
chana, pure sensation, and pratyaksha, perception (which are 
the basis of all other mental operations, 3WE* ac<jfNr ifo:, 
as said, in Sctnkhya Karikti, 30, and S^RNCf Slftfa:, in Nyaya- 
bhashya, I, i, 8), adhyavasaya, or ascertainment, abhimana, 
egoistic desire, sankalpa or vyavasaya, resolve, viparyaya or 
viparyasa, error, samshaya, doubt, vikalpa, imagination, 
svapna, dreaming, nidra, sleep, praty-avamarsha or praty- 
abhijna, recognition, ichchha, desire, raga, liking, dvsha, dis- 
liking, krti, volition, abhi-sandhi, determination, anubhava, 
experience, presentation, smrti, memory, etc. all these are 
only moods of the one mind. " 




J?ift ' 

Upanishat and 

' Self -born Brahma spreads out the worlds by Manas. 
Wherever there is sankalpa-ideation, there is Manas at work. 
There is no difference between the two. When ideation 


ceases, Self AJ-One remains. It is indicated by such names as 
Atma. By and in ideation, Space-Time-Motion appear, and 
Chit-consciousness becomes Kshetra-jna, cogniser of the ' field ', 
the ' This '. Ideating vasana-desires, it becomes " aham-kara '- 
ego-ism ; that, making determinations, free of doubt, a-kalanki, 
becomes ' bu(J(Jhi ' ; that, forming an ' image ', becomes 
' manas ' : that, densifying, crystallising, becomes indriyas, 
sensor-and-motor-organs ; these make up the body. Thus the 
jiva-soul, binding itself with bonds, like the silkworm im- 
prisoning itself in a cocoon spun by itself, falls lower and 
lower into denser and denser matter. This one and the 
same Manas- Mind, according to its various functionings, is 
named now * manas ', now * buddhi ', now ' jnana ', again 
' ichchha ', then ' kriya ', now ' aham-k^ra ', now ' chitta ', or 
prakrji, or m^yfl, or malam, or karma, bandha, puri-ashtaka, 
or a-vidy3. All these are but various names of various 
functionings of one and the same ideating Manas- Mind '. 

Still it is possible to distinguish three broad classes of 
functionings among these phenomena. 


T<*ntr-aloka, ix. 
I Prashna Upanishat, iv, 8. 

Sahkhya-Karika. 23, 24. 37. 

Shabda-kalpa-druma, art. Antahkara^a. 


W g g^frowf^, cf^r ^ ^ iw 

3 cT^Kcli ^H I pM-Bh**<r t VII., xxxii. 

So far there is no difficulty. There is a clear consensus 
in the above texts, that buddhi is that faculty of the mind 
whose function is to ascertain facts, adhyavasdya, bodha, syati, 
nishchaya ; aham-kara, to ego-ise, to connect all experiences 
with self, to reduce them to the sake of the selfishly-desiring 
self, abhimSna, sam-rambha, mati, garva ; manas, to resolve 
upon which course to follow between doubtful alternatives, 
kalpana, mantavya, eshanS, ichchha, klrpti, samshaya or san- 
kalpa-vikalpa ; chitta, to memorise, to connect before and 
after, past and present and future, and also all the three, in 
itself, smarana, anu-sandhana. Clearly the three first corres- 
pond to jnana, ichchha, kriya. But when we seek for direct 
texts, we find some perplexing inconsistency here as in the 
case of sattva, etc., (vide section viii, supra, of this note, and 
the references to Git a). Thus, . 

fe: but 

(It should be noted that the quotations from K^shmira 
Shaiva works, throughout this Note, are all taken from 
Mr. J. C. Chatter ji's excellent publications under the auspices 
of the Kashmir State.) 

In these lines jfiana sattva baddhi are brought together 
all right ; but kriyS and manas are joined to tamas instead of 
rajas ; and ichchha and ahamkSra are allied to rajas instead 
of tamas. Spanda-karika-vivrti (iv, 20), however, as we 
have seen in section ix, supra, of this note^assigns the corres- 
pondences rightly. Vatsyayana, Kama-sutra. I, ii, 44, uses 
abhimana in the sense of desire, expressly. 


(This sentence is repeated in Kautalya, Artha-shastra, 
I, vi.) 


c King Dandaka, desiring lustfully to violate the 
daughter of the IJshi Bhargava, was destroyed with all his 
kith and kin, and all his kingdom was laid waste and became 
dense jungle '. Valmiki, Ramayana t has a verse which uses 
the word in the same sense : Does the king's son carefully 
avoid lusting after the wives of others ? '. 

We may, on the whole, take the following to be the net 
result. Buddhi is the principle or faculty of cognition, know- 
ing, understanding, intellection, reason, which ascertains and 
decides, * this is so ' ; it corresponds to sattva ; Samskrt 
names for its operations are , adhyavasaya, nishchaya, 
bodha, jfiana, upa-labdhi, etc. Aham-kara is the ptinciple or 
faculty of desiring (whereby the separateness of one-self is 
primarily accentuated), wishing (willing being, so to say, mid- 
way between wishing and acting), and of self -reference, indivi- 
duation, personalisation, egoism, hence self-complacence, 
pride, etc. ; it corresponds to tamas ; Samskrt words for its 
functionings are ichchha, abhi-mana, sam-rambha, garva, 
eshana (in the sense of vasana, craving, etc.). Manas is the 
principle or faculty of action, volition, conation, determination 
(of what to do), resolve (after vacillation), attention (after 
distraction) ; it corresponds to rajas ; Samskrt words for 
its activities are kriya, esharjia, (in the sense of seeking, anu- 
eshafla, going after), samshaya-vimarsha, sankalpa-vikalpa. 
Chitta is the summation of the three, with the special feature 
or function of memory (and expectation), connecting before 
and after ; Samskrt words here are chefayate, smaraijam, 
anu-san-dhanam. The name chitta, for individual mind or soul, 
is appropriately formed from the root-word Chit which 
means consciousness generally, Ch6tana, Chiti. The Univer- 
sal Consciouness or Chit, including all time, past, present, and 
future, is obviously the locus and the means of all memory. 
A portion, a slab, so to say, of this Universal Conscious- 
ness, gathered into a separate aggregate, with a definite 
reach backward and forward in time, becomes a chitta J in this 
individual ' memory ' and an individual is but a ' memory,' 
a biography, a number of experiences in a certain order, so 
that individuality is lost and disappears, when, and to the 


extent that, memory is lost and disappars the three other 
functions, of buddhi, etc,, are all incorporated/ 

The order of succession and rotation of the three classes 
of psychoses, cognitive, affective, conative, is indicated in the 
following : 

I Mbh. t Shfintt, ch. 204. 

' Out of knowledge arises desire ; out of desire, krti (or 
prayatna), I.e., volition : out of that, effort ; out of that, 
action.' * First conies knowledge (of a thing) ; then the wish 
to obtain it ; then the purposeful effort, abhi-sandhi ; then the 
action ; then the fruit.' 

knows ; then ?**, desires ; then ^, endea- 
vours this is one of the commonplaces of Nyaya. It is obvious 
that intention, purpose, will, volition, conation, innervation, 
exertion, muscular effort, are all intermediate states of transi- 
tion from desire to action. 

In Pura^ic mythical and anthropomorphic symbology, 
for purposes of concrete devotional worship, Vasudeva-Krshrja 
(an incarnation of Vishnu-sattva, representing knowledge, 
wisdom) ; his brother Sankarshana-Bala-rama (of Rudra- 
tamas, representing the anger-half of desire) ; his son Pra- 
dyumna (of Kama-Eros, representing the love-half thereof) ; 
and his grandson A-niruddha (the ' unrestrained/ representing 
action, rajas), stand, respectively, for chitta, buddhi or mahat, 
the two subdivisions (anger and love) of ahamkara, and for 
manas respectively (Bhagavata, III, xxvi.) 

For a description and illustration of the inhibitive, veiling, 
blinding, (dvaraQa), distracting, diverting, selective, mis- 
directive and incentive, (vik N shepa), preserving, steadying, 
(sthiti), fixing and regulating (niyama) effects of feeling, 
passion-desire-unreason, and of its connection with tamas, 
see Hoffding, Outlines of Psychology, ch. VI, 7. Thus, 
". . . Feeling itself may have a hindering effect . . . But the 


step once taken, feeling is the faithful guardian of what has 
been acquired. Then its inertia" (tamas) "is of use to 
knowledge" (sattva), etc. (See also Herbert Spencer, Psy- 
chology, vol. I, p. 110). 

(Some more notes, which had gathered on the margins 
of my personal copy of the previous editions of this book, 
may be incorporated here). 


:, TO:, ^ 

I Aitareya. in, 2. 

' Smrti, memory, has the past for object ; mati, expecta- 
tion, opinion, the future, the corning ; buddhi, perception, the 
present, that which is immediately before it ; pra-jna, the 
higher mentation, thinking, ranges over and covers, simultane- 
ously, all three divisions of time '. ' Wish to hear i.e., to 
learn, scientific curiosity ', attentive listening i.e. absorption 
of knowledge, apprehension, retention, inferential reasoning 
and acceptance of a fact, (similar) rejection or refutation (of 
an alleged fact), understanding of purport and purpose, 
knowledge or grasp of the essential truth (of a subject) these 
are the eight functions of dhih, intelligence ' ; (from dha, to 
place, to do, to deposit ; dhiyante pad-arthah asyam iti 
dhih, that in which all meanings of words, i.e., notions of 
things meant by words, are deposited ; dhi is a synonym 
for buddhi). Sensation, perception, concrete or factual 
knowledge, abstract thought or conceptual knowledge 
or generalisation, retentive intelligence, view (or outlook, 
doctrine), resolute fortitude (or determination), opinion, 
independence of mind, propensity, memory or recollection, 
imaginative ideation, volition, asu or praya or innervation 
(of a motor organ or muscle, with nerve-energy, by volitional 


effort for action), kflma-desire, vasha- capability or will-power 
all these are only different names (of different aspects or 
functions) of pra-jnana-consciousness '. 

*Rt f| ^ir^T, ^^ f? 

f| 5T^I, *W: 3Tr^ ?fcf I Chhandogya, vii, 3. f^frj %cl^ I vh. 5. 

' By manas-mind, man resolves, ' may I study mantras ', 
and studies ; ' may I do (such-and-such) acts ', and does ; 
' may I desire children and domestic animals, and (the joys 
and riches of) this world and also the next ', and desires ; 
manas is the soul, the Self, is all this world (i.e. 9 all these 
worlds, all this, all objects) ; it is Brahma ; manas should be 
meditated on, propitiated, worshipped, given devotion to (i.e. 9 
should be purified, elevated, strengthened) ' ; ' Chitta re- 
members '. 

The same three functions, jnana-ichchha-kriya, cognition- 
desire-action, with the fourth all -connecting all-including 
memory -expectation -consciousness, are clearly indicated in 
these sentences of the Chhandogya. Incidentally, it may 
be noted that Plato, in Republic, Bk. iv, (Jowett's translation), 
distinguishes " three principles of the Soul, Reason, Desire, 
and Passion or Spirit or Anger " ; which is very feeble ; in 
view of what Indian tradition says, from Upanishats down- 
wards ; " passion or spirit or anger " is only one part of 
' desire ', and " reason " only one part of ' cognition ', and 
1 volition-action ' is not discerned and counted at all by Plato. 

Mbh. t Shanti-parva, chs : 238, 254, 258, (also 203, 268, 
281, and others) say : 




' Mab at -Manas manifested first, fast-rushing, far -travel- 
ling, ever-going, desiring-and-doubting (affirming-and-denying, 
imagining-and-effacing). ' . . . ' Beyond Manas is buddhi ; 
beyond buddhi is At ma/ ... * When buddhi undergoes 
emotion or any definite functioning with reference to a 
specific object, it becomes manas.' . . . Buddhi determines, 
resolves, ascertains, makes sure ; manas expounds, specifies. 1 

There is a grand hymn to Manas, of six mantras (verses), 
in Yajur- V6da, which emphasises the all-enmeshing quality 
and speed of the mind : 

Jr w: ftrawssq 

' This Mind of mine, which wanders far when (I am) 
awake, and comes back (to me) when (I am) asleep ; which 
is the one Light of lights ; which is known as pra-jfiana and 
chetas and dhrti, (knowledge, desire-memory, and will-vohtion- 
action), Immortal Inner Light of all living beings, without 
which nothing can be done, which encompasses all past, 
present, and future worlds, in which are interwoven all the 
minds of all beings may that Mind of mine ever ideate holy 
thoughts, ever function auspiciously, beneficently '. 

Chitta has been said in some of the above texts, to 
connect all three divisions of time. As memory, it is cognition 
of an object with the additional cognition of ' past-ness ', in 
the sequence of its experience ; as expectation, of future-ness ; 
as direct perception, of presentness ; (see The Mahatma 
Letters, p. 194, re Time). Other texts assign the same 
power to prajna ; others to buddhi ; they ascribe reasoning 
also to the two : it is obvious that reasoning, inference, 
proceeds from past experience to future similar experience, 
connects memory and expectation. The incessant flow and 


flux, the kaleidoscopic assumptions of ever new forms and 
figures by the very same few pieces of differently coloured 
glass, which goes on perpetually in these subtle regions of 
the mind, has been referred to before; each function passes 
into another, imperceptibly as it were. Compare the 
statement in The Mahatma Letters, p. 187 : " As no two 
men, not even two photographs of the same person, nor yet 
two leaves, resemble, line for line, each other, so no two states 
in Deva-chan are like ". But this does not mean that the 
states cannot be grouped into great broad classes. Clouds 
at sunset in the rains are never still, are ever changing their 
shapes and colors ; but the main seven colors, or the three yet 
more primary ones, are always there, and distinguishable. 
Deva-chan, (? Tibetan for Skt. Deva- jana or Deva-sthSna, god- 
world) Svar-ga, (* where sva, Self, goes ')> may be said to be 
the Dream-world par excellence) ; all mano-maya and vijSana- 
maya ; but of waking dreams, so to say, vivid, ' real ' ; sva, 
Self, Mind, has much more control over Matter there ; Matter 
is much more plastic. 

Incidentally ; the fuller the comprehension of the Nature 
of Mind and mental processes, the clearer will be understood 
the teachings of the Masters, as regards after-death states 
of normals and abnormals, suicides, ' accident-killed ', 
elementanes, ghosts, shells, lower principles, higher principles, 
disjunctions of the principles from, and fresh conjunctions 
with, each other, etc. Each individual flowing into and out 
of all others ; individual within and without other individuals : 
the principle of individuality-Manyness as well as all indi- 
viduals, within the Principle of Universality and the One- 
Universal this seems to be the key to the problems of 
personal as well as Impersonal Immortality and all subsidiary 
questions ; the subject will come up for treatment again, later 
on. In this connection, an extract from Herodotus (History, 
Bk. IV, ch. 184), which is referred to in the Secret Doctrine 
(iv, 331) will be found suggestive :" around another salt-hill 
and spring of water, dwell a people called the Atarantians, 
who alone of all nations are destitute of names. The title 
of Atarantians [Atlanteans] is borne by the whole race in 
common ; but the men have no particular names of their 
own. . . . Near the salt is a mountain called Atlas, . . . 


so-lofty ... the natives called it ' the Pillar of Heaven ', 
and they themselves take their name from it, being called 
Atlantes ..." A group of persons, not having any dis- 
tinctive, differentiating, particular names, everyone being 
known as and called * Atarantian ', presumably had some sort 
of a ' group-individuality ' also ; somthiug like that of herds 
of herbivores, or the populations of termitariurns and bee-hives. 

In the last-quoted Mbh. text, occurs the word vy-ava- 
saya. Ordinarily, it means resolution, determination, in the 
actional sense, rather than the cogmtional ; f.i. Gitjci, ii, 41 ; 
* The resolute, determined, buddhi, wtll,is one-pointed, single- 
minded, keeps one aim before it (and therefore acts, and 
achieves that aim) ; while the irresolute ones dream of many 
objects and fritter away their energy in endless vague plans \ 
Here, by vyavasaya is meant * determination to act ' rather 
than ' ascertainment of fact '. The cognitional sense is usually 
expressed by adhy-ava-saya, as in many of the other texts 
quoted above. The word vy-a-karana has now come techni- 
cally to mean grammar ; because grammar " specifies ' and 
' limits ' the proper use of language. 

Abhi-mana and its derivatives, as meaning ego-ising, self- 
referring self-emphasising, self-asserting, prideful, overbear- 
ing desire, occur in the following texts : 


. qjrfqf 


Mbh , Shanti, chs. 308. 309, 310. 

' This Mahan-Atma, for the sake of Krida, Play, abhi- 
manyati, puts upon Him-Self, takes on, a-buddhi, a-vidya f 
i-e., Prakrti, with its three gunas ; enters into these countless 
yoni-s, species of Jiving things, identifies It-Self with Its 
companion, its garment inside which it dwells ; and thinks 
[note these words] " I am Not anything Else than this 
body * ! ( instead of thinking its whole Thought, " than 
My-Self " ) ; th'us, it abhi-manyati, imagines, as attached 
to It-self, all these outer garments, vastrSni, made up of sattva- 
rajas-tamas, dharma-artha-kama, [note the correct order] ; It 
thinks " I am all these", " all these are in me ", these indriyas, 
sensor-motor-organs which make up this body. Thus the 
Infinite abhi-manyate, desirefully imagines It-Self to be 
finite ". 

' May I be so-and-so, I am so-and-so ' this imposition 
of other things upon Self is abhi-inana. 

* The essence of chiti is re-cognition, prati-ava-marsha, 
ability to recognise that this is the same as was perceived 
before. It gathers up and preserves and holds all experiences '. 

, 5fR% ^ 

1 Mbh. Shanti, ch. 427 ; also chs. 108, 180, 316, 317, 357; Ann-gift, 
ch. 26 ; Vdyu Pur&na Sjshti Prakarapa, ch. iv ; etc. : 


(See also Durga-Sapta- Shaft, and my Manava-Dharma- 
Sarah, in which these and other synonyms, and names 
according with transformations during gradual manifestation, 
vyakta-pary-aya and aham-kara-pary-aya, of Mind-Brahma, 
are repeated over and over again, and explained etymologically ; 
whereby the transformations become intelligible). 

We have seen before (pp. 121 131) how certain texts 
play, in riddle, with the word anyat. Another text of the 
same kind occurs in Mbh., Shanti, ch. 325 : 

It occurs in the course of a great debate between the lady 

Sphilosopher-yogini) Sulabha and king Dharma-dhvaj a Janaka 
of the famous dynasty of Janakas, philosopher-kings, also 
known as vi-deha ; one of whom, Sira-dhvaja Janaka, was the 
father of Sita and father-in-law of Rama). Dharma-dhvaja 
was a disciple of the Sankhya Teacher Pancha-Shikha. The 
text quoted has a different meaning, in the immediate 
context ; but that meaning is of no particular significance ; 
the other interpretation, of deep significance, is also possible 
here, as in the other cases (pp. 121 131), and is appropriate 
also, in view of the nature of the whole discussion on 
' philosophy, in theory and in practical daily life '. 

r ' arfiw*ft ' 

Valmiki, Ramayana, II ch. 88, 2429. 

' Enemies never harbour any proud desire to attack the 
kingdom of Ayodhya (even after Rama has gone away to the 
forests, on his four teen -years' exile, because it is guarded by 
his fame, and the fame of the good and strong government 
established there) ; they avoid it like poisoned food '. 

I Bhfigavata. 

1 (For the renunciant sanyasi) necessary food is the only 
right possession ; he who desires more is as a thief, and 
should be punished '. 


These additional texts will, it is hoped, enable the reader 
to judge more confidently the import and the correspondences 
of the three factors of the several triads which have been 
dealt with in this note. 

The word * faculties ' has been used above wittingly. It 
is true that modern western text -books profess to have given 
up the old ' faculty-psychology ' ; and the abandonment is 
justifiable, but with reservations. We have seen above that 
the ancient Upanishats strongly affirm the indivisible unity of 
the mind ; but that does not entail the avoidance of all classi- 
fication of psychical phenomena, and of the consequent 
discernment of corresponding 'powers/ shakes, i.e., ' faculties,' 
in the soul. The doctrine of ' faculties ' was run to an extreme. 
There ought not to be a running to the opposite extreme. It 
has been pointed out that the three functions of the mind are 
distinguishable but not separable. From this it does not 
follow that the word * faculties ' should not be used in con- 
nection with the mind ; for ' faculties ' may also be regarded 
as distinguishable but not separable. Strictly, prthaktva, 
separateness, separability, complete and perfect, does not 
exist even in the realm of matter : for the most utterly separate- 
seeming pieces of matter are found, on scrutiny, to be floating 
in and connected together by a subtler kind of matter of which 
these separate-seeming pieces are, directly, or indirectly some 
sort of condensation. The organs of audition, vision, etc., may 
be said to be separate, but scarcely the ' faculties ' thereof, which 
all inhere, as ' powers/ in the indivisible soul. And even this 
separateness of the organs is not quite perfect separateness. 
Even physically they are connected together by nerves. And 
in abnormal psychical states, persons have ' seen ' with 
the ' navel/ while their eyes were tightly closed and band- 
aged ; and * optophones ' have been recently invented. The 
indication is that the potentialities of all kinds of sensations 
are present in all the sensor-nerves on the general principle 
that all is everywhere and always though one potency pre- 
ponderates and has become act-ual in one special nerve ; as is 
easy to understand when we remember that evolutionists have 
ascertained that all the sensor ies have differentiated out of 
one primal nerve of ' touch ' (as moderns say ; of * audi- 
tion/ as ancients say, though some verses of Anw-Gf/3, 


which refer to sparsha-vidyut, c touch-electricity,* seem to 
lend some support to the modern view also). We have 
also to remember that, with progress of psycho-physical 
research and discovery in the ' localisation of functions/ it is 
being established more and more clearly, every day, that certain 
nerve-parts, nerve- tissues, nerve-lobes, and ganglia, pre- 
ponderantly serve as channels and organs of one or another 
of the three main functions of the mind ; so that the ' inner 
organ ' is beginning to be seen as not wholly dissimilar from 
the outer organs ; and vice verse. 

In short, the distinction between ' distinguishability ' and 
' separability ' too, is but one of degree, ultimately ; for buddhi, 
which ' distinguishes,' is itself jada, ' unconscious,' being a 
transformation of Prakr^i, or Root-matter, as Sankhya says ; 
and Prakrfci again is but an ' idea,' in turn, an ' eject ' and 
* project ' of Consciousness, made of veritable Conscious-stuff ; 
' without ' and ' within ' being facets of the same ; appear- 
ance of contrast and opposition here also being only illusory, 
such as underlies all dvam-dvam, pairs of opposed relatives, 
of the World- Process ; while Continuity, Organic Unity, and, 
finally, complete Unity and Identity of all (in One Universal 
Consciousness, imag-in-ing all -things al-ways) is the real fact. 1 

(xi) Finally, the difference or distinction between Buddhi 
and Manas may be indicated from a somewhat different 

Bergson among recent philosophers in the West is 
specially noted for having pointedly drawn attention anew to 
the fact, latterly tending largely to be overlooked there, " that 
deeper than any intellectual bond which binds a conscious 
creature to the reality in which it lives and which it may 
come to know, there is a vital bond ". " Our knowledge rests 

1 In one way, Sankhya may be said to go beyond the extremist 
''behaviourists' of Pavlov's and Watson's (Russian and U. S. American) 
Schools ; but the very great difference between the two is that Sankhya 
affirms ' mind ' as a fact, though material ; while the latter regard it 
as an illusion, as non-est, and thus stultify their own opinions and 
minds ; for they would be also only * conditioned reflexes ' , therefore 
liable to change with changed conditions, therefore unreliable and 


on an intuition which is not, at least which is never purely, 
intellectual. This intuition is of the very essence of life, 
and the intellect is formed from it by life, or is one of the 
forms that life has given to it in order to direct the activity 
and serve the purpose of the living beings that are endowed 
with it." " Kowledge is for life and not life for knowledge." 
" One thing is certain, that if you are convinced by this or 
any other philosophy, it is because you have entered into it 
by sympathy, and not because you have weighed its argu- 
ments as a set of abstract propositions." " Consciousness of 
living is the intuition of life." " Reality is life." " Why is 
there any realitv at all ? Why does something exist rather 
than nothing ? Why is there an order in reality rather than 
disorder ? When we characterise reality as life, the question 
seems so much more pressing, for the subject of it seems so 
much fuller of content, than when we set over, against one 
another, bare, abstract categories, like the being and nothing 
that Hegel declared to be identical. It seems easy to imagine 
that life might cease and then nothing would remain. In this 
way we come to picture to ourselves a nought spread out 
beneath reality, a reality that has come to be and that might 
cease to be, and then again there would be nought. This idea 
of an absolute nothing is a false idea, arising from an illusion 
of the understanding. 1 \bsolute nothing is unthinkable. The 
problems that arise out of the idea we seem to have of it are 
unmeaning . . ." "Why, at ordinary times, does it seem so 
certain that it is material things that endure, and that time 
is a mechanical play of things that themselves do not change ? 
It is due to two fundamental illusions of the mind . . . 
The reality of life is essentially freedom . . ." 

The above quotations are taken from a little monograph 
on Bergson's Philosophy of Change by Mr. Wildon Carr. a 
They help to show how near he has come to many VedSntic 
conclusions that a theory of knowledge is but a part 
of the theory of Life (which is knowledge plus desire-feeling 

1 See p. 120, supra. 

3 Jackson's People's Books series. For further scrutiny of Berg- 
son's philosophy, and objections to what seen to be his defects, or even 
extravagances, see The Science of the Self, Index-references to Bergson. 


plus action) ; that our knowledge differs with our attitude ; 
that sympathy means understanding, and antipathy, misunder- 
standing, (the vedanti would add that raga, interestedness, 
implies error in understanding, and vai-ragya, disinterestedness, 
true understanding) ; that our daily life is based on illusion 
(Vedanta would add that the basic illusion is that which takes 
finite for Infinite, and vice versa, and all others follow from it) ; 
and that freedom is real life (final freedom, moksha, from 
that basic illusion). But though Bergson has come so 
near, he would probably not yet quite accept the exact 
v6dantic conclusions. His own ' attitude ' is one of raga, 
of inclination towards change^ and progress always, rather 
than of vi-raga and inclination towards changelessness. 
Characteristically, Bergson's philosophy is known as ' the 
Philosophy of Change '. He is a worshipper of Shakti- Power, 
not of Shiva-Peace (see p. 180, f.n., and p. 242, f.n., supra). 

At the same time, he has done good service by his work, 
and particularly by laying stress on Intuition as contrasted 
with, or at least, distinguished from, Intelligence ; stress, which 
is likely to make certain aspects of Yoga and Vedanta clearer 
to the modern mind. In a certain aspect, his Intuition (in- 
cluding Instinct) corresponds with Mahat or Buddhi (identified 
with Chitta) ; and his Intelligence with Manas (including 

The following quotations will help to show. 


f| 1 
I Mbh., Vana, ch. 183. 


tW., Shanti, ch. 254 ; see also ch. 203. 

r sf *TRRt OTTO tftpBrcnn ; 

g i 

3 aurRr, fa^taeg f: i Charaka, i, i. 

* Distinguishing of the characteristics of Buddhi and 
Manas is one of the final and most important duties of the 
psychologist. Buddhi is general awareness, which clings to 
the Universal Self, and is always a-search for It, i.e., for the 
Unity in all things ; and is wholly dependent upon it ; making 
its generalisations only by diligently discerning unity or 
similarity in diversity. It becomes manifest in and by ut- 
pada, up-rising, (appearing *above the threshold of conscious- 
ness), and then takes shape as general concepts or laws and 
generalisations, vidhiyate. Manas on the other hand, is ut- 
panna, ' uprisen,' active, selective, attentive mind, ' risen 
above ' the threshold of consciousness (laya-sthana). Buddhi 
specified, particularised, by a vi-kara, a change, a ' formation/ 
a condensation, by ' wanting something ' definite, by selecting 
something out of the whole field (kshetra) and concentrating 
on it, becomes Manas ; it takes birth ' and shape in a 
* purpose,' a karya, when it wishes to do something ; (other- 
wise it remains a sub-consciously or supra-consciously all- 
embracing ' great ' memory, ' great self,' Mahan Atma, 
Mahat). Because Buddhi, as the first transformation of primal 
Prakyti, has the three gu$as, therefore Manas (including 
Aham-kara), the second transformation thereof, also manifests 
the three in operation.' 

According to the Sankhya-scheme, aham-kara, the princi- 
ple of egoistic desire, in its three subdivisions, as rajasa- 
taijasa, gives birth to manas ; as sattvika-vaikarika, to the 
ten sensor and motor organs ; as tamasa-bhutadi, to the five 


sense-objects, tan-ma$ra-s, anc j t ^ e corresponding bhutas, i.e., 
the sensable-quahties or sensations-as-such, and their sub- 
strata. The reason why manas as the chief indriya, organ 
or instrument, of the subject-consciousness, on one side ; the 
ten outer organs, in between ; and the five great classes of 
* objects ', on the other side ; should all be derived from aham- 
kara, in the Sankhya scheme, may be explained thus. It is 
Desire-Energy which connects Subject and Object, and makes 
the subject an organism, investing it with organs made of the 
same ' material ' as the * objects ' as will appear more fully in 
the later chapters. This Desire-Energy is the very core of 
the separate ego, the very principle of egoism, as said above. 
It connects an * 1 ' with a ' this,' spiritual jiva with material 
atom, or rather, indeed, it marks off and makes the indi- 
vidual jiva out of Universal Spirit, and singular atom (or 
singular * body ') out of pseudo-universal Matter. Hence, it 
may well be said to be the source from which the two sets of 
products, subjective and objective, the instruments, karanas, 
organs (subdivided into (i) manas, as chief, and (ii) the other 
ten, as subordinate), and (in) their objects, are all derived. 

'The element or feature of generality, universality, 'com- 
monness,' c sameness/ samanya, (which belongs to buddhi), 
corresponds to unity, sameness of purpose or intention, and 
co-operation ; and it makes for the increase, the expansion, of 
every bhava, ' existence, *' concept,' (and sympathy), by in- 
clusion of more and more ' propers ' under the ' common '. 
The element of vishesha, particularity, speciality (which 
belongs to manas), corresponds to 'difference' from each 
other, to divergence of purpose and intention, to separateness 
and misunderstanding, and makes for decrease and decay, 
contraction and enfeebling, of all kinds of ' existence,' 
' principles,' ' concepts ', into minute details.' We have seen 
above how extremes meet ; and how the perfectly minute, the 
infinitesimal, the utterly singular, the true point and moment (or 
instant), is the genuine * here and now/ and is indistinguishable 
from the perfectly vast, the Infinite, the utterly Universal, 
Boundless Circumference, Unlimited and Eternal. 

The fundamental ideas are the universality of the Self and 
the singularities of the Not-Self. Out of this pair, and always 
bound up with each other in inseparable Relation, issue all 


other corresponding pairs, as said before. Of these pairs, the 
following may be mentioned here for our present psychological 

Amurta and mur^a, formless and formed, abstract and 
concrete, ideal and material ; prakrti and vikrti, unmanifest 
nature and particular manifestation or transformation ; samanya 
and vishesha, general and particular, (the name for the un- 
breakable relation between the two being samavaya, in the 
technicology of the Vaisheshika system) ; jati and vyakft, 
species and individual ; para-samanya and apara- vishesha, 
sutnmum gentts and iufima species or rather singnlaris (the 
ultimate or highest universal and the final or lowest particular 
or singular or individual) : samashti and vyashti, whole and 
part ; pra^ka and pratima, nature-force and anthropomorphous 
image ' ; pratyaya and nama-rupa, concept and name-form ; 
shastra and krtya, science and application ; naya and chara, 
theory and practice : siddhanta, raddhanta, mula-sutra, or bija- 
man^ra, and prayoga, principles and execution ; Intuition- 
instinct and Intelligence, buddhi and manas ; insight of genius 
and argument, pratibha and tarka ; yoga-ja jiiana and prakrta- 
jfiana, siddha-drshti and laukika-drshti, satya-jn3naand mi^nya 
jnana, true and intuitive understanding by love and sympathy 
i.e., 'common-feeling/ and false intelligence or misunderstanding 
by antipathy or diverse and opposite feeling; vayam and 
aham, We and I ; sarva-hi^a and sva-hita, the good of all and 
the good of myself ; a-khanda-che^ana and khanda- jnana, con- 
tinuum of consciousness and particular partial knowledge; 
kshetra and vishesha, vishaya or lakshya, general field of con- 
sciousness, and particular objective or focus of attention therein ; 
a-vyakta and abhi-vyak^a, latent and patent, un -manifest 
and manifest ; an-ud-buddha and ud-buddha, un- or sub- or 
supra-conscious and conscious : supta and jdgrat, dormant and 
wakeful; nirodha and vyutthana, obliviscence and remi- 
niscence, inhibition and exhibition ; jlva and deha, soul and 
body, which is *' the soul made visible " ; yuga-paf and 
a-yuga-pat, simultaneous knowledge of many or all, and suc- 
cessive knowledge of particulars, one by one, which are the 
respective characteristics oJ buddhi and manas. 

All these pairs are allied, are aspects of each other. And 
the process of yoga-development of the soul seems essentially 


to consist in regulating, restraining, controlling, selectively and 
attentively turning in one direction (by sam-yama), and inhibit- 
ing along all other directions (by nirodha), the activity (vr$0 
of chitta-nmnas-arjui, after minimising its egoistic restless- 
ness (by vairagya), and making its emotional or ' affective ' 
tone as placid (full of prasada) as possible, by various 
means mentioned in Yoga- works. In this way, individual 
mind or ahamkara-rnanas deliberately orients itself towards, 
and makes itself the channel, vessel, receiver, missionary, 
of Universal Mind, Mahat-Buddhi ; and replaces intel- 
ligence by intuition. All the ways of prayer are but ways of 
such opening of oneself to the inflow of the larger Self ; and 
all ' willing ' is also but a disguised form of ' prayer ;' for every 
exercise of individual force and free-will is ultimately and 
really but the working of the Universal Force of Universal 

A further quotation from Bergson, (from a report of his 
address as President of the Psychical Research Society, in 
1913), may help to illustrate the relationship between buddhi 
and manas, and also, incidentally, the methods of soul-educa- 
tion, mind-development, and psychical extension and expan- 
sion of -faculty. " Formerly it was held as a scientific dogma 
that the brain was the store-house of memories. . . . (The 
truth rather is) that it is the function of the brain to recall 
things remembered, an instrument to bring back the remem- 
brance of an action, and to prolong the action in movements, 
and enable the mind to make adjustment to life. The brain 
is not the seat of memory, not an organ of preservation. It is 
the organ by which the mind adjusts itself to environment, 
prepares the body for the realisation of what the mind has 
apprehended. It marks the useless part of the past, and lets 
through only those remembrances which are useful to serve 
the present. Consciousness transcends the brain, is partially 
independent of it, and preserves the whole of the past intact in 
every detail. ... In certain cases, as when drowning, or 
in battle, the total past of a man is unmasked, and the whole 
of it comes rushing in, because the normal necessity of fixing 
attention on the present, and still more the future, in order to 
live, is relaxed, and all the faculties of attention turn back to 
that past which it is the business of the brain normally to 

P., CH. Xl] ' PRESENT ' AND ' CONSCIOUS ' 287 

hide from him, in order that he may keep his attention con- 
centrated on the present and the future. . . . The inference 
from the fact that the consciousness is a larger reality than the 
brain ... is ... that the separation between individual 
consciousness(es) may be much less radical than we suppose. 
* . . Consciousness in individuals passes into that of other 
individuals, and is not cut up as it seems to be." 

All these remarks may not be endorsed, exactly as they 
stand, by the Yoga-system of practical or applied psychology ; 
but their general trend seems to agree with that of the latter. 
Thus, in the full sense, Consciousness, or, if that word be 
preferred, (the 'Unconscious, or the Principle of Life and Con- 
sciousness), preserves not only the whole of the past intact,, 
but also already and always contains the whole of the future 
also, according to NyEya and Yoga-Vedanta ; and it is 
this fact which makes memory and expectation possible. 1 

1 The Unconscious is, after all, nothing so very mysterious ; i.e., it 
is not more mysterious then anything else ! You listen to a question of 
many words, or a long lecture. All the mass of words goes into your 
ears. Each complete word-sound or sentence-sound produces a meaning, 
an ap-prehension, a concept, an idea, in your mind, and then disappears. 
' Disappears ' means goes into the Un-Conscious or sub-or-supra-Con- 
scious. Then, when the question is completed, you make a reply ; when 
the lecture is finished, you get up and make a long criticism. The 
thoughts, notions, ideas, come welling up in your Mind or ' Conscious- 
ness ' from ' nowhere ' , from the Unconscious ; and you go on clothing 
them in words, which also come welling up from the same ' nowhere '. 
Every sentence, every pageful, you speak or write or read, illustrates the 
same process. You have an enormous, indeed an infinite, collection of 
'things', of 'books'. You cannot use all of them at once. Strictly, 
you can use only one particular thing, at one time, in one place. But this 
' one ' is undefinable, is in-de-finite. It is always a more definite (on 
rather, less in-de-finite) core, plus a less definite (or rather, more in- 
de-fimte fringe. Everything shades and fades away into everything else. 
The selection of goods, the almirah of books, that you are more 
frequently using, in any given time and place, day, month, year, or life- 
time, and roon^, house, town, country that is your ' conscious ', com- 
paratively. The rest is your Unconscious, again comparatively. Finite 
conscious plus the remainder of the Infinite, is Universal Mind, Total 
Unconsciousness or Consciousness just as you please to call it. Each 
portion of that Mind is ' conscious ' to or in some one jiva, one in- 
dividual, so that the whole of the Unconscious is Conscious, too, in the 
Totality of all pseudo-infinite jivas, at every moment of pseudo-eternal 
time, in all pseudo-infinite space. As the ' present * is a * slab ' or 
' chunk ' of time, cut out of the Time-Continuum, over which individual 


Nyaya-sutra, III, ii, 42, expressly says, 

' Memory (of the past, and also of the future, which is 
called expectation) is possible only because the very nature of 
Self is that of Eternal All-knower.' The Bhashya on this 
explains that Self is in constant contact with all knowledge* 
of past, present, and future. 

The system of yoga of Yoga-sutra, seems to be a 
system of profound education, of training of the mind and 
brain for more and more effective use ; like the training of 
the eye or the ear or the hands. It may, indeed, be called, 
not inappropriately, ' the Science and Art of Attention '. 
All possible sounds, all possible colours and forms, are there, 
in space ever existent in the universe ; but human eye, human 

memory-expectation can range, so the ' conscious ' is a ' slab ' or ' block ' 
or 'piece', cut out of the Consciousness- (or Un-consciousness)- 
continuum, over which mdividnal memory-expectation can range. 
This Universal Mind, Brahma, the flrst manifestation of Brahma, is 
called Umm-ul-Kitab, ' Mother of Scriptures, Revelations ', in Sufism. 

What about the claims of psycho-analysts, if what is said above 
is correct ? The substance of them stands and remains valuable, after 
pruning of all exaggerations. They draw the lives too hard and fast between 
" suppression ' and ' re-pression ', ' unconscious ' and ' pre-conscious ' and 
'fore-conscious', normal forgetting and abnormal forgetting, etc.: 
and, for many mental phenomena, they have quite unnecessarily coined 
new and imposing-looking words, difficult to remember, and themselves 
very liable to be ' suppressed ' and ' repressed ' into the ' unconscious ' ' 
If we only bear in mind the facts (1) that all the ' abnormal ' phenomena, 
which psycho-analysts have noted, studied, and expounded, are only 
' excesses ' of those emotional experiences which all ' normal ' persons 
undergo, now and then, more or less ; (2) that three fourths of the cure of 
psycho-neurotic trouble consists in persuading the patient gradually to 
introspect and understand the true nature of his malady, and (3) that the 
remaining fourth of the cure is achieved by so strengthening the 
patient's will, that he becomes able to control his excess of emotionif 
these facts are borne in mind, psycho-analytic literature becomes very 
helpful in understanding Yoga-literature ; and Yoga-literature becomes 
suggestive of ways to persuade the patient and strengthen his will. 

Pratyak-chetana, * turning the mind's eye inwards 
from outwards/ is the great feat, the miracle, which ' makes 
the whole world new ' ; it is the one sole secret of real 
conversion, real re-education, ' second birth ', re-generation. 


ear, is riot, in the first place, so constructed as to be able 
to catch all kinds of them ; and, in the second place, of 
those that it can perceive, it actually perceives only those 
towards which it is diligently and attentively turned. 
It is much the same as with telescopes and microscopes; 
their powers are limited, and they must be very carefully 
adjusted, if they are to show with the greatest possible effect- 
iveness, what is wanted to be seen. The brain seems to 
be an * organ/ the physical coefficient of the psychical ' inner 
organ/ as the eye-ball or the ear-mechanism is that of the 
* faculty ' of vision or audition ; and its realm and domain is 
the ' field of consciousness ' generally. All possible psychical 
(or psycho-physical, or spirituo-material, for the two are 
utterly interdependent and inseparable) experiences, thoughts, 
emotions, plans, are always existent in the total whole. The 
individual mind, manas-brain, catches and manifests such of 
them as it turns, or is turned, towards. To turn, deliberately, 
and not be turned, helplessly ; and not only turn one's face, 
intellectually, towards the face of the object sought to be 
'understood/' but to enter with one's heart, vitally, into the 
heart of it : to identify one's own life and being with that 
other's life and being, by sympathy, by love this is, it would 
seem, to replace intellect, which works from ' outside/ by 
intuition which works from ' inside '. Generally speaking, we 
' understand ' what we love, intuitively ; the mother intuitively 
perceives the requirements of the child ; she fails, very often, 
because undeveloped or ill -cultured but insistent intellect 
interferes ; in order to ' understand ' another properly, we must 
' get into his skin/ ' see with his eyes ' ; the meaning and 
definition of samadhi, in yoga- works, seems to be just this. 
Yet intellect and intuition have to check and correct each 
other too. 

After the needed understanding has been gained through 
intuition, it may be utilised in various ways by intelligence* 
To apply to requirements, to. carry out into ' action/ is pre- 
eminently the work of manas ; as to ' ascertain ' what the facts 
and laws and great general principles are, is that of buddhi. 
AH great discoveries, in their first form of luminous hypothesis, 
may be said to be the work of such intuition ; subsequent con* 
crete details and utilisations, and devising of means to ends, 


on the basis of that hypothesis, are the work of intelligence. 
If these views are correct, it is obvious that there is no 
opposition or radical difference of any kind between intuition 
and intellect ; they may even be said to be degrees or aspects 
or counter-parts of each other, and to pass into each other, at 
times insensibly. Every act of * attention ' is, strictly, a 
focusing of the mind for the inflow of * intuitional ' knowledge. 
Yoga, (in the sense of ' inhibition of other mentations ', so as 
to make possible the * exhibition ' of some one other, or a few 
others), so regarded, is, as said in Yoga-bhashya itself, a con- 
stant feature of the mind, and belongs to it in all its moods and 
at all its stages of development. But it is only when dharaya, 
selection or concentration, dhyana, attention or contemplation, 
samadhi, meditation, raptness, rapport it is only when these 
attain a certain degree of efficiency and success, and, yet more 
so, when the intuitional knowledge or experience, and the 
extension of faculty aimed at, refer to things outside of the 
daily routine of life, to matters superphysical and metaphy- 
sical, that the word yoga is used of them conventionally and 

It will have been observed that the Buddhi and Manas 
(corresponding generally to Intuition and Intellect), dealt with 
in the present section, xi, of this note, are not quite the same 
as the buddhi and manas which, with aham-kara, constitute 
the three faculties of the chitta-mind. Yet they are not 
altogether different either. In a sense, Buddhi- Intuition may 
be said to be the same as Mahat or Mahan-Atma, the Great 
Soul, the Universal Mind, of which the individual chitta is a 
reflection ; while Manas- Intellect would include the triad of 

In psycho -physical Puranic mythology (mithya-jnana, 
primal error, which invests with murti or form that which is 
a-murta, formless, whence it follows that the whole of this 
World- Process is one vast Mythos), the Buddhi and Manas 
that are now being dealt with are symbolised as Vishrjiu and 
Brahma respectively, (Shiva then standing for Atma), on 
the scale of brabm-dndas, ' eggs of the Infinite,' ' orbs ' of 
Heaven. Thus 


. Shanti, ch. 180. 

' Vishnu, Jishnu, Shambhu, mati, buddhi, prajnS, upa- 
labdhi, khy^ti, dhrti, smrti, (names of various aspects of 
intelligence and memory), are all synonyms for Mahat or 
Mahdn AtmL From the ' navel '-lotus, the central being, 
the ' womb ', of Vishnu or Narayana, ' sleeping J in the 
waters of space, as sub- or supra-consciousness or Dormant 
Memory or Universal Mind, there arises Brahma or Aham- 
kara, who is the soul of all beings ; whence arise all the 
five root-kinds of sens-able matter, etc. ; and the scene of 
whose activities and manifestations is the Earth, described as 
a lotus. This lotus, with irregular petals, some large, some 
small, is spread out on the surface of the ocean, upside down ; 
the centre of the lotus is the North Pole, and the great Capes 
are the apices of the irregular petals ; the whole of the 
earth-globe, in turn, is an off -shoot as it were, from 
the * solar ' plexus or sun-heart of the larger Vishnu of the 
solar system.' Unfortunately, the metaphor of the PuraQas 
has ceased to be metaphor, and is being taken literally, with 
endless mischief as consequence. Artha-vada, rupaka, allegory, 
symbolism, has indeed become an-artha-vada, baneful misin- 
terpretation in unhappy India for many centuries now. 

The names of Universal Mind-Soul-Body, Intellectus- 
Animus-Corpus-Mundi, (which constitutes the 'contents 'of 
the Logion I-This-Not), each signifying an important aspect 
or characteristic, are etymologically explained in the following 
verses of Vayu Parana. 




HR, frgcl, 

^r^:, ct^r ^r^ ' *fRr: 

' 9 ri ' 




' ' 


: > (oAi) w **$: ^: \ 

: ' 
's i 


; %<wr*w?: H: 

Purana, Purva-ardha. chs , iv, v. 

', ' flniicm', ' i&w. ' s 

M6^.. Shan^i. chs. 180, 308, 316, 317, etc r 

* Because this World-Mind manifests first of all ; is greater 
than all the guna-s and tattva-s, attributes and elements, that 
spring from it ; and, in measure, is immeasurably Immense, 
therefore is it named Mahan, the Great. Because it mentates 
the effortful evolution of all things and beings from smaller 
and subtler states to larger and denser, therefore is it Manas, 
Mind. It understands, knows, budhya^e, all things, and 
distinguishes useful from harmful, therefore it is Buddhi. It 
knows, vindate, all, and its excellence is such that it also 
knows that it knows ; also it abides, vidyate, in everything, 
and everything abides it ; therefore it is Sam-vit- It weighs 
(by arguments) ; analyses (facts and views) ; forms opinions 
with reference to the requirements of the individual ; therefore 
is it Mati. It shapes a body, puh, of and for the tattvas, 
elements, and fills it, purayate", with kind gifts (experiences), 
and then dwells, shete, in that body as in a house or town, 
purl ; therefore is it known as Puh and Puru-sha. All aware- 
ness, khya^i, all experience of joy and sorrow, depends upon 
it, and because it is famously* known and declared, khyayatfl, 
by many attributes and many names, therefore is it called 
Khyflti. It knows all ; has power and is sovereign 
over all, ishate, ishte ; commands and controls all things 
and beings and worlds ; and is not ruled by any other ; 
therefore is it Ishvara. It 'knows supremely ', pra-jfia, the 


subtlest mysteries, and the planets (which are to the Sun as 
sensor-and-motor-organs are to a living organism) are Its pro- 
geny, pra-ja, therefore is it Pra-jna. All forms, all cogni- 
tions, all volitions, all actions, and all fruits of all actions, are 
stored up, chinoti, in it, for ever ; therefore is it Chiti. All 
work, past, present, and future, it remembers ever, smarate ; 
therefore is it Smara, Memory. Because it is vast, brhat, 
because it expands itseif, and expands, spreads out, brmharjia, 
all worlds, all things and beings, all feelings and emotions, in 
infinite space, salila-akasha, therefore is named Brahma. 
Because it is all knowledge, jna, therefore is it Jnana. 
Because it enhances, gives intensity and extensity, vipula- 
ta, ample scope, to the pairs of opposities, two-s, dvam-dvam-s, 
therefore is it known as Vipura. It is known as JShava be- 
cause it is the source and fount of all becomings, bhu. Because 
it knows the ' field ', the object, of consciousness, and also 
the knower of it, i.e., it-Self, it is known as Kah (also, 
Yah, Sah ; He, Who, What ; all pronouns which cover 
all objects, as well as the subject, of consciousness). It 
attains all objects, apnoft : it takes all, a-datte ; it eats, 
tastes, all things, atti ; it extends continuously over all, 
a-tata, san-tata, sata^am, ever ; because it negates, mfl, and 
transcends, ati-efti all This, Etat ; and, while thus negating 
all Else, It-Self-remains Self-established, moveless, eternal ; 
therefore is it named Atma, pre-eminently. It reaches all, 
rchchhati ; therefore is Rshi. It enters into all, vishafci ; there- 
fore is Vishnu. It possesses all the lordlinesses, marks of 
sovereignty, bhaga ; therefore is Ehaga-vSn. It is Raga, 
because desire stirs in it and is controlled by it. Because 
it protects, avati, all who meditate on it, therefore is 
it AUM (OM). It knows all, therefore is Sarva-jna, omni- 
scient. It is the home, refuge, ayana, of all souls, nara-s ; 
therefore is it Nar-ayarjia. Because the first, adi, of all gods, 
therefore is it Aditya. If produces and protects, pati, ail 
progeny, prajS ; therefore is it Praja-pati. Because it is the 
greatest of all gods, therefore is it Maha-deva. Because it 
pervades all, *s, bhu, in all, peculiarly, vi-shesh6na, there- 
fore is it Vi-bhu. Because all ' sacrifices ' are offered to it, 
are for it, therefore it is YajSa personified. Because it surveys, 
darshana, the whole World- Process and ranges over it all 


in mighty flights (of imagination), therefore is it Kavi (ka, 
world, vi, bird, world-bird). Because it is the Womb of Gold, 
garbha of hiraflya, Source of Golden Light, enveloped in 
Golden Light, (physical as well as mental), therefore is it 
Hiranya-garbha (the Sun). Because it makes all things, 
vi-shoshena r a chay at i, therefore is it Vi-rinchi. It is 
Vishva-rupa, because all worlds, vishva, all forms, rupa, are 
its forms. Because it is not born from any thing else, but 
only from It-Self, therefore is it Svayam-bhu. Because it is 
the One and only Immortal, eka a-kshara, and also because 
it is ultimately named by eka a-kshara, the One-lettered 
(tri-une) Word-Sound (AUM) Om, therefore is it Ekakshara '. 

By such synonyms, paryaya-s, which are used for It 
by turns, * coming one after another ', paryayaija, is the 
Universal Mind known. 

In the language of earlier theosophical literature, Atmd, 
the first principle, would correspond (on the cosmic scale) with 
Pratyag-atma or the Abstract and Universal I ; Buddhi, the 
second principle, with Universal Mind, all-inclusive Intuition 
or infinite sub-and-supra-consciousness, or the collective 
I, the We, the ' I am and am-not all this-s' ; Manas, the third 
principle, with the singular or individual 1, ' I am and, 
again, later on I am not this particular this/ the particular 
mind with its successive experiences of the nature of know- 
ledge, feeling, and activity, and its particular recollections. 
These remarks have to be understood as subject to the 
explanation that, for practical purposes, every sutr-atma 
* thread-soul ', ' group-soul ', or larger individuality, serves as 
' genus ' or ' universal ' to the jiv-8tma-s or smaller individual- 
ities which are included within it, which live and move and 
have their being in it (see ch. xiii, infra). 

In the same theosophical language, we may say that 
instinct is the 'mystic* participation of the individual soul in the 
life of the astral group-soul or sutr-atma ; and intuition, in the 
life of the buddhic group-soul. Every individual understands, 
knows t.e., feels, the sensations of any part of his body, because 
he is identified with that part, vitally ; so we understand 
instinctively and intuitionally i.e., we feel, the experiences of 
those ' other * jivas whom we love and who are therefore no 


longer ' other ' to us but indeed parts of ourselves. If we can 
identify ourselves with all, if we can realise our oneness with 
all, we will understand or feel all. " To know all is to excuse 
all," as the proverb says, because to know all is not possible 
without loving all, and to love all is not only to excuse all as 
one excuses oneself, but to help all as one helps oneself. 




JN the last chapter we dealt with 'the affirmative aspect 
of Negation ; as the Energy which links together, in an 
endless chain of Causality, the factors of the succession 
of the World-Process ; as the necessity of the Whole 
which appears as the Cause of each part ; as the Relation } 
of cause-and-effect between all the parts. We turn now 
to the negative aspect, of Negation, wherein it appears 
as the Condition or conditions, of the Interplay between 
Self and Not-Self; the conditions in which the succession 

1 Seeing such relation (L. ratio, ratus, to think, to reason) is rea- 
soning, ratio-cmation , re-lat-ion-mg (L. re, back, latus, to carry, to 
bear, to bear or carry one to another, and back, to and fro. in mind). 
There is a deep reason why the words ' cause ' and ' reason ' should be 
equivalent and often synonymous and interchangeable ; it is the 
fact, already mentioned, that the Universal Mind or ' Pure ' Reason, 
Cosmic Ideation of the Whole, (bearing or carrying all parts, at once, 
within itself, in re-lation or ratio to each other), is the cause of the 
appearance of each portion, in succession, i.e., is the cause of 
each event. The Samskrt words karana and hetu are similarly allied ; 
karana is active cause , hetu is passive condition, reason, motivating 
end or propose. 


of the factors of the World-Process appears and takes 
place. 1 

A little reflection will show that cause and condition 
are only the positive and negative aspects of the same 
thing. A cause may be -said to be a positive condition, 
and a condition a negative cause. 

Let not the objection be taken here that we are 
transporting, by an anachronism, the notions of our life 
at the present day, to a primal stage wherein pure ulti- 
mates or penultimates and subtle undeveloped essentials 
only, of the universe, should be discussed. It has been 
pointed out, over and over again, that there is no grada- 
tion, no development in time, from the abstract to the 
concrete. The two underlie and overlie and inextricably 
interpenetrate one another and are coexistent. 2 And, 
even were it otherwise, that which appears in develop- 
ment must have been in the seed all along. The World- 
Process is in and is the Absolute. Metaphysic only 
endeavours to trace each abstract and concrete fact of 
our life, taking it, as it stands before us, back into its 
proper place in the Absolute, in the Changeless Whole, 

1 In the technical phraseology of the Nyaya, that which is called 
cause here would be, generally, karana ; while condition would be 
sadharana-nimiffa, or hetu. 

- To philosophy, the whole of all history is, as it were, ever pre- 
sent ; all change is always within the Changeless. All the states that 
appear as successive stages in the life, or history, of any ' individual ' 
organism, species, genus, kingdom, planet, solar system, in any given 
place, are to be found existing simultaneously in different individuals 
in different places. God has not disappeared and become absent after 
a single act of creation, The forces and factors of the World-Process , 
working at any past or future time, and near or distant place, are all 
working now and here, overtly or covertly, whenever and wherever we 
may think of them . 


and so to free us from the nightmare of overpowering, 
irresistible, uncontrolable Change. Therefore, taking 
the words * cause ' and ' condition ' in the sense in 
which we find them used to-day, we may legitimately 
try to show that these senses correspond to aspects of 
the ultimates. 

Other ways of looking at them are to regard causes as 
successive and passing conditions, and conditions as per- 
sisting and coexisting causes ; that is, that causes are 
conditions which cease to ' exist ' when the effect begins 
to * exist,' and that conditions are causes which persist 
throughout the existence of the effect as well as before 
and after ; and so on. Looked at from the standpoint of 
the Absolute, inasmuch as everything is necessarily con- 
nected with everything else, and the Whole only is the 
source of each part, all these various ways of describing 
cause and condition resolve themselves into merely various 
ways of describing the different relations, all equally 
necessary, of facts, or parts, to each other. Out of these 
various ways we have the many distinctions between final 
cause, efficient cause, material cause, formal cause, instru- 
mental cause, movement or action, motive, etc., in 
western philosophy : and between nimitta, samavayi or 
upadana, a-samavayi, saha-kari, sadharana-nimitta or 
mukhya, a-sadharana-nimitta or a-mukhya, udd6shya, 
karta, kriya, karya, prayojana, h6tu, karaka, 1 etc., all 


or a?g^, g^r, ^T^ fferr, 3> 
, etc. Gfta, xviii. 13-15, speaks of five kinds of 


different kinds of karana, * causes/ with their divisions 
and sub-divisions, in the eastern systems. 

The one common characteristic of cause, running 
throughout all these, is that which is given by the old 
Nayyayikas : viz., " which being, the effect becomes, and, 
which not being, the effect does not become," ] the princi- 
ple of concomitant variations, in short, as it is called in 
western logic. The first half represents the positive 
aspect, the one true universal * cause ', corresponding to 
the Self, the affirmation, the Shakti element of the Nega- 
tion ; and the second half, the negative aspect, the one 
true universal * condition,' corresponding to the Not -Self, 
the denial, the negative element of the Negation ; where- 
as all other so-called particular causes or conditions are 
in reality only so many effects, which have taken on a 
false appearance of cause or condition by reflection in 
the succession of the World- Process of the true universal 
Necessity which makes each particular a necessary fact, 
and so a cause and a condition, with reference to all 
other particulars ; that is to say, makes each particular 
appear as the necessary effect of preceding, and the 

%fi^:. All such are classifiable under our 'Cause' and ' Condition '. 
Each system of philosophy has its own classifications and technical 
names. Buddhist systems have yet others; thus: " six kinds of causes 
and five of effects are karana-hetu and adhipati-phalam ; saha-bhu-hetu 
and purusha-kara-phalam ; sampr&yukta-hctu and vipaka-phalam ; 
vipaka-hgtu and vi-sam-yoga-phalam ; and sarvatra-ga-h6tu. Or, (accord- 
ing to another system), four pratyayas (causes or conditions), viz., adhi- 
pati, alambana, sam-an-antara, andheiu, (i.e., additional cause, objective 
canse of mental process, immediate cause, and direct cause) " ; Systems 
of Buddhistic Thought, by Yamakami Sogen, pp. 309-315 (pub. 1912, 
University of Calcutta). 

1 Bhimacharya, Nyttya-kosha, p. 197, article 35R<T^, karanam, 


necessary cause of succeeding, particulars, in an endless 
and unbreakable chain, the whole of which chain, how- 
ever, is only One Effect which is identical with its One 
Cause, the necessity of the Absolute. 

We thus see that, in empirical detail, Self or Spirit 
and Not-Self or Matter are, neither of them, either cause 
or effect ; but that the changes of cognition, desire, and 
action, and of qualities, substance, and movement, of 
which they are the form or substratum, are causes or 
conditions, and effects or results, of one another in turn ; 
and that the transcendental totality of these changes, 
being regarded as one effect and result, has for one cause, 
the Shakti-Energy, and for one condition the Negation, 
embodied in the third factor of the Absolute. 

This Shakti-Energy, we have seen, has three aspects : 
attraction, repulsion, and rhythmic alternation or revolu- 
tion ; or creation, destruction, and preservation. 1 Negation 
proper has also three aspects : <j6sha, space, kala, time, 
and kriya or ayana, motion.* These are the triple 

occurs in Bhagavata. IV, xxix, 67; 
in the Yoa-bhashya by Vyasa ; ^-^-ST^S?^^ ' by 

difference of time, place, and circumstance/ is an expression of frequent 
occurrence in Samskrt literature. 

2 The Biography of Man, the whole History of all things, individuals, 
groups, institutions, nations, races, kingdoms (of Nature, mineral, 
vegetable, etc.), orbs, worlds, 'systems, is all comprised in the ' six forms 
or ways of existence, bhava-vikarah, viz., is born i.e., appears or comes 
into manifest existence, grows, stays, changes, decays, and dies or dis- 
appears ; jayatS, varcjha|e, tishthatd, vipari-namaiS, biyate, mriyate; 

The yet higher categories under which these six are comprised, are, 
and if-Sffecr, ' is ' and ' is not '. 


g u n a s, or aspects, of Negation, in the same way as 
S a t-C h i d- A n a n d a and S a 1 1 v a-R a j a s-T a m a s are 
the gun as of Pratyag-atm5 and Mula-prakrti respect- 
ively. Negation, with respect to the One limitless Self, in 
whose consciousness the negated Not-Self, the countless 
Many, are co-existent, is negation Everywhere, in Simulta- 
neity, is the utter blankness of pesudo-infinite and k ii t a s- 
t h a-seeming Space. Negation, with respect to Not-Self, 
the pseudo-infinite Many, which find themselves posited 
and denied in that consciousness turn by turn, is negation 
Everywhen, in Succession, is pseudo-infinite and ever- 
flowing Time. Negation with respect to Negation, is the 
endeavour to affirm, to justify, the consciousness of the 
inseparable connection between Self and the repudiated 
Not-Self everywhere, everywhen, everyway ; this can be 
done onjy in and by means of un-end-ing Motion, which 
is the one way to encompass all space and time ; Motion, 
in and by which only, Space and Time are joined together 
and realised, even as Self and Not-Self are realised in and 
by the Negation. 

Let us dwell for a moment on the fact that Space, 
Time, and Motion are the gun as, qualities, of Negation. 
We see readily, on even slight reflection, that Space and 
Time are mere emptinesses, vacua, which may appropri- 
ately be regarded as phases of Na, Not, the Naught. 
Motion presents a little more difficulty. We seem to feel 
that it is something positive. Yet this is due only to the 
fact that we are thinking more of the moving thing than 
of its motiop. Let us try to (seem to) think of motion as 


separate from the moving thing, even as we (seem to, but 
cannot really) think of space and time as (quite) separate 
from extended or enduring things ; and we shall see at 
once that it is as much an emptiness as the latter ; indeed 
is nothing else than an emptiness which combines in itselt 
the emptinesses of the other two, since we know Space 
and Time only by Motion ; in slumber, all three dis- 
appear together. It is thus doubly empty. Space seems, 
Time seems, to leave a trace behind. More, we feel as 
if Space is, there, always, before us ; we feel that even 
Time is, there, always. We speak of even the past and 
the future as if they were something positive, something 
recoverable, something contained, locked away, in the 
present which we hold in our hands. But Motion ? it 
is gone and has left no trace ; lines traced on running 
water, birds' flights in the air. 1 Of course the moving 
or the moved thing may remain, but that is not motion, 
any more than it is space or time. Motion, then, is 
verily the most negative of negations. 

Another point. Space, Time, and Motion have been 
shown here as broadly corresponding to Self, Not-Self, 
and Negation respectively. But too much stress should 
not be laid on, nor too much precision expected in, these 
correspondences. Where everything is connected with 

' As the path cannot be traced, of fish in water, or bird in air ; so 
cannot be traced the passage of the knowers, in the ocean of Omni- 
science, from the Limited to the Limitless '. 


everything, the distinguishing of such correspondences 
can only mean that certain facts, as viewed from a certain 
standpoint, are seen to be more specially connected 
with each other than with others. Change the stand- 
point slightly, and new connections are thrown Into 
relief and old ones retire into the shade. This is seen 
to be the case, more and more, as we proceed from the 
simple to the complex. In the very instance now before 
us, for example, with reference to the fact that Negation 
is the nexus between Self and Not-Self, Motion may be 
said to correspond to Negation, as also being a nexus 
between Space and Time. But take another triplet into 
consideration : jnana-ichchha-kriya. Here, while 
it may be said that the condition of C h i t or j n a n a is 
Space, implied in the ' co-existence ' of subject and object, 
knower and known, it does not seem quite fitting to say 
that the condition corresponding to Sat or k r i y a is 
time, and to Ananda orichchhais motion. Of 
course it would not be altogether incorrect to say even 
this; yet it seems more obvious to say that, kriya 
corresponds to motion, and ichchha to time, which, 
in: terms of consciousness, is memory of past pleasure 
and pain, and present wish, and expectation in the future, 
to secure the one and avoid the other again. 1 On the 

1 One name for Kama-Eros, a form of desire, is Sraara, -which means 
memory. Incidentally, it may be noted that Space-Time-Motion are the 
4 empty ' essentials of the Great Illusion, Life, in everyway. Life is 
pleasurable and healthy, when it is ' spacio as-leisurely-easy going ' ; it 
is unpleasant and unhealthy, when 'cramped-hurried-driven'. To do 
fixed work, in fixed place, at fixed time, is to be ' orderly ' ; to do other- 
wise, is to be 'disorderly', unorganised, inefficient and ineffectual 
and unhealthy. 


other hand, we may not unjustifiably say that Motion 
corresponds to i c h c h h a, because i c h c h h a implies a 
movement from the past through the present towards 
the future ; and that the succession involved in k r i y a is 
Time. Or, again, we may consider the matter without 
inaccuracy in this manner : Space seems something 
overt, almost visible, one may say ; Motion also seems 
overt, something visible ; but Time is hidden, it is a 
matter for the inner consciousness only, (except on the 
face of the clock, where k r i y a, active movement, is 
patent), as ichchha is the hidden desire between 
an overt cognition and an overt action ; therefore, 
while Space and Motion may correspond with overt 
Self and Not-Self, Time should correspond with 
covert Negation. Arguing from the mere words also, 
one may say that Self and Not meet in Not-Self; 
therefore Space and Time, meeting in Motion, should 
be assigned to Self and Negation, respectively ; while 
Motion should be assigned to Not-Self. Yet again, we 
may correctly say that Time is realised only by change, 
i.e., Motion, and Motion is possible only in Space, there- 
fore Space is the meeting-point of the two, and so should 
correspond to the nexus, i.e., Negation. And so on. We 
see thus that, from different points of view, one and the 
same thing appears in different aspects. For the present, 
seeing that Motion has almost unanimously been re- 
garded, in East and West, as incorporating both Space 
and Time, we may accept the correspondence noted 
first, viz., that of Space, Time, and Motion, to Self, 



Not-Self, and Negation, respectively, as the most 

Let us now take up each of these three separately. 


Space is the Co-existence, saha-astita, together-being, 
saha-bhava, together-moving, saha-chara, paired-ness or 
simultaniety, yanga-pa<Jya, of the Many.' It is the 
possibility of the coexistence of the many, and the 
actuality of their non-existence/ The Self is one and 
opposed to the many at once and eternally ; hence the 
coexistence of the countless not-selves as well as their 
endless succession. The form and result of their co- 
existence is mutual exclusion, which produces the 
duality of ' side by side,' ' one beside another, 1 with the 
intervening space ' between,' as the completing third 
which connects the two, one on each side. This triplicity 
of * side, beside, and between/ parshva or paksha, a para - 
parshva or apara-paksha, and antara, appears in Space 
as viewed from the standpoint of Not-Self. This triad 
may also be expressed as attra, here, tattra, there, and 
madhya, the middle space, the * in between '/ 

* In actuality, space is limited, and so come to be the possibility 
of the co-existence of a few, and impossibility of more ; thus, when fresh 
passengers try to enter a crowded railway carriage, the occupants cry out. 
" There is no space here: please go to another carriage where there 
is, i.e. where there are no occupants ". 


Viewed from the standpoint of Self, Space may also 
be said to be the coexistence of Self and Not-Self. But 
the coexistenee of these two is scarcely a co-existence. 
Such co-existence can properly be ascribed only to things 
of the same kind and nature, on the same level, and side 
by side with each other ; while Self and Not-Self are 
opposed in nature ; the one is Being, the other is Non- 
Being. Their coexistence is only through and in the way 
of the third factor, Negation ; i.e., Not-Self does not exactly 
co-exist with Self ; it rather exists in it, in its conscious- 
ness, and exists only to be denied. Hence we have another 
form, though not essentially different in nature, of spatial 
relations, than that described above as ' side, beside, and 
between '. This other form is that of ' in and out,' ant ah, 
and bahih, ' internal and external/ ' core and sheath,' 
both held together in the * through and through,' sarvatah, 
the ' whole,' the ' pervading,' vyapta.i Thus we have 
another triplicity in Space with special reference to Self. 
In this, again, from the standpoint of the universal Self, 
that Self is the enveloping Space, pure, colourless, ab- 
stract, in which the 6tats, the this's. live and move ; and 
so It may be said to be the outer, and Not-Self the inner. 
It is this aspect of Self, Pratyag-atma, which has pro- 
bably given to Param-atma its best-known name, Brahma, 
Boundless Immensity, from the root brh, to grow, to 
expand, to be vast.* But from the standpoint of the 

1 a???!:, 3fg:, wfes, 52 JTH I 

" ^ *W, Chh&ndogya and Brfya<}-&ranyaka ; f^, ^ 

increases, expands ; also flfcf, works, labours, incessantly. 


individual, an * aham ' limited by an ' 6tat,' Self is the 
inner core and Not-Self the outer sheath. 

We may distinguish another form of the triplicity of 
Space, with reference to Negation, viz., ' point, radii, 
sphere,' bindu, jlva or trijya or vyas-ardha and gola. 1 The 
other triplets of words, too, express nothing else than 
emptiness and negation, but this mathematical triplet 
seems to be even more abstract, more empty of content, 
if possible ; hence the propriety of regarding it as 
arising from a view of Space with special reference to 

Other ways of expressing the triplicity involved in- 
Space may be said to be ' behind, here, before,' and 
' length, breadth, and depth, 1 which last is the best known 
and most commonly mentioned form of the dimensions 
of space. 

As the mathematical kinds of Motion are pseudo- 
infinite, as the standards and measures of Time are 
pseudo-infinite, so the degrees and measures of Space or 
-extension are also pseudo-infinite. There are always, and 
ad iiifinitum, * etats ' ' this-es, ' objects, minutes than the 
minutest and vaster than the vastest. As minute vibrations 
of motion permeate grosser sweeps, as subtler standars of 
time permeate larger measures, so smaller sizes and dimen- 
sions permeate and pervade larger sizes and dimensions. In 
this sense, as with motion and time so with space, there 

or f5|33n or 53fTOTO, *s5 ; another triad, included 
In this^would be ^centre-diameter. (or line)-circumference, 
- XI)- 


are not only a certain number, but necessarily a pseudo- 
infinite number, of dimensions. Otherwise, the triplicity 
described above, in various triplets of words, represents 
the three dimensions proper of space, (time and motion 
also having their three dimensions proper, each, to be 
mentioned presently) ; all other dimensions, subtler or 
grosser, being but permutations and combinations of these 
three ; and the three themselves being essentially ways 
of looking at the one fact of co-existence. 1 

The meaning of this will appear further in connec- 
tion with the pseudo-infinite lokah, i.e., planes, grades, 
kinds or regions of matter, each made and marked by a 

1 The fourth and higher and even infinite dimensions of space form 
the subject of mathematical speculations now, frequently ; but it is difficult 
to understand them in any other sense than as above. It is said that the 
point ' produced ' gives the line, making the first dimension ; the line 
' produced ' sidewise, the surface, the second ; the surface similarly, the 
solid, the third ; so the solid ' produced ' will give the fourth, and so on. 
But let us trace the process backwards ; what will the point , re-duced ' 
yield ? And could that again be * re-duced ' further ad infinitum ? 
H. P. Blavatsky, in The Secret Doctrine, (I, 295, 296) expressly 
repudiates, the notion of fourth, etc., dimensions in any other sense 
than that of " permeability," substances being able to penetrate grosser 
ones. As a fact, a cube ' produced ' yields an ordinary three-dimen- 
sioned but elongated solid. Also, as a fact, the point, the line, the 
surface, are mere abstractions, as of back and front, which are distin- 
guishable, but never separable from the solid, in nature. The Mahatma 
Letters, p. 404, also say that 4 ' Humanity belongs to the three-dimen- 
sional condition of matter ; and there is no reason why in (Deva- 
S t h a n a, abode of gods, heaven, svarga), the ego should be varying 
its dimensions ' ' . The purport of the whole context seems to be that 
"Space is infinity itself" and as such, has no dimensions, but only 
finite matter has dimensions, and these are only three, and always 
must be only three and no more. The notion, that, with the eye, we 
see only two dimensions, length and breadth is fallacious. In every 
exercise of every sense, we sense, co-existence, the presence of subject 
and object, in the first place, and of many objects in the second. And 
this co-existence is always l/tree-dimensional. Careful consideration of 
the ways and movements of even the eyeless animals or animal-cubs 
even, of the ocean-depths, seems to show their sensing of three dimen- 
sions, before, behind, and round and round. 


differently vibrating and differently sized atom. Each 
supports, serves as adhara, substratum, of the next so- 
called lower and grosser ; .and each is supported in turn* 
by the preceding so-called subtler and finer. Each be- 
haves in an apparently mysterious, superphysical, and 
space-transcending way, because of the subtler and 
penetrative, permeative, pervasive, nature of its vibra- 
tions, from the standpoint of the lower ; but becomes a 
part of, one step of, the ordinary, familiar and * well- 
understood ' scale of matter, including the lower planes 
from the standpoint of the higher. 1 

In the language of symbology, which yet seems 
intended to describe literal facts of subtler planes of 
matter also, this Space may be regarded as meant by 
the garland of human heads, individual-points of con- 
sciousness and atom-points of matter, that Shiva, 
embodiment of ' negative ' i c h c h h a, ever bears upon 
his breast ; each head separate from the other, each side 
by side with another, yet all united together by the 
strong single thread of the desire-consciousness of mutual 
interlinking and inseparability. It may also be sym- 
bolised by the dark and giant mammoth-skin that is the 
outer envelope of that inner God, for i c h c h h a cannot 
manifest except in Space. 

V&yu Pur ana, Purvfcrflha, ch. 49. D&vi BhctgOvata also has a 
verse to the same effect. 

P., CH. XIl] TIME 311 

(B) TlMK 

As movement between Self and Not-Self is the 
basic principle of all motion, so succession, krama, 1 
of this movement, of affirmation and then negation, is 
the basic principle of, indeed is, Time. Time is nothing 
else than succession of events. It may also be described 
as the possibility of the succession of events, i.e., changes 
in the conditions of objects, and the actuality of their 
non-cession, non-procession, non-duration, the ever- 
standing witness of their non-permanence, their non- 
existence. That is to say, as Space is emptiness which 
is the possibility of the co-existence of objects ; which, 
regarded in itself, and as differing from these objects, is 
only defined and thrown into relief by them, and is not 
them ; which, indeed, looked at thus, is their absence 
and their opposite ; so Time is an emptiness, which is 
the possibility of the succession of events : is only defined 
and thrown into relief by those events ; and is not them, 
but their absence and their opposite. As this succession 
of events, i.e., experiences, identifications and separations, 
slackens or quickens or ceases (comparatively and appa- 
rently), so the standard of Time changes ; it appears to be 
long or short, or even disappears altogether as in the case 
of sound slumber, before mentioned, to the individual and 
limited consciousness. 2 This is verifiable by anyone in 


3 A person falling sound asleep on a train while it is standing at a 
station, and waking up again hours later at another station some hundreds 


the experience of dreams, reveries, and other extraordi- 
nary or abnormal psychic conditions, as in hypnotism and 
trance. The same is the case with the standard of time 
with reference to waking consciousness ; quick steps make 
short distances, slow paces make long ones ; sorrow 
lengthens, joy shortens time ; i.e., the quick or the slow 
passing of time is something subjective, and the real 
significance of the length or shortness of time is also sub- 
jective, being only the feel of such length or shortness. 
In view of the increasing rapidity of means of transit, 
people now, often, speak of distances in terms of time 

* it is so many hours ' to a place rather than in terms of 
space, so many hundred miles. 1 

With reference to Self, Time may be said to present 
the triplicity of beginning, end, and middle ; beginning, 
a<JI or arambha, i.e., the affirmation of the 4 6tat ' or its 
origin ; ' end,' anta or avasana, its negation ; and the 

* middle/ madhya, which holds together both.* 

The inevitable perpetual appearance and disappear- 
ance, and disappearance and reappearance, of each 'etat' 

* this,' due to the double necessity of being limited on the 
one hand, and yet being also, on the other hand, in the 
indissoluble relation of contact with the eternal Self, 
forces upon it a pseudo-eternal succession of its own, 

of miles distant, is unable to say whether the train has been moving at 
all, or how far, or how long. For an excellent collection of concrete 
illustrations of the illusions of space, time, and motion, see S. T. Klein's 
Science and the Infinite, ch. i, and Mystic Experiences, or Tales from 
Yoga Vasishtha. 

1 Cf. the use of the expression " light years ". 

or 3?rc**r ; 



apart, as it were, from its identifications and disjunctions 
with the Self, and gives us another aspect of the same 
thing. This is that most current form of the trinity 
inherent in Time, viz., ' past, present, and future,' bhuta, 
bhavat or vartamana, and bhavishya, or ' before, now, and 
after,' as viewed from the standpoint of the Not- Self.' 1 

In this second aspect is contained the secret of per- 
sonal immortality in brief/ Every etat, ' this,' being 
once in touch with the Eternal, must be marked with 
that eternity for ever. There is no succession of once, 
twice, thrice, etc., in the Eternal ; but every separate 
etat is under the sway of such succession, and there is a 
contradiction, an impossibility indeed, involved in the 
juxtaposition, the coming together and the uniting, of 
the successionless and the successive. But the two are 
in contact, there, before us, all around us, irresistibly 
bound together by and in the Nature of the Absolute. 
This ' antinomy of the reason ' is soluble only by imposing, 
on the successive, the false and illusive appearance of the 

or SffiUR and 

2 To remember, to know, to realise, that '/ am Immortal ', is to 
become Immortal, is to attain, to achieve, Immortality. Sanat-suj&ja 
G*t& (included in Mbh.) records a dialogue between 
and the great rshi. 

arft i 



successionless, the eternal, which simultaneously includes 
all moments of time, once, twice, thrice, first, second, 
third, etc., by making every * this ' pseudo-eternal, for- 
ever-eternal, ever-lasting, in short. Therefore, every 
' this ' appears and vanishes and reappears throughout 

' Sanat-sujata ! Reverend Sir ' I hear thy teaching is : There is no 
Death. 1 also hear that gods and titans practised Brahma-charya for 
long periods, to secure Deathlessness. Which of the two is true ? Please 
instruct me'. ' Kshattriya !, both are true. Some say Immortality is 
won by effort and right action ; others says that Death- (is) Is-Not. 
Both views are current in the world to-day, and both are true. The 
Great Wise Poets hold that Infatuated Forgetfulness alone (of the 
fact that I is-am Immortal) is Death ; and, following them, I say that 
Infatuated Error (i.e., the Error, a-vidya of believing that ' I is-am some- 
thing perishable, fleeting ') is Death, and alert Aware-ness (that I-am-I 
eternally, and the True Knowledge, Viclya, that Death-Is-Not, Death K 
Naught, is Immortality. 

But to this should be added the further consideration that * All is 
I, Yea, All is I ' , and that this is the true Personal as well as Im- 
personal Immortality. Each ' you ' , each momentary ' you ' is also 
(potentially) immortal , because touched by the ' All-You-He-She-lt-l ', 
All-Consciousness ; because kept in Its Memory by the Universal Mind , 
' In God's Memory is all being bound ' ; in that 33flfg-|Tr1 > , samashti- 
jnana, (P. -A. ilw-i-ijma'tt, aql-i-kul), is everything recorded and pre- 
served for ever and ever. 

Philosophy, the Search for Truth, begins in an acute desire for 
Personal Immortality, for redress of all wrongs, for abolition of all pain 
and all evil. It ends in, is accomplished, achieved, fulfilled, completed, 
in the disappearance of that desire, and its replacement by the assur- 
ance, the realisation, of Universal, Impersonal, All-Personal, Im- 
mortality, and Self-identification-dissociation with all good -as- well-as-evil, 
all happiness-as-well-as-misery. as Kabir says : 1*1 1*1 1C ^I^R *1I%, 
' a prophet lies buried in earth beneath your feet, at every step you 
take ' ; and Hamlet cries : " Imperious Caesar dead and turned to clay, 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away ' . Atoms are incessantly 
changing from the sheath of one jiva to that of another. The atom- 
portion is in-destructible, in its own way ; the jiva-portion is also such, 
m its. Personality. ' I am separate from all other I's, is also afeelmg, an 
373:5^1-1^, antah-karana-vytti, a ' mood of mind ', which arises in a 
conjunction of (an) aham -I with (an) etat-this. Analysed tf it vanishes. 
' You want to be immortal ; but which You ? Yesterday's, to-day's, 
or tomorrow's? * Each is different, more or less; less, as the time, 
interval is less; more, as more. To be 'all-Persons' is the true 
' Personal as well as Impersonal Immortality.' 


all time (i.e., in the endless consciousness of the jiva), 
again and again, as a firefly in the black darkness qf 
a cloud-shut night of the rain-time in the tropics. Hence, 
while, in one sense, mukti is eternal, or timeless, having 
no beginning and no end, as viewed from the standpoint 
of Pratyag-atma or Param-atma ; in another sense, it is 
always beginning and always ending, from the standpoint 
of Mula-prakrti. In other words, the individual jiva, viewed 
as identical with Pratyag-atma, and so with Param- 
atma, is never bound and never freed. As such, it 
can scarcely be said ever to become mukta. It is 
above and beyond both bandhana, bondage, and moksha ; 
liberation ; indeed both are in it always, rather than it in 
them ever. 1 But viewed as identical with a piece of 
Mula-prakrti, an * 6tat,' a * this ', it is always, in literally 
endless repetition, falling into bondage, i.e., into identifi- 
cation with, and voluntary imprisonment in, a body, and 
getting out of that bondage again into liberation, i.e., 
separation from, and out of, that prison-house. This is 
why we read in Pur anas that the highest gods and 
rshis, although all muktas, * free,' ' emancipated,' still, 
without exception, return again and again, cycle after 
cycle, kalpa after kalpa, passing and repassing endlessly 
through the spirals, retaining, every one of them, like all 
other jlvas, their centres of individuality through 

' Not sin, nor merit ; not bondage, nor liberation , not joy, nor 
sorrow ; this is the Final and Supreme Attainment.' 


pralayas as through ordinary nights, despite apparent 
lass (from the standpoint of lower planes of matter) of 
their defining and demarcating circumferences. But 
immense complications are introduced into this incessant 
evolution and involution, by the ever-mutable and ever- 
changing nature of every * 6tat,' ' this,' ' object '. These 
complications are pseudo-infinite and therefore utterly 
unresolvable and incomprehensible in their entirety by 
any individual within limited time and space. 

To illustrate the reflection and re-reflection of the 
triplicity of the Absolute everywhere, as of a light 
between two mirrors, and also the changes, in corres- 
pondence with changes in points of view ; we may say 
that in this triplet of ' past, present, and future/ yielded 
to us by looking at Time with reference to Not-Self ; the 
present is the nexus, or Na, Not, between the past as 
jnana and the future as kriya ; or, again, the future may 
be regarded as the nexus which will connect together 
and reproduce both past and present ; or, the past may 
be thought of as having contained both the present and 
the future. The three make a circle, and we may start 
at any point in it. 

Finally, Time, viewed with reference to Negation, 
may be said to yield the mathematical triplet of ' moment, 
period, and cycle,' kshapa, samaya, and yuga, or kshana, 
yuga, and kala-chakra. 1 

In symbology, time is Kala, the * dark,' the ' mover,' 
and the ' destroyer, death, 1 all three in one. It is 


pictured as the vast-sweeping Garuda that conveys, from 
place to place as need for giving help arises, the god of 
jfiana, Vishnu ; Garuda, the eagle with the two all- 
covering wings of the past and future, whose sole food 
and means of sustenance are the small cycle-serpents 
(that, though belonging to the family of the ' end less ' 
An anta, form part of the retinue of Shiva, the god of 
ichchha), one of which he eats up every day of his life 
by ordinance of the Creator, It may also be the Vana- 
mala, ' wreath of forest-flowers ', that Vishnu wears, 
representing the endless chain of life-moments strung 
together' by the thread of cognitive consciousness. It is 
also the Sudarshana-Chakra the blazing ' sight-pleasing, 
beautiful-appearing, Discus- Wheel,' which overpowers 
all, which nothing can withstand. It is the Wheel of Life, 
which Tribetan Lamaism has adopted as the chief symbol 
of the World-Process. Yet again, it is the thousand-hooded 
serpent-king, Ananta, ' without end,' Shesha, ' the ever- 
remaining,' who on his countless heads and coils sup* 
ports with ease the divine frame of Vishnu as well as the 
globes of the heavens, one of whose visible forms is the 
Milky Way, and whom alone, of all the snakes, the eagle 
Garuda is powerless to touch. 1 

: I Bhagavafai ' Vishnu, god of know- 

ledge, is borne along by Garuda, who is composed, of the songs of the 
Veda/ 'the music of the Spheres'. Elsewhere, the picturing is in 
terms of T/l-Wf, ' the sacrificial Boar '. 

Vishnu-Bh&gavata. XII, xi, gives other explanations of these sym- 
bols, and Pranava-vdda still others ; all different ways of looking at 
the same thing, not inconsistent with each other. Kala or Maha-Kala 
is one of the names of Shiva, i.e., Brahma, even as Kham or Space is. 


It may be noted here that the Purnaic story assigns 
Garuda, here regarded as corresponding to Time and 
Not-Self, as vehicle to Vishnu, the god of sattva, jnana, 
cognition, corresponding to Self. "It similarly assigns 
the ' rosary of human heads/ here said to correspond to 
Space and Self, to Shiva, the god of ichchha, desire cor- 
responding to Negation. Even more perplexing than 
these, it assigns Lakshml-Shakti, the goddess of all 
wealth, splendour, glory, and activity, as consort, to 
Vishnu, and SarasvatI- Shakti, the goddess of jnana, 
knowledge, to Brahma, the god of action. The Shakti of 
Gaurl-Kali (white-black, life-death, affirmation-negation), 
the goddess of ichchha, is of course assigned to Shiva, 
the god of destruction, and also of all * auspiciousness ' 
and blessings. In Rahasya-traya? SarasvatI is said to 
be the sister of Vishnu ; and Lakshml the sister of 
Brahma ; and Vishnu takes Lakshmi in marriage and 
SarasvatI is given to Brahma. 2 All these and similar 
other apparent inconsistencies may be reconciled by 
this consideration, viz., one factor of any trinity is pre- 
dominant no doubt, in any one individual, and is regarded 
as essential to that individual's being, as constituting his 
peculiar nature ; still the other two factors are also 

, , ' Of movers, moving forces, I am (or is) the 
greatest, Kala, Time '. Compare the English expressions, * his day is 
over,' ' his time has come ', ' your time is up ', ' time cures '. Time as 
cause is the spirit, the genius, of the time ; as result, it is the era or 
epoch, as Maha-bharata says. 

1 Ch. i. See also Nila-kantha's commentary on pevi-Bhagavata 
III, 1, 85. 

- Pevl-Bhagavata. Ill ,. vi. 


necessarily present in or about him ; otherwise his peculiar 
nature too could not manifest and would not be ; and 
then they are symbolised as his shaktis, ' powers ', 
vehicles, apparel, ornaments, etc. Right knowledge should 
result in right action and lead to wealth and splendour ; 
so Vishnu marries Lakshml. Action should be guided 
by knowledge ; so Brahma marries Sarnsvati. And so on. 1 


We have seen above how the eternal Negation of 
Not-Self by Self appears as a movement, chalana, gamana, 
ayana, of mergence and e-mergence, ni-majjana and 
un-majjana, between the two, because of the limitation 
of the ' this '. The third, which completes and binds 
together this duality of ' mergence and e-mergence/ may 
be regarded as the ' continual recurrence ' of the process, 
as continual juxtaposition, sam-majjana, permeation, 
pervasion. 2 This movement, considered metaphysically, 
in the abstract, is the primary and essential principle 

1 No doubt, in every national or racial mythology, found at present, 
there are many simple Nature-myths, in which the ' children of Nature ' , 
primitive humans, have simple-mindedly (yet often with profoundly wise 
poetical instinct) anthropo-morphised Nature-phenomena, facts and 
forces, in terms of their daily experience. At the same time, there are 
to be found, in many mythologies, deliberately constructed symbolical 
myths. This is especially true of PurSmc Mythology, almost the whole 
of which (and it is very large and complex) has an elaborately artificial 
character, stamping it as symbolical and allegorical. 

, *WR f 3Hf? | fa-TSffi, 3tJT*H, *T-JT*ffi I Other aspects 
would be expressed by ^MsHft fiMflSR P? 7 ?"!, san-kochana 
vi-kasana spandana, contraction-expansion-throbbing , 


which underlies and determines all the motion that 
appears in the World-Process ; and it gives us the triplicity 
inherent in Motion as appearing from the standpoint 
of Self. 

From the standpoint of Not-Self we derive another 
aspect of Motion. It is embodied in, and issues from, 
the fact that each ' this,' besides the movement into and 
out of Self, which it is continuously subject to, in conse- 
quence of the whole-law of the logion, has also a special 
motion of its own, in consequence of the part-law of that 
logion. ' This ' is the opposite of ' I ' in every respect, 
and the eternal completeness and fulness, the freedom 
from change and motion, of * I,' is necessarily matched 
by the limitation and therefore imperfection of each 
separate ' this ' ; and the motion of each separate ' this * 
is the necessary expression of its endless want and 
changefulness. If the ' etats ', ' this-es ', could be really 
steady and unmoving points in endless space, not feeling 
any want, and therefore not moving, then the contradic- 
tion would arise that the Whole and each part were 
equal, being both perfect. Hence the Whole, i.e., absolute 
Brahma, Param-atma, and, as identical with it, Pratyag- 
atma also, is often described as a centre without a 
circumference, or conversely, a circle without a centre, 
or as that which is all centres only, or is everywhere a 

nish-shvasana uch-chhvasana shvasana, in-breath- 
ing out-breathing breathing ; 553? -flSH-flWI, layana-sarjana-sam- 
sarana, disappearing re-appearing procession ; m3f^-5lll 
ni-vflti pra-vjtti anu-viftti, retiring-advancing-circling ; and so on. 


centre and nowhere a circumference, or everywhere a 
circumference and nowhere a centre, and so on. This 
is verifiable practically by everyone without much diffi- 
culty. Sitting in a quiet place, shutting in the senses, 
fixing the consciousness upon itself, i.e., Pratyag-atma, 
the universal inward Self, and regarding and denying the 
whole mass of practiculars summed up as a single Not- 
Self, the meditator loses all sense of Time and Space and 
Motion, and the whole of the universe, Not-Self and 
himself, seems shut up into a single moveless point of 
consciousness. Space and Time would not exist if such 
Motion, as between a particular etat and another parti- 
cular etat, and, indeed, between all possible Stats, did 
not exist. In other words, this second motion is 
necessarily due to the fact that each etat, ' this ', being 
opposed to the omnipresent, infinite and eternal, un- 
limited, ' I,' has to oppose it at every point of the whole 
of its endless being ; and thus reproduces and reflects in 
itself a pseudo-omnipresence. This pseudo-omnipresence 
of the limited etat, en-souled by and en-form-ing a self, 
takes shape as, becomes, is, endless and perpetual Motion 
everywhere, from moment to moment or period to period 
of Time, and from place to place, from point to point, of 
Space. It cannot accomplish the law and achieve, 
manifest, fulfil, its nature in any other way. 1 

1 Similarly to be interpreted are the psuedo-omniscience and the 
pseudo-omnipotence, in potentiality, of each jiva ; each self, as identical 
with Self, must know and deny, must identify itself with and repel, every 
6tat ; and yet it cannot do so, as regards all tats, at once ; hence, 
always a greater and greater compassing, and letting go, and beginning 
afresh . 



Other ways of describing the fact are these : Motion 
is the perpetual endeavour of the limited to become 
unlimited ; of the successive to achieve simultaneity ; of 
the finite to secure infinity ; it is the constant struggle 
of Space, or extension, and Time, or intension, to coincide, 
and to collapse into the perfect Rest, the single point, 
the rockboundness of Absolute-Consciousness. 

This second view of motion, with reference to Not- 
Self, gives us the triplet of ' approach, recess, and 
revolution, 1 or ' centripetal, centrifugal, and orbital 
motion,' upa-sarpana, apa-sarpana, and pra-sarpana or 
pari-bhramana. 1 

Finally, with reference to Negation, we have the 
mathematical triplet, in Motion, of ' linear, rotatory and 
spiral,' * rju-bhramana, chakra-bhramana, and avarta- 
bhramana, corresponding to Self, Not-Self, and Negation. 
These three motions sum up in themselves all the possible 
motions of Samsara, as may be pictured by the diagram 
on p. 432, vol. iii, of The Secret Doctrine (Adyar edn.), if 
the spines shown therein along the outer side of the single 
line, whose convolutions make up the whole diagram, 
were also made parts of, and continuous with, that same 
single line, and the line were shown as constantly coiling 

1 Some physicists regard vibratory or oscillatory motion as a third 
primary form of motion, side by side with the translatory or free-path 
or linear, and the rotary or circular. (Vide Dolbear, Ether, Matter, 
and Motion, iii.) But it will probably be found on analysis, that 
vibratory, undulatory, and all other forms of motion are compounded out 
of elements of the primary kinds suggested in this and the preceding 

an - *rf si - gfa or qft - 


and turning round and round upon itself, like a spiral 
wire-spring, and all this line and process of coiling were 
produced and carried round and round pseudo-infinitely. 

This Motion, the first factor of the second trinity, 
seems to be figured in the Puranas as the h a m s a, the 
* swan '-vehicle of Brahma, the lord of Action, which 
h a m s a (under another interpretation of the Upanishap- 
text quoted before) circles with double beat of wing 
incessantly in the great wheel or cycle of Brahma. It 
may also be the mala, rosary of crystal beads, that 
Brahma ever turns around and tells in his right hand, 
in constant movement, weaving all single vibrations into 
one, on the thread of the action-consciousness. It may, 
yet again, be the ever twisting, turning, rolling stream of 
holy Ganga stored within the same god's ' bowl ' of 
sacred waters, the kamandalu. 1 

Before passing on to our next subject of discussion, 
the individual self, or jlva, we may note that although 
Space and Time and Motion have, like Pratyag-atma, 
Mula-prakrti, and Negation, been treated of in successive 
order, this is only because of the limitations of speech, 
which, as has been said, can proceed only is succession. 
It must not be imagined, any more as regards the former 
trinity than as regards the latter, that there is any 

1 The statements made in this work as to symbology, it should 
be borne in mind, are only suggestive. They have no immediate 
importance here with reference to the general principles underlying the 
constitution of the kosmos, which are attempted to be outlined in this 
work, primarily. That they are made at all is only in the hope that the 
suggestions may be of use and possibly give some clue to students who 
may take an interest in working out, with the help of purSnic legends, 
the details which issue out of the general principles described here. 


precedence or succedence amongst the three. They are 
perfectly synchronous, utterly inseparable, all equally 
important, and all equally dependent with and on each 
other, and also with and on the primal trinity, of Self, 
Not-Self, and Negation. And all these trinities, again, 
co-inhere in and are inseparable from jlv-atma, jiva-atom, 
jlva-unit, which combines and manifests in itself all of 
them, and therefore is ' the immortal beyond doubt and 
fear/ if it will only so recognise itself. 

He who grasps this secret of the heart of Motion, 
Time, and Space, will understand Vasishtha's riddle that 
' all is everywhere and always '. 1 For jlva is the tireless 
weaver that, on the warp and woof of Time and Space, 
with the shuttle 'of Motion, weaves eternally the count- 
less-coloured tapestry of all this multifarious illusion - 
world, carrying the whole plan thereof incessantly within 
itself, and so carrying ' all/ ' always ' and ' everywhere ' in 
one. If we turn our eyes to the warp and the woof and 
the shuttle, we see but the endless tapestry of Penelope 
that never progresses and never regresses, though worked 
incessantly. Law requires more law, and that again more 
still ; to fulfil and justify the opposed necessities, to 
reconcile the contradictions of the constitution of the 

1 And also, incidentally, that orderliness or disorderliness in the 
conduct of the affairs of this ' maya-illusion ' of samsara, the perpetually 
moving world, depends entirely upon the right or wrong use of these 
three 'emptinesses/ viz., space, time, and motion. To make a proper 
division of these three, to perform fixed actions at fixed times in 
fixed places, is to be orderly ; to do otherwise is to be disorderly. But it 
has to be borne in mind that both order and disorder are relative, and 
both, ultimately, wholly subjective. To prove to itself that it is not the 
slave of any particular order, the Self indulges in all kinds of ' dreams '. 


Absolute, one process is invented ; that shows defect, 
another is invented ; that breeds only new grievances, 
they are amended ; ten more start up, new laws appear 
to cover them ! A laughable yet very serious, a fearful 
yet all-beautiful, an exceeding simple yet most awesome 
and stupendous Hla, pastime and child's-play. An untold 
and untellable, a veritably exhaustless, richness of variety, 
which is yet but the thinnest Maya and pretence to hide 
the unruffled calm and sameness of the Self. A heart of 
utter peace within mock-features of infinite unrest and 
toil and turmoil. Thus ever goes on this endless, 
countless, strictly and truly pseudo-infinite complication, 
this repetition over repetition, reproduction of re- 
production, and reflection within reflection. Yet is 
it ever reducible at any moment of Space and Time 
and Motion, as soon as the jiva really chooses to 
reduce it so, by simply turning round its gaze upon itself 
into the eternal peace of the simple formula of the 
logion : Aham Etat Na, * I (am)-this-Not. This is so, 
because the complications are not outside of the jiva, but, 
as soon as it realises its identity with the universal Self, 
within it. Forgetting, as it were, its own true nature, it 
creates them in and by the very act of running after them 
till it becomes giddy, ready to fall down in depair with 
its o\vn whirlings, all in vain, like a snake chasing its 
own tail, which it would find and seize more surely as 
part of its own self if it but gave up its mad gyrations, 
and turned back upon it quietly and peacefully and rested 
still. ' The Self-born pierced the senses outwards, hence 


the jiva seeth the outer world, and not the inner Atma. 
A wise one here and there turneth back his gaze, from 
outward to inward, desirous of immortality, and beholdeth 
the inward Self.' ] 



(O silent Sleeper in this seething Sea ! 
Plain we behold, and yet speech may not be. 
We wander, wonder, search, and then we find, 
But find it in the silence of the mind. 
Who will believe the marvel, if we say, 
Though it be plain, plain as the light of day, 
That on the boundless wall of Nothingness, 
A Painter full of skill but bodiless, 
Limns phantom figures that will never fade, 
Though to efface them time has e'er essayed, 
Limns forms of countless colours ceaselessly, 
O serene Sleeper of this^ stormy Sea !) 

^_-* Pas, Vinaya Patrika, Hymn No. 112, to 
*'Ke-shava,' i.e., Vishnu * sleeping in the waters '. 

NOTE I. The word f pastime ' may perhaps be thought 
objectionable, as likely to jar the feelings of least some 


earnest -minded thinkers who are holders of serious views as 
to the destinies of man, his relation to God, and the 
general purpose of creation or evolution. Readers, who, not 
content with the solutions now extant of the problems of 
life, find it worth while to read to the end of this book 
systematically, will, it is earnestly believed, find that the 
view of life advocated herein, is not inconsistent with, or 
exclusive of, any. They will see that it rather includes all 
the deepest views of, and the highest-reaching wishes for, 
the future of man, that have been entertained by the most 
honoured thinkers and well-wishers of their fellow men, so 
far as such may be ascertained from published writings. 
An endless progressiveness, an infinite perfectibility, an 
ever closer approach to the ever -expanding Divine, are hoped 
for here also for the human race, most sincerely and strongly. 
Only, in this work, this view is regarded as constituting not 
the whole, but only half the truth ; as being that aspect of 
the Truth which is visible from the standpoint of the indi- 
vidual jiva pursuing the philosophy of Change and its corres- 
ponding worship. The other and supplementary half is that, 
from the standpoint of the universal Self, there is no progress 
and no regress, No change of any kind, so that if that condi- 
tion may be described at all in terms of the Changing, then 
the only words to use are * Pastime,' ' Play,' * unfettered 
Will/ * uncontrolled outgoing of Life,' ' unresisted and irresis- 
tible manifestation of the inner Nature,' ' the unquestionable 
Will of God,' * Thy will be done,' ' Who shall question Him ?' 
' My will and Pleasure/ 'the Pleasure of the Univeral Self/ 
etc. Are the free rompings of the child, and the vigorous 
games of youth, and the vast industries of peace (and un- happily 
also war) of a nation's matured manhood, that are but as 
means to the child's rompings and the youth's games are 
these such a slur upon life that the word ' Pastime ' should 
jar upon the serious-minded ? Are not, rather, happy homes 
the very essence of a nation's life, and the child's and the 
mother's bright smile and laugh and play the very essence 
of the ' home ' ? Play is a thing as serious at least as work, 
in the well-balanced life. And, while this idea is yielding 
up to him its full significance, let the reader bear in mind that, 
as shown by the above inadequate translation from Tulasi Das, 


a devotee of devotees, whose book, the Ramayana, has been 
the Bible of hundreds of millions of Hindus, for the last 
three hundred years this idea, that the world is the Pastime 
of the Self has been entertained with loving fervour by at 
least some of the most earnest-minded of men. Vyasa him- 
self, in his Brahma-sutra (II, i, 33), expressly uses this very 
word ' LilaY as the final explanation, together with ' Kai- 
valyam,' of the appearance and the disappearance of the 
manifested world : * Play, and Retirement into Sleep and 
Solitude, as of the ordinary human being/ This book will 
indeed have tailed in its purpose if it leaves behind the im- 
pression that devotion to individual Ishvaras, embodying, in 
greater or lesser degree, the universal and impersonal ideal, 
has been scoffed at and belittled herein, rather than made in- 
finitely stronger and deeper and more unshakable by being 
placed on the firm foundations of reason. Also, indeed, the 
dire tragedies that are enacted in the world, every moment, 
would harrow up sensitive souls irredeemably, overwhelming 
all sense of the equal number of comedies that also are en- 
acted at the same time necessarily, (for the pain of one is the 
pleasure of another and vice versa), and destroying all faith 
in the mercy, justice, goodness of God, were it not possible to 
assure them that all these awful heart-crushing agonies, (as 
also the dance and laughter), are, verily, as unreal to the 
Univeral Self, as theatre-plays are to the human spectator. 

" God felt defect ", " He took no Joy in His Sole-ness, 
Soli-tude ", " He willed : May I be Many ", " He Want-ed to 
love and be loved ", " He willed the creation, that His Glory 
may be known and praised" such are the causes assigned 
for the creation of the world by a Personal Creator, even by 
devout minds. They all, on the least analysis, come only to 
Lila, Play, in order to Pass-Time, and En-com-Pass-Space, 
and sur-Pass-Motion. 

NOTE II. The last four lines, in bold type, of p. 314, 
may seem to need further explication. How to be all persons ? 
How be personal as well as all-personal, Im-personal or Non- 
personal ? How be mortal and also Immortal ? The subject 
will probably become clear if the reader will endeavour 
to understand thoroughly, the nature of (a) Param-atma, 


Pratyag-atma, Mula-prakrti, (b) }iv-atma, (c) the connection 
between them all, as expounded in the preceding pages. He 
may also read carefully what is said in this book, in several 
places, supra as well as infra, on the subject of * individuality ' 
and ' individuals within individuals '. Finally and this may 
perhaps help him most he should consider the case of the 
novelist or dramatist-actor who, while always conscious ' at 
the back of his mind ', that he is not identical with any of the 
hundreds, or thousands, of characters and parts which he 
creates, yet identifies himself, for the time being, with each 
of these characters or parts ; and, in fact, the more thorough 
such identification, the more realistic and successful his 
portraiture or acting. Any reader also, of a really fine novel 
or drama or even history (if it is properly written), may enter 
so thoroughly into the spirit of each character, that he may 
(as it were) forget ' his own proper self ' for the time, and feel 
as if he was that character, present in those surroundings, and 
undergoing those experiences. Many dreams are so vivid that 
when we recall them a {sufficiently long time afterwards 1 we 
begin to doubt and wonder if we did not actually and really 
pass through that experience while awake. Children on the 
one hand, and, on the other, very old men, are especially liable 
to such ' illusions '. In ' reveries ', which are ' waking 
dreams ', we lose ourselves entirely in and into ' other 
worlds '. 

Also, all jiva-s have to pass through all experiences, turn 
by turn. 

T: | Brhad Vp.\.$ 13. 
' All these are equal ; all are infinite '. 

4 Among these, none is greater, none smaller '. 

Mbh.. ShSnti, ch. 291. 


' None is ultimately higher, none is ultimately lower ; 
none has, in the nett result, on the whole, a farther, higher, 
finer reach than any other. Knowing this, that (temporary) 
misfortune which may cause serious fear and distress to the 
unwise person who does not know the Truth, leaves the wise 
one, who knows the Truth, unshaken f . 


Mbh., Shanti, ch. 25. 

' Joy and sorrow, growth and decay, gain and loss, life 
and death, come to each and all, turn by turn. Therefore, 
let none be depressed, none be elated ; let all always maintain 
an equable mind. 

3RSJc4 qftlTTOWT^l %<J: I Yoga-Sutra, in. 15. 

* Differences in the order of succession of (the very same) 
experiences are the cause of those differences of personality or 
individuality which are marked by or accompany special 
births in special types of bodies '. 

" To realise the bliss in Devachan, or the woes in Avitchi> 
you have to assimilate them as we do " ; The Mahatma 
Letters, p. 194. ' We ' here means the Masters, Adepts, Rshis. 

See also the illustrations, by various examples, of what 
makes the illusion of difference between persons, individuals, 
or individualities, given on pp. 59-60 and 173-174 of The 
Science of the Self \ pp. 62-63 and 411-413 of World War 
and Its Only Cure World Order and World Religion ; and, 
in The Essential Unity of All Religions, the sections, in 
Chap. Ill, on 'The Mutual Balancing of Pleasures and 
Pains f and ' Personal and Impersonal Devotion.* 




BEFORE proceeding further we may make a brief 

From the confusion of the world we travelled slowly 
and laboriously to the Absolute. In that we saw the 
first trinity, of Self, Not-Self, and Negation. 1 We saw 
again that Self was triple, Sat-Chid-Ananda ; Not-Self 
was triple, Rajas- Sattva-Tamas ; the affirmative Shakti- 
Energy of Negation was triple, Srshti-Sthiti-Laya ; and, 
finally, that (the negative shunyata, ' emptiness ', of) 
Negation itself was also triple, Desha-Kala-Kriya. 
We also saw that each one of this last trinity 
was again triple in its own turn. We may also have 
noticed, in passing, that the whole, the aggregate, of any 
three, might, in a sense, be regarded as a fourth which 
summarised and completed them all. We also had a 
glimpse of the fact that these trinities and triplets are all 
combined in the jiva-atom which, because of this fact, 

1 " The One can, when manifesting, become only Three. The Un- 
manifested, when a simple duality, remains passive and concealed. 
The dual monad (the 7th and 6th principles), has, in order to manifest 
itself, to first become a triad"'. The Mahatma Letters, 347; see 
also p. 346. It would be useful for the student to try to translate the 
symbols used there into the abstract terms used here. 


contains, in seed, the whole of the World-Process in 
itself. After this brief resume we may go on to consider 
jiva-atoms in a little more detail, 

Etat, ' This,' is by necessity Many, by opposition to 
the One-ness of the Aham, the ' I ', Self, and each of these 
Many, by opposition to the Self's unlimitedness and chang- 
lessncss, and, again, by mutual exclusion and limitation, 
under the stress of Negation, is limited, and trebly limited, 
in space, time, and motion; i.e., it has got a pari- 
m a n a, dimension, extension, size in space, by limitation 
on this side and on that ; a spanda or sphurana, 
a vibration in motion, a pendulum-swing, a revolution 
within the area of a radius, limited movement, which is 
necessarily made rhythmic by the fact of limitation in 
space and time ; and an a y u, 1 a duration, a life-period, 
a limited succession, in time. Such is the general des- 
cription of the atoms which make up Mula-prakrti, the 
very essence of which is Manyness, atomicity. The 
atom is an etat, a * this,' having limited size, duration, 
and motion ; it cannot apparently be defined more simply 
or comprehensively anywise else. 

But an tat, ' this,' cannot exist apart from 
Aham, ' I ' ; Mula-prakrti is inseparable from Pratyag- 
atma. Each ' this ' is indissolubly connected with 

, ; aTrg I This word ajfg, and 3TRmr, ayama, 

extension, and 3T*IT, ayana, movement, seem to be connected to- 
gether in a suggestive and significant way, (though etymologically 
different) , but the latter two are not very current now in the general 
meanings mentioned. Hence the other corresponding words have been 
given above. 


4 1,' by the double bond of ' am ' and ' am not* ' am r 
representing the ascending phase of the metabolism of the 
life-process, and ' am not ' the descending phase thereof. 
From all this it follows necessarily that the one Self 
becomes limited off into a pseudo-infinite number of 
* aham-s,' jlvas or jivatmas ; that every ' aham ' is em-bod- 
ied in an ' tat ', and every ' etat ' is en-sowJ-ed by an 
' aham ; ' and that every one of these pseudo-infinite atoms 
that make up Mula-prakrti is therefore living. Each such 
living atom, combining in itself Pratyag-atma and Mula- 
prakrti, is an individual, an individualised jiva-atom. 1 
And we may note that as each atom is a ' this,' having 
definite size, duration, and vibration, so is each jiva an 
' I/ having a definite extent or reach of consciousness, 
indicated by the body (' the soul made visible ') which it 
wears, an age or lifetime, and a restless activity of mind. 
The Samskrt words denoting these aspects of the jiva 
are also the same as for the aspects of the atom, except 
that, in place of the word parimana, dimension, the word 
kshetra, the ' field ' (of consciousness) is more cqmmon- 
ly used/ 


I Chhandogya, I, i, 5-6. ' This pair, voice 

(speech) and breath, hymn and melody, both come together in the 
Imperishable Word-sound Om (Aum) ; and when the Two come together, 
they fulfil all their Desire and desires for each other.' 

2 Or 3fl3IT3*?N: ; jati-ayur-bhoga, in the words of the Yoga-sUtra. 

i e a sheath or body extended in space, a lifetime, and a sum-total of 
experiences. For the word kshetra, see GI#i f ch. xiii. 


These attributes, it is clear, appear in the jiva with 
reference to the primary attributes of Negation, viz., 
space, time, and motion. 

With reference to the functions of the Shakti-aspect 
of Negation, (i.e., the Energy of the I, hiding in M), viz., 
creation, preservation, and destruction, the attributes of 
the jiva-atom may be said to be birth, life, and death ; 
or, in other words, growth, stagnation, and decay ; corres- 
ponding to attraction, balancing, and repulsion. 

In such a jiva-atom, mutual imposition of the attri- 
butes of each, Self and Not-Self, is complete ; in collaps- 
ing together they have taken on the properties of one 
another ; and the jiva-atom therefore shows, in its own 
individuality, the phenomenon of permanence in imper- 
manence and impermanence in permanence, oneness in 
manyness and manyness in oneness. The one Pratyag- 
atma becomes many individuals ; the many Mula-prakrti 
becomes organised ones, each indestructible, each having a 
personal immortality, or unending duration, and a pseudo- 
infinity of endless stretch of consciousness, as also the 
true eternity and infinity of Pratyag-atma. In strictness, 
the reflection of the One in the Many should cause the 
appearance of pseudo-infinite geometrical * points without 
magnitude/ true 'centres,' which make the 'singular one,' 
as opposed to and yet reproducing the 'universal One ' ; 
but as, because of the other law, operating simultaneously 
with equal force, viz., that the * this ' is limited as against 
the unlimitedness of Aham, the point must have definite 
limitation ; therefore, everywhere, we have jlva-atoms 


having size, etc., as said before, in place of points, which, 
however, always exist as possibilities, as abstract and 
theoretical centres. Such definite jiva-atoms, considered 
with greater reference to the atom-aspect, may be called 
* particulars ' ; with greater reference to the jlva-aspect, 
' individuals ' ; the individual, particular, or definite, be- 
ing the reconciliation of the extremes of the singular and 
the universal ; which ' extremes meet ' however, for 
in-fin-itesimal centre and in-fin-ite circle are equally 
in-de-fin-able, and are therefore undistingnishable, equal, 

We see now what the real value of the distinction 
between animate matter and inanimate matter is. Here, 
as everywhere else, the truth lies in the mean, and error 
in the two extremes. There is absolutely no matter at all 
that is not en-Kiraw-ed, ensouled, inspired, animated by 
spirit ; and also no spirit that is not in-/orm-ed with, 
inclosed, inclothed, ensheathed, embodied, in matter. 1 
This which is proved by its own irrefragable chain of 
deductions to the inner, ' pure/ or higher reason, the 
reason which looks at facts from the standpoint of the 
universal Self ; as opposed to the outer, the ' impure,' 
reason, which looks at them from the standpoint, and 
with the egoistic clingings and limitations, of the indi- 
vidual self this is now being proved even to the outward 
senses by the admirable industry of modern physical 
science. It has been shown by an elaborate and very 
instructive series of facts and arguments : " that a 

\ Mah&-bharaja, ShSntiparva, ch. 184. 


fundamental difference, i.e., difference in the elementary 
materials and the elementary forces, between organic and 
inorganic bodies, does not exist," ' and that the differ- 
ences between them " are no greater than the differences 
between many inorganic substances, and consist merely, 
in the mode of union of the elements ", 2 The scientists of 
to-day have collected facts and performed experiments 
which show conclusively that so-called inanimate and 
inorganic matter responds to stimulus, and behaves 
generally in the same manner as animate and organic 
matter. 1 Hasty deductions from such facts, e.g., ' the 
soul is but an electric current in another form,' ' matter 
and spirit are identical,' are liable to misconstruction, and 
rest really upon inaccuracy and misunderstanding. It 
would be almost truer to say that * the electric current is 
but soul in another form '. Minds that have not yet 
learnt to look leisurely, calmly, and impartially, at both 
sides of a question, and are still at the stage of taking 
hurried, passionate, and one-sided views of it, with a 
partisan zeal, either emphasise Matter too much and re- 
solve Spirit entirely into it, or emphasise Spirit too much 
and resolve Matter away entirely into it. This is the 
result of looking at only one aspect, at one half, of 
the two-sided whole. The whole Truth is that all Matter 
is living, and all Life material ; that the pseudo-eternal 
Motion of all Matter, in all its endless complication, is 

1 Max Verworn, General Physiology, p. 336. 

3 Ibid. , p. 272. 

* Sir J. C. Bose, Response in the Living and the Non-Living, 


throughout accompanied, on an ineffaceable parallel, by 
the fact of Consciousness, the fact of Life, now higher 
and now lower in degree of manifestation, according to 
the increased or decreased elaboration of the compli- 
cations. 1 Etat and Aham can never be separated/ Yet 
they are distinct also and can never be identified literally, 
except as they both are ever merged, by Negation, in the 
completeness and Self-sarneness of the Absolute'. They 
are distinguishable, but not separable, in brief. This 
psycho-physical parallelism is the inner meaning of the 
Sankhya-doctrine, referred to before, viz., the constant 

1 See The Mahatma Letters, pp, 60, 63. 65. 66. 67. and other pages 
referred to in its index, against the words Matter. Spirit, Force ; and 
endeavour to reconcile the seemingly inconsistent statements. The pre- 
sent work may perhaps be of some use in the endeavour. 

2 Therefore every mood of mind has a corresponding mode of matter. 
in and through which it manifests. As countless radii meet in the 
centre, so countless worlds meet in the soul-Jiva. mind-body And the 
soul can pass from any radius to any other by coming back tc the centre. 
i.e., it-Self, and issuing forth again thence. Hence, the scriptures say 
that persons who cultivate such-and-such virtues or vices, noble or ignoble 
sentiments, passions, feelings, emotions, tastes, interests, go to such and 
such worlds, physical and superphysical, 'heavenly* or ' hellish,' by sheer 
attraction in that direction. Consider how persons gravitate towards the 
worlds of science or art or literature or business or administration, and to 
one or other of the numerous sub-sub-divisions of these. The fact 
that the nervous system (predominantly) serves the ' intellectual ' ; the 
muscular, the ' actional ' ; the glandulo-vasculor, the ' emotional ' . 
illustrates the same fact. A western writer has recently invented the 
words ' cerebro-tomc '. ' somato-tonic ' , and ' viscero-tonic ' for the 
three main temperaments and types of humans. Overloading of a langu- 
age's vocabulary with a plethora of new coinages which are not really 
necessary, is not desirable ; and the French are wise to keep their diction 
and dictionary pure and limited, by the censorship of their Academy ; 
though Herbert Spencer disapproves such limitation. JUut in this parti- 
cular case, an advocate of Manu and Veda may welcome even the three 
strange words as supporting his arguments 

The reader may see, in this connection, pp 355-356 of The Science 
of Social Organisation, vol. I ; pp. 32-34 of The Superphysics of War 
(Adyar Pamphlets) \ and p. 79 of World War and its Only Cure 



con-currence or co-efficience of Consciousness with all 
variations of Motion in Matter, which con-comitance or 
co-incidence constitutes universal Life and makes those 
Movements possible. This is all that Consciousness does ; 
Atmi is a d h a r a, base, support, of all these motions ; 
without it, they would have no meaning and would not 
be. When all vital phenomena have been explained away 
into atomic affinities, as is being attempted by modern 
scientists anew, then the question would arise : Whence and 
how and why these affinities ? The only answer is : The 
Universal Consciousness imposes them on the atoms; 
and the result is .that the whole series of explanations is 
reversed ; belief in Vital Force is restored on a higher 
level ; and all affinities become resolved into the vital 
phenomena of one ever-living Universal Shakti. Of course, 
real initiation of actions and movements by individual 
consciousness is abolished even so ; but apparent initiation 
remains untouched. What the whole truth is on this 
point, may be gathered partially from what has been 
already said about free-will, and. for the rest, from the 
fuller discussion which may be held later on. 

Distinction between animate and inanimate then 
amounts to this, that, to the person noting the distinction 
at any particular time and place, in the former, the ele- 
ment of Pratyag-atma is more prominent and manifest, 
while, in the latter, the element of Mula-prakrti is more 

Reason for this alternate predominance, now of the 
one and now of the other, is the alternation of ' am ' and 


4 am not '. When ' am ' is strong, we have the appear- 
ance of c the living,' of crescent ' life,' of anabolism. 
When ' am not ' prevails, then we have the phenomenon 
of ' death,' ' the dying/ ' the dead,' ' the inert,' of kata- 
bolism. In the strict sense of the words, * life ' and 

* death ' are not correct here ; only ' living ' and * dying ' 
are proper. The scientific truth of necrobiosis, * dying 
life ' or ' living death ', of gradual death, is voucher for 
this fact. But like * animate ' and ' inanimate,' ' life ' and 

* death ' have, as convenient words, a practical value, 
though the facts can never in reality be separated ; living 
and dying are going on constantly, incessantly, side by 
side, and also one after another, because of the general 
principles which underlie, as explained before, the triple 
subdivisions of time, space, and motion ; for, (1) to say, 
4 1 am this ejat,' is also to say at the same time, in the 
same space, and by the same motion, ' I am not this other 
etat ; ' and to say, ' I am not this etat,' is also to say, 
4 1 am this other etat '. Again, (2) to say, * I am this ', 
is to say later, in another time, space, and motion, ' I am 
not (the same) this ; ' and vice versa. Finally, (3) it 
is unavoidable to be saying, everywhere and always, 
either * I am this,' or * I qm not this '. Thus it comes 
about that every organism is living and dying, at the 
same time, i.e., changing, and has also successively as- 
cending and descending phases of metabolism. Thus are 
Spirit and Matter, Life and Death, ever connected like 
the two ends of the beam of a balance ; if one rises, 
the other falls in equal degree ; if one falls, the 


other rises similarly ; but entirely separated they nevei" 
can be. 

It may be gathered from the above, that the word 
' life/ as currently employed, means ' living and dying/ 
and ' death ' means ' dying and living '. Let us now see 
more fully what death really means. When we hav6 
done that, our information as to the essential significance 
of one prominent aspect of the jlva-atom, the aspect of 
animate-inanimate, will have been rounded out and com- 
pleted in a way. 

By the law of adhyasa, 1 mutual superimposi- 
tion of attributes between the Self and the Not-Self, 
the jlva-atom must begin and end in time, i.e., be 
impermanent, and must at the same time be permanent. 
Reconciliation of this contradiction 4s achieved in ever- 
recurrent beginnings and endings." But how is this pos- 
sible ? How can a thing, an etat, having once been, ever 
cease to be, and if it once actually ceased to be, how 
could it be again ? Necessity to obviate this objection 

The word ' im-position ' is peculiarly ap-posite here. 
Maya is the Great Impostor or Impostress, who ' imposes ' upon people ; 
makes the false look like the true to them ; ' imposes ' false beliefs 
upon them. The Greek word antidosis seems to mean the same 
aghyasa. F, n. 4 on p. 17 of Gibbon's Roman Empire, vol. V, (Every- 
man's Library series) says: "The antidosis of the Greeks, a mutual 
loan or transfer of the idioms or properties (' idios '. one's own peculia- 
rity) of each nature to the other of infinity to man, possibility (pass- 
-ingness. transience, finiteness) to God, etc. Twelve rules on this 
nicest of subjects compose the Theosophical Grammar of Petavius." 
See p. 11, supra. 

* 3?TrJTftSf?% Stewraftfc I Ny&ya-sutra. IV, i. 10, ' Because 
^ Atma, Self, is eternal, therefore, it follows as a necessary consequence. 
'that after having departed from one body, it becomes again, i.e., comes- 
into another body ' . 


creates at once new laws and facts. Firstly, the difficulty 
is solved by (apparent) successive dissociations and re- 
associations of ensouling inner jlva and ensheathing outer 
bodies, i.e., transfer of the individual consciousness from 
one body to another, and thence to yet another, and 
so on. But having said this, it becomes necessary to 
explain what is meant by inner jfva and outer 
sheath, where we have been speaking of a single and 
apparently homogeneous jiva-atom so far. Although 
the jiva-atom is a * one,' yet again within that one there 
is an irreducible and irrepressible duality indeed, a 
trinity, strictly speaking ; as may appear later in connec- 
tion with the explanation of the metaphysic of the 
expression tri-bhuvana, the triple- world. 1 * I ' is 
joined to etat by ' am ' in 'I (am) this ' ; yet they are 
only joined ; the two cannot be literally identified. The 
consequence of this is that we have an ' inner ' jlva, 
self or soul, and an ' outer ' upadhi, sheath or body. 
This inner self is something which, by its very 
Pratyagatmic nature and constitution, is always elud- 
ing sensuous grasp and definition. ' How and by what 
may the knower be known ? " * It is Self-luminous. 
Whenever we seek* consciously or unconsciously, to de- 
fine It, we at once find in its place an upa<Jhi, a sheath, 
as Indra found Uma Haima-vati/ a sheath subtler than 
the previous one, from the standpoint of which as 'outer* 

3 Brhad-aranyaka. II, iv, 14. 
3 Kena Up, t Hi. 


we started to secure this ' inner ' self ; subtler, no doubt, 
but yet as undoubtably material. This 'inner' Self, the 
* abstract,' would lose its very nature and falsify itself, 
would no longer he 'inner' and 'abstract', if it could be 
grasped. To be grasped means to be outer. Therefore 
this Self ever recedes further and further inwards, within 
a literally endless series of veil after veil, as we try to 
follow it with the eye of sense, while to the eye of the 
pure reason, that is to say, to It-Self, it is always present, 
immovably stationary. The physical reflection of this 
law, as found by physical science, is that " there exists 
upon earth at present no living substance that is homo- 
geneous throughout," and that " the living substance that 
now exists upon the earth's surface is recognised only in 
the form of cells, 1 ' each of which " contains, as its 
essential constituents, two different substances, the pro- 
toplasm and the nucleus,"' l (with a connecting third 
kind, viz., chromatin-network); and the nucleus has been 
found, on further investigation, to contain still inner cores 
and sheaths, etc., viz., the nucleolus and other sub- 
stances." 1 The truth is that, as more or less openly des 
cribed in Yoga Vasishtha 3 and other works on Yoga and 
V6danta, and in theosophical literature, the constitution 
of man, and, indeed, of all living matter, is a plantain- 
stem-like system of leaf-sheath within leaf-sheath, layer 

1 Max Verworn, General Physiology, p. 296. 

Ibid., p. 91 ; see also H. W. Conn : The Story of Life's Mecha- 

* Vide story of Lila in Utpatti-Prakarana ; Mystic Kxpcrtcnces t 
or Tales from Yoga-Vasishtha.' 


within layer, fold within fold, and shell within shell, all 
interpenetrating one another, each distinguishable from 
each, yet not wholly separable from each other, but 
fringing off into each other by indefinable gradations. 
And metaphysic adds that this must be so, not up to any 
limited extent or definite number, which would be 
arbitrary (except as regards any particular world-system, 
which must necessarily deal with definite time, space, and 
motion, arid therefore definite numbers of layers and 
planes of matter, e.g,, litho-, hydro-, igni-, atmo-, ethero-, 
etc., spheres) ; but pseudo-infinitely, which only is in 
accordance with reason, when the whole of the World- 
Process is taken into account. More about this may 
appear later ' ; in the meanwhile what has been said may 
suffice to show how we have the possibility, and there- 
fore the necessity (for in the sight of metaphysic to 
be possible is to be), of the phenomenon of death t 
by the passing of the jiva from one outer and denser 
body to another inner and subtler body. This outer 
body, which, then, is left behind, is called dead from 
the standpoint of the inner jiva, which has now 
passed on to another sheath. And the inner jiva may 
similarly be called dead from the point of view of the 
dense body. There is a reciprocal severance of asso- 
ciation and reciprocal death, a reciprocal cessation of 
interchange, interplay, intervivification. The opposite 
of death in this sense is * birth ' and not ' life ' ; and it 

1 See the remarks on ' the three worlds or planes ' and ' the three 
bodies ' in Ch. XV, on Jlvas, infra. 


may be defined in the same terms. If * death ' is the 
transference of the individual consciousness from one 
plane of e t a t-matter to another, birth is the same trans- 
ference from another into the one. The same event 
means a death in one plane or world, and a birth in 
another. In other words, as death is reciprocal, so is 
birth ; each dies to the other ; each is born away from the 
other. The sleeping of the jlva in the s t h u 1 a or physical 
body, on the physical plane of jag rat, ' waking* 
consciousness, is its awakening in the s u k s h m a 
or astral body, on the astral plane of s v a p n a, * dream- 
ing* consciousness; its sleeping in the latter, again, is 
its awakening in the k a ran a, ' causal * body, on the 
corresponding plane of s u s h u p t i, * deep sleep ' con* 
sciousness ; (and so on pseudo-infinitely, in a special 
sense), and in the reverse order, vice versa, (also, pseudo- 
infinitely, in that special sense). 

But, again, the totality of 6 1 a t s, ' this-es ', can never 
be really separated from the One indivisible Self ; nor an 
tat, a 'this,' from an a ham, an ' I ', from its own 
particular 4 I ', so to say, viz., the one with which it was 
identified in the beginning of beginningless time ; any 
more than it can be really unified and identified with 
such. There is no sufficient reason why an etat should 
be really separated especially remembering that it has 
to be reunited with it as said before from any a ham 
with which it has once, at any time, been in junction. 
Once, therefore ever, is the requirement of the first 
principles of logic, the first laws of thought : " A is 


A and Not not-A." The result of these acting and 
counteracting necessities of reason is that we have the 
periodic, definite, overt, find patent, severance and con- 
nection of each a ham with one particular etat in any 
one particular limited cj'cle of space and time ; and the 
undefined, hidden, and latent connection of it constantly 
with all other e t a t s, in the past, present and future, 
(Compare the statements in The Secret Doctrine on the 
subject of the auric egg, and in Vedanta on the subtle 
atomic sheaths carried by a jiva in its passage from lower 
to successively higher worlds. 1 ) 

In other words, the One Aham in its pseudo-infinite 
pseudo-subdivisions is in unceasing and yet recur- 
rent conjunction-disjunction, samyoga-viyoga,* 
with all pseudo-infinite etats; each etat, or rather 
<3ach conjunction and each disjunction of the pseudo- 
infinite number of such, representing, nay, being, a special 
experience, and the whole being one constant and change- 
less experience ; so that we come back, as we shall always, 
again and again, with fuller and fuller knowledge of the 
content, to the fact that " all is everywhere and always ", 5 

1 The expression stffctEtal, jiva-kosha, ' jiva-cocoon or capsule ,' 
occurs in Bhagavata, IV, xxiii, 11. In one of the debates in 
Shankara-()ig-vijaya t occurs the sentence, & 5Tfi|, 

, fat *I^5% agfq$*h I * The jiva, departing, goes enveloped in 
sukshma, subtle, elements.' 


BAagavafa, U, ix, 35, 
I Ibid.. II, i, 39. 


One more statement seems to be needed before we 
pass on to other aspects of the jiva-atom. What is the 
true significance of the words ' nature/ * inanimate 
nature/ as used to mean lands and mountains, clouds, 
rivers, and oceans, fire of volcanoes, light and heat of 
the sun, substance of the stars, airs and gases of the 
atmosphere, ether of the spatial regions ? These appear 
to stand out in sharp contrast, as vast masses of inani- 
mate matter, to the human and other jlvas deriving their 

; fir***. up *&**& 2, 

J Nrsimha-Uttara-Tapnii Up. ( H^flcfT f| ^?4^ ; Gauda-pada's 

: f etc. --are the epithets. 

descriptive of the Self* in terms of ' all ' , which are scattered all over the 
Upanishats. ' That which is every-thing. every-where, every-when ; all. 
al-ways, all-space, all-time , all-knowing ; all-experiencing ; all-ruling ; 
all-doing, all-desiring, all-smelling, all-tasting, all-touching, all-seeing, 
all-hearing ; all-named, all-formed, all-motioned ; all-giving ; all-taking; 
all-pervading ; all-grasping ; all-beloved , all-loving ; all-handed, all- 
footed, all-eyed, all-cared, all-mouthed, all-nosed ; all-seeing, all- 
witnessing, all-supporting, all-soulcd ; all-desire-transcending ; same and 
equal in, for, to, all ; devoid of all ; essence of all ; creator, preserver, 
destroyer of all , etc. Such descriptions can apply and do apply to 
Naught-Else-than * I '. the Supreme, the Universal. 


sustenance from them ? How are these masses to 6e 
explained ? Where is the Aham, ' I ', in them ? Or if it 
is there, why so latent in so much tht larger portion of 
Mula-prakrti ? The question seems at first sight to be 
exclusively within the province of mere speculation ; but 
a true Metaphysic should include the principles of all 
physics and all sciences whatever ; for the ideal standard 
thereof is that it is the system of universal principles 
which underlie all the World- Process and co-ordinate 
and synthesise all its aspects and departments, as the 
architect's plan underlies the building and co-ordinates 
the activities of all the workers on it. The explanation 
of this question may, therefore, properly be sought for 
in metaphysical as well as physical science. If found, 
it will help greatly to enlarge and confirm our grasp 
of the nature of Aham and Etat, and their pseudo- 
infinite variety of extent in space, time, and motion, and 
therefore their pseudo-infinite overlappings. 

Physiological science, through leading scientists, 
says : " Individuals of the first order are cells ; of the 
second order are tissues, associations of individuals -of 
the first order ; of the third order are organs, associations 
of individuals of the second order ; of the fourth order are 
persons, associations of various individuals of the third 
order ; of the fifth order are communities, associations of 
individuals of the fourth order." * There is no reason 
why this chain should not be lengthened pseudo-infinitely. 
It is very probable that physical science will some day 
1 Max Verworn. General Physiology, p. 62. 


discover definitely that the vital connections between the 
members of a community are of a nature exactly similar 
to, if, perhaps, weaker in intensity than, those between 
the organs in a person, the tissues in an organ, and the 
cells in a tissue. And thus it will discover that the 
solidarity of the human race, as made up of communi- 
ties, is not a merely poetical metaphor or political 
abstraction or religious ideal, but a physical and super- 
physical fact ; and, still further, that the various king- 
doms, human, animal, vegetable, mineral, etc., have a 
common life as well as special lives, in endless continuity, 
so that even ordinary pantheism is vindicable in a very 
literal sense, as being one part, but not the whole, of the 
body of truth which makes up metaphysic. 

' Individuals ' in the preceding paragraph really 
signifies selves, and the quotation shows how larger and 
larger masses of ' animate nature ' are included within 
larger and larger * selves '. We may now select some 
other extracts which will show how large masses of ' in- 
animate nature ' may be inspired by single * selves,' while 
the preceding paragraph, by its explanation of the flux 
and elasticity of individuality ' in animate nature, helps 
to make clear the possibility of ' individuality ' in inani- 
mate nature, and so helps to abolish the distinction 
between animate nature and inanimate nature. Preyer 
thought that " originally the whole molten mass of the 
earth's body was a single giant organism : the powerful 
movement that its substance possessed was its life." l 

1 Ibid., p. 303. 


Pfltiger opined that " living proteid is a huge 
molecule undergoing constant, never-ending formation 
and constant decomposition, and probably behaves 
towards the usual chemical molecules as the sun be- 
haves towards small meteors "V Of course there is 
difference of opinion and discussion going on amongst 
the holders and opponents of such views, but the result 
of the discussion can only be that new details and fuller 
significance will come to the surface, and the general 
truth pervading and reconciling all opposing views will 
be realised in a higher degree. Individual students of 
science may now and then secretly believe or openly call 
each other fanciful or unscientific, in the excusable heat 
of the race after truth, and under the influence of the 
zealous faith of each (which sometimes helps by putting 
vigour and energy into the chase) that his own path is 
shortest cut/ But truth lies in the net result of the 
whole, and, from this standpoint, the mere fact is enough, 
for the present, for our purposes, that such views are 
entertained by scientific men, in whose sobriety, as a 
collective body, the lay public implicitly believes. This 
fact softens, and makes possible the assimilation of, the 

1 Ibid., p. 307. 

- Thus a recent writer on political science says : "It is difficult to 
label the attitude I have adopted. It is Individualism if that only implies 
the denial of the existence of any Social Soul or Higher Unity in the 
form of a Super-person," (i.e., as we might say, of a sdtratma. an over- 
soul or group-soul, a virSt-purusha, which others believe in); C. D. Burns. 
Political Ideals. Preface, p. 5 (1915). The workings of the ' principle * 
of the 'group-soul', 'net-soul', in animalcules, animal-herds (shoals, 
schools, flights, coveys, packs, hives, termitaries), human-families (clans, 
tribes, races, nations), should be observed and studied, to make the signi- 
ficance of ' individuality ' clear. 


view which otherwise would look exaggerated, weird, un- 
sober, that the earth, the moon, the sun, and the stars, 
might each be they are, by the deductions of the reason 
and the testimony of Purdnas and other scriptural works 
as much individual beings as the matter-of-fact citizens 
of a civilised town of to-day ; and again, not only 
individuals, but individuals within individuals, so that a 
large number, or, strictly speaking, a pseudo-infinite 
number, of distinct lives, i.e., lines of consciousness, are 
being ministered to by apparently each ' this ', while at the 
same time all the pseudo-infinite ' this-es ' are, vice versa, 
ministering to the one life of the One Self (as also to the 
life of each individual self or jlva, one directly and the 
rest indirectly). 1 

This will become clear when the student casts 
entirely away from him the associations of time, space, 
and motion, those arch-magicians, mystifiers, and illusion- 
makers in this Maya's Playhouse of the World- Process. 
He should consider the facts solely in their mutual pro- 
portion and relation. Thus considered, millions and 
billions of such heavenly bodies might as easily float in 
the veins of Macrocosmic * Virat Purusha with thousand 
heads, feet, hands," '' as blood-corpuscles, leucocytes, 
phagocytes, bacilli, bacteria, microbes, virus-es, in the 
veins of a single human being ; and they may very well 
discharge similar functions also. Each of such has its 

1 This is one way of interpreting the Sankhya doctrine of one Prakrji 
being ' beheld ' by many porushas, and the Vedanfa view of One 
Brahma and many-natnred yet pseudo-one Maya, 

2 Purusha-Suk^a. See also Bhagavad-Glfa, xi. 


own life, and also forms part of the life of another, which, 
in turn, has its own special as also a subordinate life, 
and so on in a chain which extends literally endlessly. 1 

The apparently imanimate masses of material nature 
may thus all l>e regarded as parts of some one or other 
smaller or larger ' individual '. Their inanimateness is at 
the most no greater than the inanimateness of a living be- 
ing's teeth, nails, hair, epidermis, blood, bone, shell, each 
of which may, nay, does, harbour and nourish multifarious 
minute lives, while also itself connected on the descending 
or ascending phase of metabolism with a larger lite. This 
is but another illustratibn of the law that an e tat cannot 
stay devoid of an a h a m ; if one a h a m, one line of con- 
sciousness, deserts it, another or others take up its place 
immediately. In daily experience we see this, in the 
springing up of new lives in disintegrating organic forms 

1 The phenomena of ' multiple personality ', ' dissociated states ' 
of which up to eight have been observed (see Dr. Morton Prince, The 
Unconscious, Lee. II) are very useful in helping us to realise the Maya 
of the feel of separate individuality ; and how this varies and fluctuates, 
by means of memory, f%f| %cJ9%. We may think of an incident, and 
even call up a vivid picture of it in mind, but feel unperturbed, like 
a neutral spectator ; suddenly, there comes a wave, a surge, an over- 
powering rush of memory ' the principal actor in the incident is 
myself ' and all the appurtenant emotions follow at once. So too. a 
chief means of consolation for past mistakes is the ' philosophical ' re- 
flection ' It was not I, my present ' I '. which committed it ; but a long- 
past ' I ', another I, someone else, as it were, or even an obsessing spirit, 
that did it '. Memory at-taches ; reflection de-taches ; emotion attaches, 
connects, binds, identifies ; intelligence detaches, analyses, discriminates, 
separates ; (bandha and mok?ha). 

The ideas put forward in Jung's Analytical Psychology, (trans, by 
C E. Long, Dub: 1920) pp, 472-4, ' Summary ', supply useful com- 
mentary on Vedanta views. Jung calls ' individuality ', persona, and 
speaks, of ' collective Psyche ', which comes near to Mahat-Bud(Jhi. 
Vishv-a|ina, Sutr~a|ma, etc. 


that have served their purpose of sheath to a larger life 
and so ' died '. What the Upamshat declares, ' This 
world appears forth from the Unperishing as hair and 
nails from the man," is probably declared in a similar 
sense with reference to Virat-Purusha. 1 

The result of all this, in the words of physical 
science, is that, as Preyer said : 4< As the matter of 

1 Mnndaka, i. 1. 7. Many Pnrana-s describe, in different aspects, the 
correspondences ^between the limbs, members, parts, organs, of V i r a t- 
Purusha, Mah a-Pnr us ha, Maha-Virat, Macro-Cosmos, and 
those of the human p u r u s h a, k s h u cj r a-v i r a, t, micro-cosmos. The 
two are also called Braiim-anda and p i n d - a n d a. fihaguvafa 
describes them in grand words, in 11, i, and repeatedly, in later chapters. 
The general Law of Correspondence, or Law of Analogy, is also en- 
unciated in II viii. 8, and again, with a slight variation of language, in 
XII. xi, 9. thus: 


3?fo flf fg^q: 

As the organs, parts, of, and arrangements and proportions thereof, 
of a single small-organism ; even such, those of the Vast-Organism.'. 

' The seven tala-s (patala, etc ) are the Lord's nether limbs ; seven 
lokas (bhilh, etc.) His upper parts ; sun and moon are His eyes ; tempests 
and zephyrs, His hot and cool breaths : His upper hp is the blush of 
Love, and the lower the Greed of that same Love , His breast is 
pharma, and his back, A-dharma ; His flanks are Oceans ; rivers. His 
arteries and veins ; Mountains, His mighty bones , forests are the 
down upon His Body ; clouds His glorious many-colored hair ; His smil 
and brilliant teeth are bewitching Maya. The Kaustubha- jewel that 
He wears upon His breast is the all-illuminating Light of Self- 
Knowledge , the glory thereof is the mark Shri-va^sa on His chest ; 
Sankhya and Yoga are His ear-rings ; His all-whelming Discus Sudar- 
shana is the Wheel of Cyclic Time. Vasudeva (Krshna), Sankarshana 
(Balarama, elder brother) , Pratfyumna (son), Anirwjdha (grandson) are 
chitt*.. abamkara, bucjdhi. and manas; also turiya. 
p r a j fi a, taijasa, vishva (planes,, viz. , transcendent or fourth, 
causal , subtle-astral , and physical) ' . And so on . 

The student should read up references in the Index (Vol. VI of 
The Secret Doctrine} against ' Analogy ' and * Correspondences ' . 


the universe is in eternal motion, so life, which 
itself is only a complex process of motion, is as old as 

On p. 70 of The Mahatma Letters, occurs the following 
" Nothing in nature springs suddenly ; all being subjected 
to the same law of gradual evolution. Realise but once the 
process of the tnaha cycle, of one sphere, and you have 
realised them all. One man is born like another man, one 
race evolves, develops, and declines like another and all other 
races. Nature follows the same groove from the creation 
of a universe down to that of a mosquito. In studying esoteric 
cosmogony, keep a spiritual eye upon the physiological process 
of human birth; proceed from cause to effect, establishing 
analogies. Cosmology is the physiology of the universe 
spiritualised, for there is but one law If . 

" That one law " in enshrined in Aum. 

For some light on this, and several obscure verses tn Manu, i, see The 
Secret Doctrine, V. 422-6. In this connection may also be considered 
the mystical kabbalistic and theosophical views and doctrines re* the Di- 
vine Man, a literal solar ' Golden God-Man ', the Ruling Chief, king, 
president of the hierarchy qf deVa-s, hosts of Dhyan Chohans (in Buddh 
ism). He (or She, strictly speaking sexless or both-sexed) is referred to, in 

Ufianishats. as f^-W,^r. r %fl:^ 

etc.. i.e.. ' Golden- Wombed, -colored. '-haired, -moustached, -bearded, - 
-formed, -seeded, -armed, -toothed .-crested (-corona-ed,-c rowned,. Skt 9 
k i r a p a, ray, corona)/ A well known Skt. verse, part of a grand hymn 
to ' our ' Lord the Sun, says, 

'Narayana, seated on the golden lotus-throne in the middle of the 
Sun-globe, adorned with ornaments, and holding the sweet-sounding. 
cqnch and light-shedding discus, should be ever meditated on as seated 
in one's own heart '. All jivas, high and low, of the solar system, would 
be as cells, tissues, organs, in His being ; and would be issuing out of 
and going back into that corporate being. (The analogy of the peculiar 
relationship between the queen-bee and the whole hive, and the queen - 
ant and the whole termitariiim, applies). Such a solar God-Man 



matter." ' The student of metaphysic has to read 
4 pseudo-eternal ' or * sempiternal ' in place of * eternal/ 
and ' conscious motion ' in place of ' motion '. 

We have floated away very far on the stream of the 
discussion of animate and inanimate ; but we have seen 
again, in the course thereof, what was stated before, how 
law begets law and fact, and these more laws and facts, 
with prolific, indeed endless, multiplicity ; and we are 
now in a position to understand how, if the necessary 
means for knowledge of concrete details, now sup- 
posed to be known only to occult physical and super- 
physical science, were available, every concrete object, 
including Krug's quill, before referred to, (pp. 73, 179) 
could be deduced with even complete minuteness of steps. 
Thus we may realise how the whole of the solid-seeming 

would be only a particular Individual, above, below, and side by side 
with other Individuals, smaller, larger, or of equal degree, sub-ordinate, 
super-ordinate or co-ordinate, in smaller and larger systems within 
systems without end. 

It should be kept in mind, here, that ' personality ' or ' individual- 
ity ', 4 1 am I, something separate from all other I's 'this also is only 
a feeling, a mood of consciousness or v r 1 1 i, psychosis, in the Universal 
Consciousness, the All-Psyche. It too comes and goes. The desire for 
* personal ' immortality is intense, at one time ; at another, it disappears; 
then supervenes, instead, the wish to merge into, and become one with, 
and inseparable and indistinguishable from, the All, the Whole. The 
former is the stage of acute aha m-\ a and m a m a-t a, I -ness and mine- 
ness ; the latter of n a - a h a m and n a - m a m a, ' not (any separate) I and 
not (any exclusive) mine*. See The Science of the Self, re * will-to- 
ll ve ' and ' will-to-die '. 

The streams of b h a k t i-devotion flowing upwards or inwards ; the 
streams of (Jay a-compassion flowing downwards or outwards these 
constitute the circulation of the Spiritual Blood of the Divine Man. 

Whichever department of Nature, whichever aspect of Life, we 
turn our eyes to, will supply abondant illustrations of this law and fact of 
smaller within larger individualities, species within genera, ad infinitum. 

1 Max Yerworn. General Physiology, p. 309. 


of this world is hung on to, or indeed is entirely made up 
of, the airiest of cobwebs of laws and principles (that are 
always getting metamorphosed into facts), which the silk- 
worm of the Pratyag-atma spins into an endless cocoon 
out of and around itself ; and which disappears at once, 
together with the silkworm, replaced by the gorgeous and 
free-feeling and free-flying moth-butterfly ; as soon as it 
realises and undergoes the perishing, the death, the 
nothingness, of both ; as soon as the individualised 
Pratyag-atma understands the endless interplay of mutual 
termination and determination between Self and Not- 
Self, and so becomes mukta, * liberated '. 

The Upanishat-verse just referred to has, thus, 
another and deeper metaphysical significance, besides 
the literal one before mentioned : * As the spider casteth 
forth its web and rolls it up again, as the herbs rise up 
from out of the earth, as hair and down grow from the 
life and being of the man, so doth this universe appear 
from and within the Unperishing and Unchanging.' l 

1 Mundaka Upanishaf. i 1.7. MUD da. in Skt. means the head, 
the skull. Why has the U pants ha { been so named ? Apparently because 
it was usually ' taught only to those who had undergone the discipline of 
the head '. fiJKtal ftfol[ %* ^ftl (ibid., in. 2.10) ; i.e., meditation on 
the light or sound within the head, whereby those parts of the brain were 
vivified or awakened, which can apprehend and ,' mirror ' metaphysicat 
truths ; (see Annie Besant's A Study in Consciousness r opening up of 
spirillae of brain-cells ; and pevi Bhagavafa XI, viii and ix. A mystical 
verse says. 

: * 

' The imperishable r. c h & - s (nature-secrets) are in the high heaven 
(vySma, the skull, the head) ; all the gods (vishv6-<J vas, nature- 
forces) dwell there. He who does not know tfcis wha| use uan he make 


Of r. c h a - s ? They only who know this sit on high '. Nerve-centres of 
all sensor, motor, and other organs and glands are all in the brain. 

As to the coimtlessness of suns and stars and systems, we have this 
statement : 

fripad- Vibhuti~Maha-N&rayana-Upanishat. 

* On all sides of this (our) globe or system, are blazing countless 
billions of similar ones. The rajas-pradhana (predominantly 
rajasa) B rah mas of some have four faces (elements), some five, six, 
seven, eight, up to thousands (of facets) ; all are a m s h a - s, portions, 
of Narayana (n a r a n a m ayanam, ' house ' , ' store-house ' , ' reser- 
voir ' of nara-s, jiva-s). In each there is also a sa(tva-pra~ 
<J h a n a Vishnu, and a {amas-pradhana Mahgshvara, to preserve 
and to destroy. They all wander about in infinite space, like shoals 
of fishes, or masses of bubbles in foam/ See also World-War and 
its Only Cure, pp. 62-65 and 411-413. 

Another example from biological science may be adduced : " Investi- 
gations by Mr. E. Marais, a South African scientist, point to the exist* 
ence of a communal mind, in some of the lower orders of life, actuated 
by definite purpose, and functioning independently (? not wholly) of the 
matter with which it is connected. Experiments prove that white ants 
are controlled not only by their own individual mentality, but by a com- 
munal or group-mind as well, without an organic connection or outward 
touch. If a part of the nest is entirely isolated by a sheet of galvanised 
iron, under ordinary circumstances, the work will go on as usual. But 
if the queen is removed from the main body on one side of the iron, 
-within three minutes, the ants on the other side, though completely 
isolated, will stop all work, and a complete cessation of their normal 
functions ensues. Normally, if the rest is disturbed, they will resent 
intrusion, and stoutly defend themselves, while the eggs will be carried 
into a place of safety. But on removal of the queen from one side of the 
division, the ants on the other side will no longer bite, or concern them- 
selves in any way with the eggs, and are completely demoralised. (Thus) 
We begin to understand that soul may exist (? comparatively) independ- 
ently of the (? any given) organism. The queen is nowise (no way) the 
source of the communal mind ; she is merely the physical medium 
through which its influence passes, and by which it is centralised. 
directed, and made effective:" Theosophist, March, 1923. Maurice 
Maeterlinck's book, The Life of the White Ant, gathers together a lot 
of very interesting information, of much value for psychology and philo- 
sophy. See also the description of Myxomycetes. in H. G. Wells' 
Science of Life. pp. 301-304 (edn. of 1938). 


NOTE. It is necessary to make distinction, to a certain 
extents, for the practical purposes of the daily life of the 
body, between atom and cell, animate and inanimate, organic 
and inorganic, species and species, kingdom and kingdom 
(mineral, vegetable, animal, human, and others), unicellular 
and multicellular, individual and individual, soul and vehicle 
(*.., instrument, means, of irn-pression and ex-pression, of 
sensation and action), psyche and physique, body and mind, 
Spirit and Matter. But it is impossible to make the distinc- 
tion radically, for the metaphysical purposes of the eternal 
life of the mind (soul, Self). That life includes all past, pre- 
sent, and future, and the mind ranges over it all, at will, in 
any order it pleases, to and fro, without limitations of time- 

The above chapter attempts to set for the such ideas in 
terms of a few main triads and their sub-divisions. The 
plain reason is that distinction and even separateness are 
inseparable from the changeful and limited ; while in the 
Changeless and Unlimited, none such are possible ; since all 
change and all limits are within that Changeless One Self. 

Readers who would like to have further support of physi- 
cal science for the fact that individuals, species, kingdoms 
etc., merge into each other, may usefully read H. G. Wells* 
The Science of Life, (written jointly with his son Prof. G. P. 
Wells and Prof. Julian Huxley ; revised edition, 1938), and 
Arthur Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Idea, and 
Eduard von Hartmann's The Philosophy of the Unconscious^ 
(both published in the English and Foreign Philosophical Libr- 
ary Series) ; or other later works describing evolution of the 
several kingdoms. The books named are exceedingly interest- 
ing and very informing because of the abundant examples 
they give from plant and animal life. One or two may be 

14 For most of its life a slime-mould, Myxomycetes l is a 
naked slimy mass of protoplasm like a gigantic amoeba . . . 
Its motion is so slow as to be barely perceptible ; nevertheless, 
it creeps with an appearance of appetite and purpose . . . The 
final large plasmode is in reality a union of hundreds of dancing 
swarm-spores that have completely merged their individuality 


into one shapeless gelatinous sheet. Imagine that whenever 
two people meet each other in the street, they run together 
into one blob, as drops of water run together, so that ulti- 
mately the whole population of a town is rolled up into a 
gigantic mass of living substance that creeps about like a 
single creature ; that is the sort of thing that happens as a 
matter of course in the life-history of a slime-fungus : The 
Science of Life, pp. 301-304. 

" We see that all the marks which have been set up on 
different sides as decisive " (of distinction between vegetable 
and animal) " do not hold, such as partial or total locomotion, 
spontaneous movement, morphological and chemical differ- 
ences, mouth and stomach . . . Plant and animal have some* 
thing distinct, somewhat in common. . . . and we may fairly 
well collect the total of common characters, if in both king- 
doms we descend down the scale of organisation, until we 
come to those structures where the differences disappear, and 
essentially only the common element remains ... In this 
common element sensation and consciousness is still included ; 
the lowest vegetable organisms possess sensation and con- 
sciousness ; . . . we " (are therefore) " warranted in ascribing 
to the higher plants also, a similar, but higher, measure of 
sensation and consciousness : " The Philosophy of the Un- 
conscious, pp. 145-146. 

"In the Mediterranean there is a rich family of splendid 
swimming-polyps. A young polyp is developed from an egg. 
It begins life freely floating in the sea. At its upper end it 
forms a bubble, in which the air is set free which supports it ; 
at its lower and there are formed . . . feelers and prehensile 
threads ... On its stem, which is continually elongating, 
there is formed a filtering tube. From this stem arise bud- 
like shoots. Some of them form swimming-bells, which 
propel themselves, and consequently the whole mass. The 
others are metamorphosed into fresh polyps, which possess 
mouth and stomach, and not merely collect, but also digest 
food for the whole, to deliver it finally into the trunk-tube. 
Finally, yet other buds attain a nettle-like aspect, and provide 
for propagation; they bring forth ova, from which again 
proceed freely-floating polyps. Special polyps with long 


sensitive tactile threads represent the sense organs or the 
intelligence of the state. What is here individual ? . . . 
Whoever holds fast to the ' either-or ', such an example must 
reduce to desperation ; but we see in the several members, 
individuals partly of polyp-form, partly medusoid, and, in the 
whole, an individual of higher order which includes in itself 
all these individuals. Even in the bee- and ant-hive there is 
nothing wanting to complete the view of the whole as an 
individual of higher order but spatial unity, i.e., the continuity 
of the form ; here this likewise is present, and therefore the 
individual is indisputable. This widespread phenomenon in 
the animal and vegetable kingdom of a varied physiological 
development of morphologically originally similarly construct- 
ed individuals of the same species is termed Polymorphism " : 
Op. cit., 196-198. 

Such instances make possible a new and literal (not only 
metaphorical) interpretation of the VJda, and Gl{a verses 
which describe ' p u r u s h a ' (jiva, self, ' person ') as ' thou- 
sand-headed, thousand-eyed, thousand-footed, thousand- handed, 
thousand-stomached '. 

As to plants possessing sensation and consciousness, 
ancient and modern testimony has been quoted on pp. 335-336 
above. Fuller text is given below : ' Their color changes and 
flower and fruit shrivel and even fall off, at touch of great 
heat ; therefore plants have the sense of touch. Roar of 
wind and crash of thunder also cause flower and fruit to fall ; 
therefore plants hear. Creepers move about in many directions 
and twine themselves round trees ; therefore they see. Frag- 
rant incense of various kinds promotes their healthy growth ; 
foul smoke and acrid smells make them diseased or even kill 
them ; therefore plants smell. They drink up water by their 
roots, and thrive if it is wholesome ; or become diseased or 
even die if it is otherwise ; therefore plants have the sense of 
taste. As a man, (by will) may suck up liquid through a 
pipe from below upwards, so do plants ; (therefore they have 
will). Because they feel pleasure and pain, because their parts, 
cut off, grow again, therefore, clearly, plants have j l v a-life. 
A-c haitanyam na v i d y a t , there exists nothing which 
is devoid of the principle of consciousness : ' Mbh., Shanti- 
parva, ch. 182, Kumbakonam edn. ; or 184 in the older 


Bombay edn.). Arguments very similar to these will be 
found in Von Hartmann's book, to prove that animalcules 
have the sense of sight, hearing, touch, etc. ; and also 
memory. And once memory is admitted, all the rest of 
intelligence, even the power of introspection, ( of course in 
germ ) has to be admitted also. It stands to reason, that 
only that can evolve and develope into man and higher, which 
is already present in germ and seed in the primal cells of 
vegetable and mineral life. 



AFTER the above general treatment of the Jiva-atom we 
may now take the two aspects of it separately and in a 
little more detail. Of these two we may dispose of the 
4 particular ', the atom-aspect, first, and leave for later 
treatment the other aspect of the * individual/ the jlva, 
discussion of which is the main purpose of the rest of this 
work ; reference to only the material side of life being made 
as necessary to explain and illustrate the spiritual side. 

First, attributes common to jlva and atom, viz., size, 1 
life, and vibration, may be further particularised with 
respect to the atom. 2 

1 The significance of ' size ' in reference to jiva is explained at 
outset of next chapter. 

Compare 5f!fcHn?-*ft*TT:, Yoga-sKtra, ii. 13, i.e., 'species or 
type (by birth), life-period (total life-time), and experience (as a whole, of 
pains and pleasures in varied settings). Also 3?3T-3pM>P3Sfc*Tr, as des- 
criptive of *{^ct. of Bh&gavaja. Ill, v. 28 ; Shricjhara's Tika explains 
these as (a) c h id-am s ha, principle of consciousness (broadly corres- 
ponding to bhoga of the Yoga-Sutra), (b) of triple attributes (j a |i). 
(c) of kshobhaka, kalayfta, 'stirring', 'disturbing', 'agitating 1 , 
* moving ', ' instigating ' time (a' y ). 


Size, in this reference, may be said to break up into 
the triplet of ' bulk or volume,' 4 shape or form,' and 
4 measure, magnitude, or dimension/ which includes both 
the others. These again may be looked at as ' large, 
small, average, 1 ' long, round, ovoid/ ' linear, superficial, 
cubical/ etc.! 

A hypothesis may be advanced here as to form. 

It has been said above that, under stress of the 
necessity embodied in the logion, e tats, this-es, appear 
in pseudo-infinite number as constituent points of mani- 
fold Mula-prakrti. It has also been said that, by that 
same necessity, they are never actually points without 
magnitude, but always points with magnitude, with de- 
finite volume, form, and measure, and are therefore 
atoms. Atoms would be without these if Etat were 
not limited. But Etat is limited, consequently they 
must have these. And if they must have these, or, rather, 
as is enough to say, form (for all three are only different 
ways of looking at the same thing, measure being limita- 
tion pure and simple, while form is limitation from out- 
side, and volume is limitation from within), the sphere 
ought, apparently, to be their primal form, because it is 

1 The view, here suggested, is that ' a-toms ' (non-divisible) have a 
definite size ; that the size varies for different systems or planes : that the 
subtler interpenetrate the denser, in an indefinite series. With reference 
to the new ideas that have come into western physical science, regarding 
the make-up of atoms, by electrons, neutrons, plutrons, positrons, etc., 
triplets of words, in terms of these, may be coined, correspond- 
ing with those in the text. The shapes produced by the whirling of 
electrons have been named ' harmonograms ', But it is quite possible 
that all these new views and terms may change or even disappear 
altogether. The simpler ones, of the text above, have lasted long, and 
seem likely to last longer. Primitive animalcules have outlasted the 
saurians. ' 


the only universally non-arbitrary form. A form which 
embodies the essence of * pointness J -*-that it is the 
same, fiowever looked at can only be a sphere, 
which presents the same appearance or feel from 
whatever side it is seen or felt. Of course the law 
of non -arbitrariness requires and necessitates the exist- 
ence of all possible pseudo-infinite kinds of forms and 
figures in the World -Process, but the difference between 
the non-arbitrariness of the sphere on the one hand, and 
that of ' all possible figures ' on the other, is the difference 
(if such an expression may be used without fear of mis- 
understanding) between Pratyag-atma on the one hand, 
and the pseudo-infinite contents of Its consciousness, the 
varieties of Not-Self, on the other. Pratyag-atma is 
everywhere and always, but the contents of Its consci- 
ousness, made up of interminable and intermixing not- 
selves, are in definite times, spaces, and motions ; so the 
sphere (when we abolish the periphery of limitation) may 
be said to have its centre potentially everywhere and 
always, while its contents all possible figures m?ide up 
of the numberless interlacing radii, interlacing because 
the centre is everywhere, each corresponding to a not-self 
are only in definite times, spaces, and motions. 
Because of this fact, most figure-symbology represents 
the self-centred Pratyag-atma as the 'point;' differentiated 
Matter Spirit Matter, as the 'diameter-line,' or the 
cross of two diameters, or two interlaced ' triangles' ; and 
the whole, the Absolute, as the ' circle '. The line, 
or cross of two lines, or double triangle, and the circle* 


are used to meet exigencies of script, in place of 
what strictly ought to be the star of three lines cros- 
sing at right angles at their middle, and the sphere, 
respectively. The * point ' should stand for Pratyag-atma ; 
countless ' radii * for Mula-prakrti ; and the ' sphere ' for 
Param-atma, including both, and being the ' Same ', al- 
ways, ever, everywhere, however looked at ( the circle or 
disc varies, f.i., the moon ) ; but solids cannot be 'written* 
on paper easily. The correspondence of the point and the 
line to Self and Not-Self respectively should be noted, and 
may prove of use hereafter. It may seem at first sight 
that there is no gftch opposition between point and line as 
there is between Self and Not-Self, inasmuch as a line 
is only a production, is prolongation, of a point. But 
the opposition is there. From all that has gone before, 
it will be clear that Not-Self is nothing independent of 
Self, nothing else that a production and a lengthening, a 
limitation and definition, of Self, that is to say, a going 
of the immovable Self out of Itself into a denial, a 
negation, of Itself. Even so, lines are the first denial of 
the non-magnitude of the point ; and out of such denial, 
all the endless multiplicity of figures grows in the 
Metaphysic of Negation, i.e., Mathematics, as all the 
endless multitude of hot-selves grows out of the denial of 
Self in the complete Metaphysic. In describing these 
imaginary lines, by rushing to and fro, the point 
without magnitude may be said to be seeking to define 
itself, to give itself a magnitude, even as Self appears 
to define itself by entering into, by imposing upon itself, 


imagined not-selves, and saying, ' I am this,' * I am this '. 
Points in juxtaposition make a line ; but if they have no 
magnitude, how can they juxtapose ! 

Corresponding to this triple sub-division of * size ', 
we may note a triple subdivision under ' duration ' also. 
The words in this reference have not such a recognis- 
ed standing as those connected with size. But we 
may distinguish ' period,' corresponding to form as 
limited from without ; ' filling ' to volume, as limited from 
within ; and ' rate,' as limitation proper, corresponding to 
measure. Each of these again manifests as ' long, short, 
average,' ' well-filled, ill-filled, occupied*, (or * crowded, 
scattered, leisurely arranged '), ' fast, slow, even,' etc. 

We may similarly distinguish under vibration 
(tentatively, as in the case of duration) the three aspects 
of * extent, rate, and degree, 9 and subdivide each of these 
three again into ' great, little, mean,' * high, low, even,' 
and * intense, sluggish, equable,' etc. 

In the above-mentioned arrangements of triplets we 
see illustrated the fact that all things of the World - 
Process fall into groups of three in accordance with the 
Primal Trinity that underlies and is the whole of the 
universe. 1 And these groupings are not mechanical or 

1 The Kashmir school of ' Shaiva f philosophy, some works of which 
have been published, recently, is also known as that of the Philosophy of 
the Triad. fST3> 3$*TO The main ideas of the present work appear to 
be very much in accord with that Philosophy. The importance of triads 
is amply recognised in familiar Samskrt literature also ; thus 

fir* star:, ft-*r \*t:, frsr firar, few 


empirical but organic. It may appear to the cursory 
observer that there is no * why f apparent in them. But 
the * why ' is there, and in a very simple way too. Each 
member of a trinity reflects in itself each of the three 
and so produces three trinities ? and this process is a 
pseudo-infinite one ; hence the whole content of the 
World-Process is only a pseudo-infinite number of groups 
of such triads. All these, it must be remembered, are 
simultaneous from the standpoint of the Absolute, and do 
not grow one out of another in time. If we would know 
why there is such a thing as this reflection, we should 
reconsider the arguments in the preceding chapters, 
whereby the necessity of both changelessness and change, 
of timelessness and time, spacelessness and space, 
simultaneity and succession, unity and diversity, 
reality of non-separateness and false appearance of 
separateness and distinguishability, are established. The 

ft: f 

1 Three kinds of gifts, sacrifices, worlds or planes, gods, sciences, 
paths (after death); past, present, future ; dharma-artha-k&ma; 
prSpa-apana-ud ana ; three g upas; three ultimates or elements. 
fires; Vtdas states of consciousness all these are indicated by the 
three-lettered AUM,' 


three are one, and yet three ; and the result of this 
apparent antinomy is that they reflect each other ; each 
carries the image of the others in its very heart, to prove 
its oneness with it ; and all do this endlessly. 

To show that these endless multiplications, seem- 
ingly so tangible in their multitude, are, in reality, 
on close scrutiny, found to be very unsubstantial, we 
may consider a little more fully what has been paren- 
thetically hinted above, (on p. 358), viz., that volume 
and form mean the same thing. Form is nothing else 
than a negation of continuity, a denial, a limitation, a 
cutting short of continued existence on all sides. Volume 
means evidently the same thing looked at from within ; 
it is an inability to extend further. Hence only are form 
and volume liable to change. If they were anything real, 
actual, having being, then how could they change, i.e., 
pass from being into nothing and from nothing into 
being ? ' There is no being to that which really is not, 
nor non-being to that which truly is.' ' But such change 
is apparent every second, every millionth of a second, of 
our lives. The solution lies in the fact that, in all change, 
what really changes is only mere form (and it will appear 
on analysis that all other aspects or qualities of the atom 
are also on the same level with form), which is simply 
negation looked at as above ; and that what remains 
behind is the pseudo-thing-in-itself, the * substance * 
which is * indestructible,' the essence of which we regard 
as ' resistance '. Resistance is nothing else than the 

' 6I(A f ii, 16. \ , 


power of attraction and repulsion embodied in a not-self, 
an etat, as exclusiveness, separateness, separate self- 
maintenance. It is the reflection of the affirmative- 
negative, attractive-repulsive, Energy of Ichchha-Desire 
in the Self. This ' resistance,' ' self-maintenance,' at ma- 
d h arana, like desire (of which indeed it is but another 
name, in the objective language belonging to the atom, 
as distinguishable from the subjective language belonging 
to the jlva), 1 has no overt form of its own, and therefore, 
in a strict and abstract sense, never changes, remaining 
ever the same in totality. It is the Energy which physical 
science recognises as remaining constant in the universe. 
Its overt form is the multitude of changing forms and 
actions. And yet again, lest it should be said that even 
form is after all not pure and utter negation, but has an 
4 appearance ' at least, has an e#-is-tence, outer-being, 
and so should not be -capable of destruction, the law 
makes provision for this also, and ordains that no form, 
however ephemeral, shall be destroyed beyond recall. 
As it has only pseudo-being, so it shall not have fixed- 
ness, but it shall have unending possibility, and therefore 
actuality, of recall and repetition. The remarks that 
apply to ' forms ' apply also- to * actions,' ' motions/ 
c movements,' which constitute the essence of change. 

We see thus that these reflections add nothing to 
the primal trinity, but are included in it. Their details 

1 In this consideration is to be found the reason why cT*T:, 

tf?:, ?^r, r^fa:, S^srftR:, awrfa:, 

etc., are allied terms, more or less interchangeable. 


constitute all the universe, and may not be comprehended 
by any single individual mind and in any single 
particular book, however large they may be. As the 
extent of these is, such will be the amount of detail 
comprehended. But the main principles may be grasped ; 
and new details as they are brought forward by empirical 
experience, may be classified and put away, as a matter 
of convenience, in accordance with those main principles. 

We may conclude this line of observations by 
noticing another series of triplets, very important in itself, 
and also illustrative in a high degree of the principle of 
reflections and re-reflections. 

The attributes, size, life, and vibration, common to 
both aspects or halves of the jiva-atom, all considered 
with special reference to the primal, twofold (or threefold) 
motion of alternation involved in Negation, which con- 
stitutes the swing of the World- Process, yield us these 
parallel triplets, viz. : 

(1) ' increase, decrease, and equality ' in respect of 
matter ; and ' liberality, narrowness, and tolerance ' in 
that of spirit ; 

(2) * growth, decay, and continuance * in respect of 
body ; and ' pursuit, renunciation, and indifference or 
equanimity,' in that of soul ; 

(3) * expansion, contraction, and rhythm ' in respect 
of the sheath ; and ' pleasure, pain, and peace,' in that 
of the jiva. 

We may also note that, in special relation to Mula- 
prakrti, the triplet of size, etc., takes on the form of 


' quantity, quality, and mode '. Its transformation with 
reference to Pratyag-atma also may be described by the 
same three terms in the absence of other well-recognised 
ones, though the difference of connotation in the two 
cases is great ; for they cover the different triplets men- 
tioned by Kant under the heads of quantity, etc., in 
connection with the ' categories ' and with ' logical 
judgments ' respectively. 

We may now proceed, in the second place, to 
specify the attributes that appear in the atom with 
reference to the primary attributes of Mula-prakrti. 

These are : 

(a) Dravya, substance, or dravya-tva, substantiality, 
mass, power of self-maintenance, that which constitutes 
it a something having a separate existence ; that which 
makes it ' capable of serving as the substratum of move- 
ment,' ' capable of being moved ' ; the immediate mani- 
festation of this substance, this ' compacted energy \ 
being movement ; 

(6) Guna, all ' qualities ' whatsoever, (not the ' three 
attributes of Mula-prakrti) ; and 

(c) Karma, activity, vibration, incessant movement. 1 

g<n, 3*$ \ 5fag, or $refr, after, *W, ' that 

which can be ' driven ' about, moved from place to place. Skt. g r u 
means ' to run, to <*n-ve 

These three terms belong specially to the Vaisheshika-system of 
Indian philosophy, which deals with this part of metaphysic predomin- 
antly ; but as with most of the other Samskr.t words used in this work, 
so with these, though they themselves are more or less current, yet the 
connotations that have been put into them here would often not be quite 
recognised, in some cases would perhaps be repudiated, by the authors of 


This triplet of dravya-guga-karma, substance-quality- 
movement, is, as already indicated, a reflection and 
reproduction of more primal triplets. The mergence of 
Pratyag-atma and Mula-prakrti, producing the jlva-atom, 
also reproduces therein their two triplets of attvibutes in 
this most familiar and therefore most important form. 
Sattva-rajas-tamas become respectively transformed into 
guna-karma-dravya ; and sat-chit-anancja jespectively 
into kriya-jfiana-ichchha ; which again correspond to 
karma-guna-dravya respectively. Jnana, ichchha, and 
kriya will be treated of in the next section, in Connection 
with the jlva-portion of the jiva-atom. 1 

(i) Guna, then, is that in the atom which corres- 
ponds to the elements of chit or cognition, an$ sattva or 
cognisability, in Pratyag-atma and Mula-praktti respec- 
tively. It is the qualities of matter which falone we 
know and can know, and never the thing-in-itself, as that 
expression is used by western psychologists and philoso- 
phers; for that thing-in-itself, so far as it hasja being at 
all, a pseudo-being, as substance, (which holds together 
or possesses the qualities), is the object of desire and not 

most of the current Samskr,t works in which they are to be met with. 
The present writer believes, however, that these, are the real original 
connotations, and that they were lost with the growth of the spirit of 
separateness and selfishness in the people, and the consequent gradual 
loss of the deeper Metaphysic which unified, and organised the various 
systems of philosophy as different chapters t>f a" single work ; clues to 
which Metaphysic, it is endeavoured to rediscover in these few pages, 
all too poor and fragmentary as they are. See Pranava-vada. 

1 Hints and more or less veiled statements, regarding these corres- 
pondences, are scattered over Dtvl-Bhtlgavata, especially in Pts. III. 
vi ix, VII. xxxiii., and IX, 1, and are also to be found in Kapila- 
Ctt& and works on Tantra-Shas^ra. 


of knowledge ; * as its movements are the object of, i.e., 
can be changed by, action. Guna may be subdivided 
again into three classes : (a) mukhya, chief, vyavar^aka 
or vish^shaka, distinguishing or differentiating, svabhavika 
or prakrtika, natural, asadharana, uncommon or special 
or essential i.e., proper-ties, characteristics, differentia, 
propria, e.g., special sensuous properties, sound, touch, 
colour, taste, or smell, etc., which would from part of 
de-fini-tions ; (b) gauna, secondary, akasmika, accidental, 
sadharana or samanya, common, or non-essential (or 
non-demarcating) i.e., qualities, which would form part 
of de-scrip-tions ; and (c) dharma (active), functions, 
lakshana, attributes, signs, marks, which would generally 
include both ; for, in reality, distinction between essential 
and accidental rests only on greater or less persistence in 
space, time, and motion. 8 We might perceive again in 
this triplet a general correspondence to Self, Not-Self, 
and Negation, and also to cognition, desire, and action, 

It may be observed that demarcating and non- 
demarcating qualities are only relatively such. A quality 
which is non-distinguishing as between individuals of the 

1 A ' thing ' is known only* by its qualities ; to speak of a 
4 thing-in-itself * apart from qualities and seek to know it as 
such, is self-contradiction and self-stultification. The One 
and Only Thing-in-It-Self that knows (or better, is aware of) 
It-Self, apart from (indeed, by repudiation of) all qualities, is 
the Supreme Self, Patem-Atmd. 



same species, is distinguishing as between that species 
and other species. This fact only illustrates further, the 
fluidity which is continual in the higher regions of the 
subtle mental plane. 

With reference to (a), we may note that, in the 
human race, only five senses are working at the present 
time ; and hence we have the five well-known sense- 
properties, or sens-able properties, tan-matras, 1 under the 
sub-head of * essential '. Varieties of each of these again 
are many, and if we had the necessary information as to 
details, we should be able to throw these into triplets, 
corresponding with and reflecting each other endlessly. 

r t The word may be grammatically construed to mean, both, 
'that only', (a near approach to ' thing- in-or-by-itseif ' !) and 'the 
measure of that ' (i.e., that which measures, de-limits, de-fines an object). 
There is much obscurity as to the exact meaning of the word, in the 
current works of Sankhya-Yoga, to which it belongs principally as a 
technical term. But the way in which it is used in Bhagavata. Ill, v and 
xxvi, makes it certain that it means the essential property which belongs to, 
and distinguishes, each of the ' five elements ', maha-bhutas or ta^tva-s. 
Thus, shab4a-matram, ' sound only ', ' pure sound ', ' sound-continuum ', 
is the property of akasha-tattva (Pether) ; sparsha-matram, ' tact only ', 
' tact continuum '. of vayu-air (invisible ' gas ') ; rupa-matram, 'color- 
form only ', ' light-continuum ', of tejas-fire (visible luminous ' gas'); rasa- 
ma|ram, ' taste only ', ' taste-continuum ', of jala- water (' liquid ') , and 
gandha-matram, 'odour only', ' smell-continuum ', of prthvi-earth (solid). 
' Shut ' the ' ear ', ' skin ', ' eye ' ' tongue ' ' nose ', and you will feel 
some continuous sound, tact, light, taste, scent ; these are the sense- 
continua, all-pervasive, generic ; .particular sensations of sounds, tacts, 
etc., are only particular modifications of these; as the words that are 
being wntten are particularisations of the ink-in-general which fills the 
ink-bottle or the fountain-pen's ink-holder. Note that t a t - 1 v a means 

One more observation is needed. There is obscurity and confusion in 
the current books (even in Bh&gavaja itself, in this very ch. III. xxvi.) 
as to the word which stands for the substrate of sound and that which 
means space. Synonyms for the letter are often used for the former. But 
there is reason to think that a k & s h a h (masculine) means the element 
(? ether) which, as substratum, has the property of sound; while 
a k a s h a m (neuter) means Space. 


Thus, under sound, we have : soft (in tone or timbre), or 
harsh, low (in pitch) and grave, or high (-pitched) and 
acute, loud, rounded, shrill, sonorous, deep, light, heavy, 
even, piercing, rolling, crackling, bursting, tearing, 
thunderous, whistling, screaming, roaring, rushing, dash- 
ing, moaning, groaning, rasping, grinding, etc., sounds, 
Tacts are smooth, rough, even, silky, flowery, velvety, 
hard, soft, firm, cool, warm, damp, dry, clammy, moist, 
etc. Colours are white, black, red, yellow, blue, brown, 
golden, violet, orange, grey, green, purple, etc., with their 
endless shades and combinations. Tastes (' gusts ', 
relishes) are sweet, salt, acid, astringent, hot, bitter, acrid, 
pungent, putrid, etc. Smells or scents are fragrant, 
malodorous, stimulating, depressing, sulphurous, stinking, 
skunk-y, civet-like musky, saffron, sandal, khas, rose, jas- 
mine, violet, pSrijata, malati, sugandha-raja (the ' king of 
scents,' also called rajani-gandha the ' night-scent,)' 
lemon, lily, lotus, blooms of myrtle or henna, neem or 
tamarisk, mango, etc. 1 ' Flavors ' and ' savors ' are 
mixed tastes and smells which affect palate and nostril 
simultaneously. Sub-varieties of sensations must neces- 
sarily be countless in accordance with the countlessness 
of the objects of the senses; but humanity possesses 
definite names only for those that it uses and experiences 
most frequently. 

1 Mahd-bharata, Shanti-parva, ch. 182, enumerates nine kinds 
of smells, six of tastes, twelve kinds of forms and colours, twelve kinds of 
tacts, and seven kinds of sounds. Anugifd, ch. 35, repeats these, with 
slight variations : it gives ten kinds of smells and eleven of sounds. 
Popularly, seven kinds of sound (of the musical gamut) ; seven, of colour ; 
six, of taste, are recognised as gener-al. Of tacts and smells, no such 


(6) Non-essenjtial qualities are, by their very nature, 
more difficult to fix. They are, generally speaking, those 
which describe the relation and position of an object, to 
and amidst other objects ; thus, well-built, ill-built, near, 
distant, commodious, insufficient, etc. Many of the 
properties mentioned above as amongst essential, may, 
perhaps, on sifting, be found to be non-essential, or 
vice versa. Reference to the purpose in hand decides 
generally whether a quality is non-essential or otherwise. 

(c) Attributes, partaking of the characters of both, 
may be instanced as ' heat, cold, temperateness,' * light- 
ness, heaviness, weightiness, softness, hardness, firmness, 
plasticity, rigidity, elasticity, pressure, suction, support, 
etc.,' ' shape, size, duration,' etc. These attributes have 
an obvious reference to the latent and patent aspects of 
energy, and to Negation ; as the others, properties and 
qualities, have to the Self-in-itself, and to the Not-Self 
as Many, respectively. Such considerations are capable 
of endless elaboration, which, however, has no special use* 
But it may be generally useful to pair them off 
in opposites, as loud and low (sounds), vivid or bright 

numbers are commonly spoken of. Weavers of the world-famous 
Kashmir shawls are said to be able to distinguish three hundred colors 
and shades with the naked eye. In North India, salesmen of perfumes, 
(for the manufacture of which, the towns of Jaunpur and Ghazipur in the; 
U. P. are famous), go about with boxes holding a dozen, or a score, or 
more, of glass phials, each containing a different kind of scent. Musk 
is good for use in cold weather ; rose, khas (scented grass which grows 
in speeial marshes in Gorakhpur in the U. P.). bela (a variety of jasmine), 
in hot weather. Some are good for all weathers. M. W. Calkins, An 
introduction to Psychology, (p. 60), quotes Zwaardemacker (a Dutch 
physiologist) as recognising the following classes of smells : ethereal, 
aromatic, fragrant, ambrosiac, alliacious, empyreumatic, hircine, viru- 
lent, and nauseating. To the Many-ness of Nature-Mdlaprakfti there 
is no limit ! 


and faint (colors), hot and cold (tacts), fragrant 
arid malodorous (smells), agreeable and disagreeable 
(tastes) ; corresponding to the primal pair of pleasure 
and pain. 

From the psychological standpoint, we may note in 
passing, every sense -property is something sui generis, 
on the same level 'and side by side with every other* 
As sense-properties, all are equal and independent, 
and none is grosser or subtler than any other, whence 
the current saying : * The musk's fragrance cannot be 
made to be realised by any amount of oaths and 
affirmations ' } ; i.e., it must be smelt personally to be 
known. 8 Thus each sense-property, and each shade 
of it, must be experienced directly in order to come 
within the precise cognition and recognition of any 
jlva. This is the manyness, the separateness and ex- 
clusiveness, of sensations. The remarks made and 
figures given at p. 458, vol. v, of The Secret Doctrine 
(Adyar edn., 1938) will be found very suggestive in this 
connection ; and, read together with what has gone 
before, may help to show some consistency in the ap- 
parently very inconsistent statements made on this 
subject in Purayas. Thus, it is declared that in our 
world-system, the first ' element ' to come forth (to say 
nothing of the still earlier adi or mahat taftva, and 

1 *ff| $<R[(farST*fa: OTfa f^T 8 ^ 1 

3 It will be seen that, in this sense , not only is Absolute Brahnut 
' indescribable ' (see p. 148, supra) but every experience whatsoever. 


anupadaka or buddhi tattva, 1 which are only vaguely 
alluded to here and there) was akasha (ether) with the 
guna of sound ; then vayu (air), with the guna of touch ; 
then fire (agni), with light and form and colour ; then 
water (apas), with taste ; and, lastly, earth (kshiti), with 
smell ; and it is added that each succeeding one was 
derived from the next preceding, and retained the property 
or properties of its originator, besides developing its own 
special property. 2 Again, it is said in Puranas that the 
order of evolution of the elements and properties is 
different in different cycles, maha-kalpas, of this and 
other world-systems. It is also said that the number of 
the elements and corresponding senses and sensations 
differs actually (as Voltaire fancied in his Zadig et 
Micr omegas) in different worlds, there being eighteen in 

or JT?^ 3?3 3J3PWB or fclr^ I In theosophical 

literature, the order given is usually adi, then anupadaka, then akasha, 
etc., Pranava-vada says adi-tattva is the same as buddhi-tattva, and 
anupadaka as mahat-tattva. In current Sankhya works, however, 
aham-kara is called bhu>aqli, and it is born from mahat which is the 
same as buddhi. 

2 It is scarcely necessary to point out that the words earth, water, 
fire, air, ether, here, do not mean the substances ordinarily understood 
by them in the English language. In ancient Indian thought, Con- 
sciousness is the basic fact, the psychical factor is primary, and 
the physical is secondary ; therefore moods of mind are regarded as 
'creators, 1 evolvers, of modes of matter; each peculiar sensation 
or sense-able quality, tan-ma^ra, smell, taste, etc., evolves a corres- 
ponding bhuta or tattva, prithivl or kshiti (earth), apas or jala 
(water), etc., i.e., the primary atomic aspect thereof (vide Sankhya and 
Vaishgshika works). 'Categories' are very fully dealt with in Vaishc- 
shika philosophy, under six main heads, 4 ravva (substance), gupa 
(attribute), karma (movement), sSmanya (universality), vishe*sha (parti- 
cularity), samavaya (co-inference) ; to which some writers have added 
a-bhava (non-existence). 


some, thirty-six in others, and so forth, 1 as there are only 

five known to us in this world. Such also seems to be the 
meaning of the statement that ' this world-system of ours 
is crowded round with infinite other systems governed 
by Brahmas having five, six, seven and more up to 
thousands of faces. 3 Still again, it is said, in the doctrine 
of panchl-karana, 8 ' quintuplication,' i.e., the mixing 
of each of the five tattvas with each of the other four in 
certain proportions, that, at present, each material object 
has in it all five elements, and, therefore, the possibility 
of being cognised by all five senses ; but the preponderant 
element gives it its best-recognised nature. As a fact 
we find that beings having different constitutions of 
the same sense, and the same being during different 
conditions of the same sense, receive different sensations 
from apparently the same sense object. Thus it is now 
recognised that certain rays that are dark to men are 
luminous to ants, and vice versa ; and objects that taste 
sweet during health, taste bitter during fever. 4 

1 Yoga-V&sishtha. 

2 Tripd,d-Vibhuji-Mahd,-Narayana Upamshat, vi. 

3 Pancha-dashi, i, 26-30, and Panchi-karana-vivarana. 

4 The element of truth in the theories as to ' natural names,' ' true 
names,' ' words of power. ' 'mantras,' etc., may be found in these con- 
siderations. Given a certain constitution of ear, and also given certain 
surroundings, each object, because of the presence of akasha-tat^va 
in it and in the surroundings and the ear, will affect that ear with a 
certain sound which will be its ' natural ' name. So with ' natural 1 
forms, smells, tastes, and tacts, of objects. But because there 
are no such ' absolute ' ears and ' absolute ' environments, but only 
varying ones, therefore there can be no ' absolutely ' natural names, etc., 
but only 'comparatively' such. To a particular race of men, living in 
a particular country and climate, the words of their particular scripture 
would be the most ' natural names,' ' words of power,' most effective for 


All this means again, in brief, that each atom, having 
in it the common guna of sense-cognisability, sens-ability, 
has also therefore in it what is necessarily included in this 
universal quality, viz., every possible particular guria ; but 
only one or some are manifest and others latent, in different 
conditions of time, space, and motion, to different jivas ; 
jivas being regarded as * lines of consciousness '. That is 
to say, one kind of atom will mean one thing at one time 

evoking the desired results in those climatic and other conditions ; to 
others, others. As we pass from the grosser or denser to the subtler, 
from the more concrete, particular, special, to the more abstract, 
in-de-nnite, general, the range and reach of the ' natural ' quality, etc., 
becomes more and more wide. * Bodies ' are very exclusive of each 
other ; even two cannot, each, take the whole of the same piece of 
edible ; but a million minds may be in unison in respect qf one thought, 
or feeling, or resolve. In the elemental ideas of mathematics and 
metaphysics, in the domains of the Mahan-a^ma or Mali at, Universal 
Mind, all jivas are of the ' same opinion ' ; in the regions of the vishesha- 
tattvas, they differ. As said in Charaka, I, i, (quoted before, on p, 283.) 
" Generalisation expands and enhances all bhavas, thoughts, feel- 
ings, things ; specialisation, particular! sat ion, narrows and contracts. " 
See also Yoga-Su{ra and Bhashya. ii, 19. 

Schopenhauer, on pp. 482-3 of vol. I of The World as Will and 
Idea (English translation in three volumes by Haldane and Kemp, 
pub. 1896), illustrates this same thought in another and fine way : 
"... The good conscience . . . arises from . . . the knowledge 
that our true self exists not only in our own person . . . but in every- 
thing that lives. By this the heart feels itself enlarged, as by egoism 
it is contracted. For, as the latter concentrates our interest upon the 
particular manifestation of our own individuality, . . . the knowledge 
that every thing living is just as much our own inner nature as is our 
own person, extends our interest to everything living ; and in this way 
the heart is enlarged. Thus, through the diminished interest in our 
own self, the anxious care for the self is attached at its very root and 
limited ; hence the peace, the unbroken serenity, which a virtuous 
disposition and a good conscience affords, and the more distinct ap- 
pearance of this with every good deed, for it" (deed) "proves to 
ourselves the depth of this disposition ". (Faith is witnessed by deed), 
" The good man lives in a world of friendly individuals, the well-being 
of any of whom he regards as his own/' Here, Schopenhauer has 
caught and described well, one aspect of the V<Janta reason for the 
Golden Rule of Ethics. For detailed exposition of this as well as other 
aspects, the reader may see the present writer's The Essential Unity 
of All Religions. 


and space to one kind of jlva, and will, simultaneously and 
in that same position, mean a pseudo-infinite number of 
things to pseudo-infinite other kinds of jivas ; and it will 
also mean pseudo-infinite kinds of things to the same kind 
of jlva in the pseudo-infinite succession of time and space* 

(ii) We may now turn to the karma-aspect of the 
atom, corresponding to the Sat and Rajas aspects of 
Pratyag-atma and Mula-prakrti respectively. 

It may at first sight appear that Sat-being, should 
correspond with dravya-substance rather than karma- 
movement. But if what has been said before, on the 
nature of Sat and Ananda, and of Rajas and Tamas, is 
carefully considered, it will appear that Sat properly 
corresponds to karma and not to dravya, * Being ' is 
what we are inclined to regard as the innermost, the most 
important, factor in the constitution of an object, because 
it appears prima facie to be the most permanent ; and 
dravya, as shown above, is such in the case of the atqm ; 
the idea therefore comes up strongly that dravya should 
be connected with " being '. But the first premise here 
is not accurate. It does not discriminate between ' being * 
and ' existence '. What is being, Sat, in Pratyag-at m 5, 
is ' ex-is-tence,' asti-Ja, ' outer-is-ness/ in Matter. And 
in Pratyag-atma (if such a distinction may be permitted 
where there is truly and strictly none possible, and where 
all are aspects and all absolutely equally necessary and 

To realise the awful powers of sound, consider the maddening skull- 
bursting effects that can be produced by magnifying radio-sounds. We 
can understand now how the walls of Jericho were destroyed by a 


important), Ananda-bliss, is even more * inner ' than 
1 being ' ; it is, so to say, the feeling of own-being ; the 
difference between a man looking at himself with eyes 
open and again with eyes shut. In this sense Ananda 
may be said to 'be even more ' being ' than is ' being ' 
itself. And karma, therefore, corresponds not to this 
innermost being of Ananda, but to the outer being, the 
existence, the manifestation of Sat. Existence, reality, 
appearance, manifestation, is all in and by action and 
movement. A very good physical illustration of this is 
the fact of natural history, that most insects, aquatic 
creatures, birds, quadrupeds, in wild life, are often so 
completely camouflaged by their protective colouring or 
markings that they are not distinguished at all from their 
surroundings, that they remain as it were non-existent, 
even when they are quite close to and right under the eye 
of the observer ; but become ' manifest ' at once, i.e., 
' existent,' with the slightest shake, motion, or action. * 

Having thus shown that karma represents Sat, we 
may proceed to note again that it is inseparable from the 
atom, is in fact one of its essential constituents. The 
consequence is that every atom is in unceasing motion. 

Karma falls also into three kinds : (a) expansion, 
prasarana (corresponding to the boundlessness of the 

1 Consider the ' puzzle '-pictures, ' find the parrot, monkey, lion '. 

The point has been much emphasised in a psychological reference 
by the distinguished psychologist, Prof. Ladd, of America, as it has been 
recognised by other Western psychologists that ' ' the deepest and most 
central current in human nature is the ruling passion *' (Hoffding, 
Outlines of Psychology, p. 283), with the additional words. ' as mani- 
festing in conduct ', being understood, for our present purpose. See 
Science of Emotions and Science of Self ; also p. 270, supra. 


Self), in-breathing, pra-shvasana or ut-shvasana; (b) 
contraction, akunchana (corresponding to the separated 
mutual repelling and restricting of not-selves), out-breath- 
ing, nishvasana ; (c) spandana or sphurana or an<Jolana, 
rhythmic vibration (or shvasana, in-and-out-breathing), 
corresponding to the (affirmative-) negation which sums 
up both movement and counter-movement in itself, and 
holds the two others together in the conjunction qf 
alternation. The gunas specially arising out of karma are : 
shighra-ta, quickness, manda-ta, slowness, and vga, or 
gati, speed, velocity, tempo. Minor varieties under each 
of the three are endless, as in the case of gunas : thus, 
rapid, slow, steady ; ur<Jbva-gamana, upward motion, 
adho-gamana, downward motion, tiryag-gamana, side- 
ways motion ; u{-kshepana, uplifting, apa-kshepana, 
repulsing or casting away, atana, wandering ; vertical, 
horizontal, oblique ; centripetal, centrifugal, circumambu- 
lant ; etc. 1 

(iii) Lastly we come to the dravya-aspect of the 
atom which represents the Anancja and Tamas aspects of 
Self and Not-Self respectively. It is the ' etat-ness,' the 
mere ' this-ness ' of the atom. It is that in the atom 
which is the ' heart ' of the thing, its substance, its 
inertia, its mass and weight and resistance, all that 

; 3!2T I ^R- 1 ?? or -3^3 ; ^-^ or 
; ^f^I^ft I Many of these occur in Vaishcshika-lists. 


makes it a something existing in and for itself, so far as 
it can have such a pseudo-existence-in-itself at all. It 
appears mysterious and unresolvable only when and if, 
after asking, ' What is this ? ', we try fallaciously to 
answer the question in terms of something else than guna 
and karma. The answer to that question must always 
be in terms of guna and karma ; or otherwise, merely the 
reiteration, ' It is a this. 9 Three aspects make up the 
fact of the atom idam, ' this ' (dravya), ittham, * such ' 
a this (guna), and evam, ' thus** is this acting (karma) ; ] 
and they can never be separated from each other. 

Dravya too may be subdivided into : (a) substances 
with positive weight (predominant), in the aspect of 
attraction, guru, heavy ; (b) those with negative weight 
(predominant), 2 in the aspect of repulsion, laghu, light, 
buoyant ; (c) those with inertia, dead weight, positive- 
negative or passive-active resistance to all change, 
self-maintenance in whatever condition the thing hap- 
pens to be, sthira, stable. 3 Subdivisions of these, as of 
others, 'are endless : mahat, bud<Jhi, akasha, vayu, t<jas, 
Spas, prthivi, solids, liquids, gases, ethers, metals, non- 
metals, organic, inorganic, minerals, vegetables, animal 
substances, etc. Some of the qualities arising out of 
these subdivisions have been already noticed before in 
the gunsu- aspect. 

1 TOL; ^^; W* 

9 See Dolbcar's Matter, Ether, and Motion, p. 91. 


We have seen that resistance is of the very essence 
and nature of dravy a- substance, and we see now that 
it has the dual form of attraction-repulsion. This makes 
further clear, if such clarification were needed, that 
<jravya represents the Ananda and Tamas aspects, which 
again correspond to the Shakti-energy of the first trinity* 
We desire a thing, we know its qualities, and we act 
upon, change or modify, its movements} 

The three subdivisions of dravya may also be 
regarded as corresponding, in the order in which they 
are stated above, to Self and Sattva, to Not-Self and 
Rajas, and to Negation and Tamas respectively. 

It will have been noticed by readers that the 
task, of expressing these correspondences precisely, 
becomes more and more difficult as we enter into greater 
and greater details and subdivisions, and the same triplet 
is repeated under more than one head. The aspects be- 
come gradually so, intermingled that they cannot be 
distinguished easily, and the assignment of triplets in a 
table of correspondences may naturally and reasonably 
vary, if the students differ in standpoint and in the 
amount of attention paid to each factor, some regarding 
one aspect as predominant, and others another. In this 
last case, for example, if attraction be regarded as active 
affirmation, attention being specially directed to the 
activity, and repulsion as passive and steady negation of 

1 See J. Ward, art, Psychology, in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
para 9. In Bhagava$a t the triad is frequently mentioned, of tfravya- 
jff&na-kriya, instead of ichchh&-jff&na-kriya ; (Jravya being obviously 
equated with ichchhS or desire. 


others, of manyness, then the two appear reasonably to 
correspond to Rajas or Not-Self, and Sattva or Self, 
respectively. But if attraction be regarded as unification 
of others with self, as se//-assertion over others, and 
repulsion as separation of others from self, as pushing 
away of others, then it would be right to say, as 
said above, that they correspond to Sattva or Self, and 
Rajas or Not-Self, respectively. Still again, if attention 
were paid to the fact that the unification of attraction, 
when it appears in the limited atom, is a false and not a 
true unification, that it is the assertion in reality of Not- 
Self, which is then only masquerading as Self (that it is, 
so to say, fostering the flesh at the expense of the spirit), 
while the separation of repulsion is the diminution of 
such a false self and therefore an advancement of the 
true Self, then we would go back to the corres- 
pondence of attractive weight with Not-Self, and of 
negative weight with Self. The^ view of this par- 
ticular correspondence put forward here as the main 
one, viz., of positive weight; to Self, of repulsive weight 
to Not-Self, and of inertia to Negation, proceeds 
upon the consideration that the fact of the unity 
and of the principle of unification present in the 
atom is more characteristic, in the present reference, 
than the fact that the atom is only masquerading as a 
one and a self. 

This should not confuse the careful student, but 
should only help him to look at every question from 
many sides and standpoints, and so recognise the 


harmonising elements of truth in each view, rather than 
the discordant elements of error. 

The laws previously ascertained apply to this triplet 
of aspects of the atom. As these three cannot be 
separated from each other, though, turn by turn, one is 
predominant and the others in the background, so the 
three subdivisions of each are also contemporaneous in 
this way ; that one appears to be more manifest from one 
standpoint, while another appears to be more prominent 
from another standpoint at the same time. This last 
statement applies especially to the subdivisions of (Jravya 
and karma. It is known that what is solid and 
immovable to one individual may be pliable as a liquid 
or a gas to another, and vice versa ; and, again, that what 
appears to be linear motion from one standpoint appears 
as rotatory or curved from another, and vice versa. Pro- 
vision for limitation, in time, space, and motion, for 
death and re-birth of these aspects of the atom, even 
in the midst of their presistent continuance, is made by 
the fact of change, absorption and transformation, of 
each into other kinds of gunas, karmas, and (Jravyas ; 
and, yet again, recovery of their previous condition, in an 
endless manner. Ample illustration of this will be found 
in physical science, in connection with the doctrines of 
pseudo-indestructibility of matter, pseudo-eternity and 
conservation of energy, and perpetual transformation of 
motion, showing how substances (energies proper), attri- 
butes, and vibration, are being constantly changed, all the 
while retaining possibility of recovering their older shapes. 



Concomitance of these three aspects, cjravya, 
guna, and karma, and, by inference, of all their sub- 
divisions, from the metaphysical standpoint of the whole, 
is especially important and significant to bear in mind. 
It will help to show the underlying truth in each, and 
reconcile all of t the many conflicting hypotheses of 
physical science. Thus : some hold the view that atoms 
are nothing substantial but only vortices, pure motion, 
vortices (one may fairly say) of nothing ; for even when 
the holders of this theory say that atoms are vortices 
of ether, they, in order to avoid an obvious petitio 
principii, or self-contradiction, take care to describe ether 
in terms the opposite of those used in describing matter ; 
and so practically reduce ether to nothing. Others say 
that they are substantial, whether they have or have not 
a vortical or other motion besides. So too, the first 
theory of light was corpuscular, that light is corpuscles ; 
then it was discarded in favour of the undulatory theory, 
that light is undulations ; with the discovery of new 
metals, radium, etc., and observations of their behaviour, 
the radiatory theory is being reinstated again. 1 So again, 
one extreme view is that all sensations are merely vibra- 
tions of the objects sensed, transmitted to animal nerves ; 
another extreme is that they have nothing to do with 
vibrations, (which may or may not be a parallel coinci- 
dent), but are things sui generis. Scientists who have 

1 The late Dr. Hubbe-Schleiden (of Dohren bei Hannover, Germany) 
suggested the following as a more exact statement of these theories : 
" 1. Light is emission of corpuscles (Newton). 2. Light is vibration of 
ether (Huyghens, Fresnel). 3. Light is emission of electrons. " 


trained themselves in philosophy also, as many are 
beginning to do now, look at the question impartially 
from both points of view ; and therefore readily see the 
defects of each extreme, and acknowledge that nothing 
yet known explains how a certain number of vibrations 
at one end of a nerve should appear as the sensation red, 
or blue, or yellow, at the other end of that nerve. The 
inconclusiveness of all such theories lies in their exaggera- 
tion, their one-sidedness, and their attempt to reduce all 
the aspects of the atom to only one aspect ; gunas and 
karmas to dravya only ; or dravyas and karmas to guna 
only ; or gunas and dravyas to karma only. The truth is 
that all three aspects are always and inseparably con- 
comitant ; that an atom is ever a something, an etat, 
a this, which has always a certain motion, a certain kind 
of vibration, which motion or vibration, again is always 
accompanied by a special sense-property. " The three 
aspects are inseparable and are the expression of all that 
happens in the physical world. Given one of the three 
in all its details, the other two would be known." ! 

A few more concrete, if somewhat cursory, observa- 
tions may be of use to illustrate the simultaneity and 
concurrence of all aspects of the atom. Thus, though, 
at the present stage of evolution, volume and form appear 
to be specially y indeed, even almost exclusively, connected 
with the sense of vision amongst all the senses, yet it is 

1 Max Verworn, General Physiology, p. 546 ; his three aspects, 
however, are " Substance, form; and transformation of energy ", form 
being substituted for sense-quality, and transformation of energy for 
motion ; not very different, after all. 


not so, in reality. Even the current usage which employs 
words having a spatial reference, in connection with all 
senses, shows this, and is not merely metaphorical. We 
speak of bulky or extensive or voluminous or massive 
sounds and touches and tastes and smells ; also of their 
forms. The words are so employed because of a fact in 
nature ; sounds, touches, tastes, and smells also have 
volume and form ; they belong to sense-objects, to 6tats, 
are in space, time, and motion. The words quantity, 
measure, magnitude, etc., apply to all sense-objects and 
with a clear meaning. Pitch and timbre of sounds; 
freshness or staleness, strength or weakness, insipidity 
and vapidity or acuteness and intensity of tastes ; light- 
ness or heaviness of touches ; sweet sounds, sweet sights, 
sweet scents, and sweet tastes ; beautiful voices, beautiful 
forms and colours, beautiful smells ; rough and smooth 
tones as well as touches ; all these are illustrations of 
the fact. 1 Because of such common features hiding 
behind diverse features, under guna as well as dravya and 
karma, is it possible to translate sensations of one sense 
"into those of another, under special circumstances and 
conditions, manipulation of which belongs to that region 
of science which is only gradually, with many set-backs, 
opening up to the public, under the names of hypnotism, 
mesmerism, animal magnetism, psychism, telepathy, 
clairvoyance, etc. Cases of psychics able to experience 
any sensation with or at any part of. the body are now 

1 Lists of sense-qualities given in Mahabh&raja, referred to in 
foot-note on page 287, supra, include many such. 


recognised by at least some scientists of note. The 
obscure Wdantic doctrine of quintuplication of the five 
tattvas or sense-elements, (p. 377, supra) seems also to 
refer to this subject. It seems to be the completion of 
the physics of the universe begun by Vaish6shika and 
Nyaya systems in their statements as to anu, atoms, 
dvyanuka, di-atoms, trasarenu, tri-diatoms etc.! This is 
not clear now in the absence of details, but the suggestion 
that they are such completion comes to one who ap 
proaches the old books in the spirit of the open-minded 
student, no less ready to see alliances than to note dif- 
ferences. Working at this suggestion and comparing the 
apparently conflicting statements in Pur anas, the student 
may succeed in making up some, at least provisionally, 
satisfactory system of the essential principles of chemistry, 
physiology, and cosmogony, pending knowledge of details 
through development of special faculty by yoga.' 

We see, then, that all three aspects run on inde- 
feasible parallels, even as thought, thing, and motion 
always accompany each other, though distinguishable ; 
and that change in any of the three will necessarily bring 
about a change in the other two also. In a sense, it is 
true, there should not be any change in the (Jravya ; a 
mere * this ' will remain only * this ' ; and cjravya 

079$, 3T59 I The last is explained in some books as tri 
diatoms, in others as tri-atoms. Modern science makes the ' atom ' 
more complex. 

* The student will find much help and suggestion on this point in 
theosophical literature generally, and in The Secret Doctrine of H. P 
Blavatsky and Ch. I of Ancient Wisdom of Annie Besant especially. 


constitutes the pseudo-permanent element in the atom ; 
yet, seeing that each 6tat is inseparably connected with a 
quality and a motion, it happens that there is, as com- 
mon observation shows, a sort of change of nature in the 
substance also. The substance is no longer recognised 
as the same. The energy has also changed its form. 
Water becomes gas, and people naturally and not un- 
reasonably say that the substance has changed, as well as 
motions and qualities. 1 In this sense, the tat-tva, ' that- 
aess,' the element, may properly be said to change* 
Rigorously speaking, there can be no change in mere, 
pure, ' this ' (dravya) ; but no more can there be any 
change in mere, sheer, ; such ' (guria), or in mere, ab- 
stract, 'thus' (karma). What changes is the particularised 
condition of each as limited and made concrete by neces- 
sary relativity to the others. 

We have now generally defined and described the 
three universal attributes of the atom. , Wherever an 
atom is, there must be present these three also. What- 
ever its variations, these must accompany it. Let us now 
try to find out something more about the variations of the 
atom generally. These variations will naturally be most 

1 The phenomena of allotropism and isomerism are illustrations. 
Views of chemical philosophers as to the development, one after 
another, in a ' periodic ' succession, of the various so-called ' elements ' 
out of one primal kind of root-matter, are also in accord with those 
propounded in the text above and in Puranas and Sankhya as to 
successive genesis, one from another, of the five maha-bhu|as. Compare 
also, G. W. de Tunzelman, A Treatise on Electrical Theory and the 
Problem of the Universe, (pub. 1910), p. 505 : " When the term energy 
is substituted for force, the V&Jic scheme of development becomes 
identical with the one which expresses the most recent developments of 
physical research, viz.. the Absolute or Eternal Self Consciousness 
MindEnergy Ether--Matter." 


prominently connected with guna-quality and karma- 
movement, though change in these will cause the appear-* 
ance of change in <J r avya-substance also* 

Under guna, we have inferred that in respect of form* 
corresponding to Not-Self, Stats, this-es, have, by reflec- 
tion of the unity and completeness of Self, one universal 
underlying form, the sphere, and a pseudo-infinity of 
other forms made up of the inter-mixture of points and 
lines. In respect of volume, corresponding to Self, the 
common fact is only this, that there must be ' bulk,' 
' triple-dimension/ ' extension,' some size ; and the detail 
is that the 6\a.t must have every possible size. Thus we 
have atoms of all possible sizes, * each size of atom (with 
corresponding other qualities, vibrations, substantial 
nature, etc.) constituting one plane of matter ; each plane 
constituting the 'outer' sheath, the material, -of a 
pseudo-infinite series of world-systems on the same level 
with each other ; and the next minuter size constituting 
the * inner,' ' spiritual ' or ' ideal ' counter-part and core 
thereof and therein. The case is the same with special 
qualities. The presence of some one quality, of * sense- 
cognisability,' is common and inevitable ; but there is no 
restriction as to what that must be. Reason and the 

' In order to see the element of truth in this very absurd-looking 
statement, the reader may read Fournier d'Albe's Two New Worlds. 
Yoga- V As is ht ha stories of worlds within atoms, and atoms within 
worlds again, ad infinitum, are made ' scientifically intelligible ' by this 
work ; see the present writer's Mystic Experiences or Tales from 
Yoga-V&sishtha. Pranava-V&da, of course, has much light to throw 
on this as on other points dealt with here. The scientific discovery of 
1 systems ' of ' electrons ' within each atom also helps \o explain and 
support the ideas of the text. 


law of non-arbitrariness require that the whole of all 
possible qualities must be present in the whole and every 
part of the World- Process, manifesting, of course, to any 
onejiva, only in succession. 

The main kinds of karma-movements of atoms may 
be deduced, as a tentative hypothesis, as follows. We 
have seen that the basic ultimate atom everywhere, in 
whichever world-system we take it, would be a sphere, 
though size and quality may vary ; for it is formed by 
the aham-consciousness revolving round itself in the 
circle of the log ion. But, existing side by side as spheres, 
the forces of approach and recess work between them, as 
mutual attraction and repulsion. Every atom endeavours 
to approach and recede from every other simultaneously. 
The same atom would attract as well as repel another at 
the same time. In other words, every atom would try 
to absorb another into itself for its own growth (corres- 
ponding to the intensification and expansion of the con- 
sciousness ' aham 6tat (asmi),' (' I-this-am) ', and at 
the same time to resist being absorbed into that other 
and losing instead of intensifying its own self-existence 
and identity. With attraction and repulsion coming into 
play, the self-revolving spheres would begin to move in 
straight lines towards or from each other. At this stage 
movements would become manifest. Before this, (from 
the standpoint of the particular world-system we may be 
in) the self-revolution would not be apparent as move- 
ment ; the atom would scarcely be apparent even as a 
something ; that there would be in it, even then, a 


necessary movement of self-revolution, would be only a 
metaphysically necessary assumption. The next stage 
would be, that, after one atom has secured and subordinat- 
ed another, absorbed it into itself, (the why and how of 
which may appear afterwards), the two together, making 
a line, would now fall into the self-revolving movement 
of the stronger, and the circular-disc movement would 
result. Lastly, the disc revolving on its own axis would 
become the sphere again, but a sphere, the sphericity 
and motion of which are manifest, instead of hypo- 
thetical! as in the condition of the primary atom. 
We may consider here that as the shortest line is 
composed of two atom-points, and the smallest disc 
must, be made of such a line circling around itself 
according to the motion of the stronger atom, so the 
smallest solid sphere should be made of at least, and also 
at most, of three such lines crossing each other at the 
middle and revolving round that point on the axis made 
by the strongest line. In other words, the manifest 
sphere would consist of three double-atoms. Such is 

1 The three movements, of (straight-line-running-to-and-fro) piston, 
{circling) wheel, (revolving) sphere, seem to be the only elementary 
movements, of which, all possible other motions, however complex, are 
made up. Nature appears formidably complicated ; but it is all only 
appearance, pretence, illusion ; to her persevering devotee she un- 
covers her simple Beauty, ' like a loving bride to a loving bride-groom ', 
jaya iva patyuh, ushatf su-vasHh. The most unravellably tangled up 
Skein of thread is still ravellable, given the needed unflagging per- 
severence ; because, obviously, the whole tangle is the twist ings, turn- 
ings, knottings, inter-lockings, of a simple straight thread. Electricity 
finds its way unerringly and instantaneously through the most inextricably 
tangled Gordian knot of wire which connects the switch and plug with 
the fan or lamp, And as electricity can, so can human fingers, if they 
are only sufficiently persevering ; for, obviously, however tangled the 
knot, it all is the twistings and turnings of only one single thread. 


perhaps the metaphysic underlying the vague available 
statements of Nyaya-Vaish6shika, as to diatoms being 
first formed from atoms, then tri-diatoms from diatoms, 
and the world our own world-system at least from 
them. 1 This order reproduces respectively, the Absolute, 
the duality of Self and Not-Self, and the triple duality 
(cognition-desire-action in soul and quality-substance- 
movement in body) of the jiva-atom the individual, the 
definite one (which most systems of numeral notation 
express by a line), formed by the junction of a self with 
a not-self. Intermixtures and modifications of these 
main movements, viz., linear, circular, and revolutional 
or spiral, make up the inevitable pseudo-infinite variations 
of movements in the World-Process. 

As to variations of the dravya-aspect, it has been 
said that they accompany variations of the other two. It 
need only be added that the greater the number and the 
more restricted the area of the rhythm-movements, the 
revolutions, of the atom and the derivative molecule, the 
more firm, rigid, gross, and exclusive and resistant for 
others, and attractive and insistent for themselves, they 
would become ; and per contra, the smaller the number 
and the wider the area of the movement, the subtler, 
more plastic and more evanescent, they would be. The 
atom of each world-system being regarded as repre- 
senting mere ' objectivity/ Not-Self, Etat, This, it 
follows that it is uniform and unchanged throughout the 
life of that system. Differentiation probably begins with 

1 See f.n. on p. 389 supra. 


diatoms, which may be regarded as coeval with gunas, 
these corresponding, in the jiva-atom of a system, to 
what the tanmatra, 1 would be in the consciousness of the 
Ishvara of that system, as may be seen later. The gunas 
referred to here are their special sense-qualities, sound, 
touch, etc., considered psychologically. The differentia- 
tion may be considered as definitely marked at the stage 
of tri-diatoms, corresponding to the ' gross-elements ', 
sthula-bhuta-s, defined and characterised by these sensa- 
tions, viz., akasha, vayu, etc., and to the respective outer 
sensory and motor organs of the living beings of that 
system. These tri-diatoms may, then, for practical 
purposes, be regarded as representing that dravya-aspect 
of each thing which is variable. Before the develop- 
ment of these tri-diatoms (in the Vaish6shika, not the 
modern chemical, sense) there would be probably no 
manifest differentiation of the 'various tattva-s, * sense- 
elements,' one from the other. Variations of such 
ultimate molecules of a world-system, as physical science 
is now gradually showing (in terms of ' atoms,' however, 
rather than of ' molecules '), would correspond with 
variations of resistance and density, of number and kind 
of vibrations, and of special sense-qualities. 

We see then, that the atom is not an invariably 
fixed quantity. Its fixedness is only an appearance, and 
exists only in connection with world-systems taken 
singly. 2 Just as a stone, a tree, an animal, a human 

; see p. 372 supra. 
* Bergson, Creative Evolution, p. 214 : " When we observe that a 
thing really is where it acts, we shall be led to say, as Faraday was, that 


being, have an appearance of permanence and con- 
tinuance from day . to day, and yet are changing inces- 
santly from moment to moment ; just as a whirling torch, 
or catherine-wheel, or gas-flame, has the appearance of a 
flat disc or sheet of fire, though something altogether 
different in reality ; so an atom has only a pseudo- 
fixedness and sameness of size-duration-movement, etc., 
in space-time-motion. The appearance of fixedness in 
incessant change is due to the imposition of * sameness ' 
by a connected individual consciousness the conscious- 
ness of the Brahma the chief Individualised Cosmic Mind 
in each world-system. In other words, the nature of 
the jiva, as Self, imposes (according to its own neces- 
sities, to be dealt with later), a certain sameness and 
continuance, while the nature of the atom, as Not-Self, 
requires incessant change ; reconciliation is found in the 
constant repetition of the vibrations which maintain the 
other attributes together with themselves. Apart from 
such appearance of fixity, there is truly a pseudo-infinite 
variety in every aspect of the atom, and a pseudo-infinite 
pseudo-infinity, pseudo-infinity within pseudo-infinity. 
Thus each size of atom, together with all its attributes 
and qualities corresponding to that size, is necessarily 

all the atoms interpenetrate, and that each of them fills the world ; " in 
other words* ' All is everywhere ' ; but Bergson jibs at the remaining two 
words of the VetJ&nta maxim, viz., ' and always '. He has his peculiar 
view of creative evolution as a ' durational ' progress, in time. Still 
his views, and those, f.i., of Sir J. Jeans, that atoms can be " annihi- 
lated " by being " transformed into radiation ", can be reconciled with 
the common atomic theory, by considerations like those advanced in the 
text. Jeans also says: "An electron must, in a certain sense at least, 
occupy the whole of space"; Mysterious Universe, p. 71. Jevons' 
views have been noted before (p. 180) to similar effect. 


pseudo-infinite in number, and would be found in 
every part of space and time. Yet, when the geometrical 
axiom, which applies to all things in space, says : " Two 
things cannot occupy the same space at once," how can 
all- these pseudo-infinite sizes of atoms exist in the same 
space ? The reconciliation is to be found in the fact that 
this apparent pseudo-infinity is a * psychological,' an 
' ideal,' infinity, entirely created and carried along with 
itself, wherever it goes, by the Consciousness of the Self 
as a foil to its own infinite-infinity. The geometrical 
axiom does not apply to the Absolute-Consciousness 
which transcends and includes Space-Time-Motion, and 
creates all the infinite overlappings of individuality which 
have been mentioned before, and which correspond to 
the apparent overlappings of the atoms. 1 Yet again, 
lest there should be even the appearance of a violation of 
the geometrical axiom, the various sizes, whenever and 
wherever examined by any one individual consciousness, 
would be found to fit one into another (as water in sand) 
and constitute the different and interpenetrating planes 
of the world-systems. 

Thus it happens that what is an atom to one jiva, 
within the limits, spatial and durational, of a solar 
system, may contain whole worlds within itsen to a 
jiva sufficiently minute. And, vice versa, what is a 
solar system to us may form only an atom to a jiva 
sufficiently vast. The repeated and much emphasised 

1 From the transcendental standpoint, all possible things 
tions) are contained in the single point (-sphere) of this Absol 


statement in Yoga Vasishtha, that a world contains 
atoms ; and teach of these atoms a world ; and that 
world, atoms again; and so on ad infinitum, is justi- 
fied in this manner in a very literal sense. 1 Consider 
here what was said before, as to the chain of individual- 
ities in a single organism, and as to the Virat-Purusha ; 
then the thought may become clear. The student will 
also be greatly helped by the researches of physical 
science, going to show that what has till now been re- 
garded as the indivisibly ultimate atom, consists of hund- 
reds of ' corpuscles,' * and by the tentative results of 

1 Yoga V&sishtha speaks also of different kinds of ' space,' especial- 
ly three, mah-akasha, chitt-akasha, and chi^-akasha, fitting one within 
the other, in somewhat the same sense as the different ' sizes ' of atoms 
mentioned above, and corresponding to them, or to the three bodies. 

3 The word ' atom ' has been used here, throughout, as equivalent to 
the words ' anu ' or ' param-anu ' of Samskrt. The new word ' ion ' is, 
it seems, nearer to ' anu ' ; but it has not yet got a recognised position in 
western, science and philosophy, and is still competing with ' corpuscles,' 
'electrons,' etc. When the ideas and words have settled down in the 
course of a few years, it may perhaps be useful to change our nomen- 
clature also. This ' settling down ' is, however, not a very likely event, 
except in a very comparative sense. Like ' fashions ' invented by the 
artistic-minded, first, then invaded and copied by the ' vulgar ,' then 
abandoned to them, after the invention of new fashions, to undergo a 
similar fate in turn ; like the ' veil after veil ' which will lift only to leave 
1 veil upon veil behind ' ; like the ' bodies ' which Brahma successively 
puts on and casts off to be taken up and occupied by different orders of 
beings, devas, asuras, fairies, gancjharvas, human beings, etc., (Bh&ga- 
vafa, III, xx) ; like houses and institutions built up by some, and 
' captured ' and occupied successively by others ; like these is the fate of 
words. )ther meanings than those originally intended usurp them, and 
new woros have to be coined to accommodate those old meanings. In 
the meanwhile, the idea intended to be conveyed by the word 'atom ', 
here, is that of a piece or particle of ' 6 tat,' ' this,' ' matter/ which, fox 
the time, and in the particular world-system, and from the standpoint, 
with which we may be concerned at the moment, is ultimate and 
' indivisible '. Sometimes, though very rarely, the word has been used 
here as equivalent to ' sheath ' or ' body ' ; and this has been done be- 
cause, in the particular connection in which the word has been so used, 
the sheath or body is the irreducible minimum which the jiva requires foe 
its manifestation. 


enquiry by budding superphysical senses, so far as they 
are publicly available. 1 

How order is imposed on this infinity of disorder ; 
how the World-Process is ever an organic whole, within 
whatever limits of space-time-motion we take it ; and 
how this pseudo-infinity of pseudo-infinities is held 
together in co-ordination, in a system of planes within 
planes, lokas within lokas, by the mighty stress of the 
Principle of the Supreme Individuality or Oneness of the 
Universal Self this may all appear in the next chapter 
on the jlva. 



AT the outset of this chapter we may note that the 
aspects of size, 2 specialised with reference to the jiva, 
would be ' range or extent of consciousness in all its 
manifestations, cognition, desire, and action/ ' its definite- 
ness or intensity,' and its ' calibre or scope generally ', 
These would subdivide into ' broad-mindedness, narrow- 
mindedness, rationality or common sense/ ' vagueness or 
weakness, clearness or strength, distinctness or firmness/ 
4 long-headedness or far-sightedness, width of interests, 
depth/ etc. 

1 Vide Annie Besant's Occult Chemistry. 
9 See p. 368 supra. 


As to specialisations of duration and vibration, it 
need only be said that the words used in connection with 
matter in the preceding chapter apply, by ordinary usage, 
to corresponding features of mind also. 

With these brief suggestions, we mav pass on to the 
features more prominently characteristic of the jlva, as 
the embodiment of consciousness. 

The entire nature of consciousness is exhaustively 
described by and contained in the words : " I-This-Not 
(Am)." This is the Absolute-Consciousness, the true 
Chid-ghana, ' compacted Chit,' Maha-Samvit, ' Great 
Consciousness,' which, in its transcendence of and absolu- 
tion from numbers, limitations, and relations, includes all 
that is governed by numbers, limitations, and relations, 
and indeed is all. This Consciousness is the Absolute, 
and .includes both the factors of what is ordinarily 
distinguished as dvam-cjvam, pair, of Chit, ' the 
Conscious' (corresponding to Pratyag-atma) and Jada t 
1 the Unconscious ' (corresponding to Mula-prakrti). It 
may not unreasonably be objected, because of this fact, 
that the word ' Consciousness ' is not altogether suitable 
as an epithet for the Absolute, even with qualificatory 
adjectives* But it becomes unavoidable, now and again, 
to describe the Absolute in special terms borrowed from 
the .triplets of attributes of Pratyag-atma and Mula- 
prakrti, which are the Pen-ultimates of the World- 
Process, as the Absolute is the very Ultimate and the all. 
The nearest approach to the Ultimate is obviously by the 
Penultimates ; hence the necessity of speaking in terms 


of the latter ; and this is why Brahma is described, in 
Upanishats and other works on Vedanta, now as ' Pure 
Consciousness ' or Shuddha-Chit, again as Maha-Sat or 
' Boundless Being,' and finally as Ananda-ghana or 
Ananda-maya, ' composed or compacted of Bliss ' ; also 
as the Tamas beyond Tamas, ' the darkness beyond 
darkness,' Shuddha or 'pure' Sattva,, and Paro- 
Rajas, transcending-Rajas. And so, for our present 
purposes, we have to speak of Brahma as the Absolute- 
Consciousness, slightly emphasising the Pratyag-atmic 
aspect thereof rather than the Mula-prakrtic ; but care- 
fully guarding the while against possible misconstruction, 
by openly stating that fact at the outset. 

In its unique completeness, then, this Absolute- 
Consciousness includes every possible cognition, every 
possible desire, every possible action, all at once and for 
ever ; even as it includes all possible objects of cognition, 
desire, and action, namely qualities, substances, and 
movements. But, taken as consisting of successive 
and separable parts in the pseudo-infinity of World- 
Process, it appears as broken up into three aspects 
jnana-cognition, ichchha-desire, and kriya-action. How 
these three and only three aspects arise in the jiva, 
on the collision and coalescence of Self and Not-Self, 
has been already outlined in chapter IX supra, on 
Pratyag-atma, where the genesis of Sat-Chit-Anan4a is 
explained. To restate : 

An ego bound to a non-ego in the bond of the logion 
is necessarily bound by a triple bond at three points ; is in 


contact with three corresponding points in the non-ego, 
viz., jnana-ichchha-kriya, on the side of the ego, and guna- 
dravya-karma, respectively, on that of the non-ego. 
4 1-this-(am) not ' in this fact we see the following : 

(1) ' I ' and ' this,' being placed opposite to each 
other, are either turning face towards face, or face away 
from face. The ego cognises, perceives, the non-ego, 
receives into itself reflection and imprint of that non- 
ego (metaphorically as well as literally, as will appear 
later), or ignores and forgets it. This is (dual or, with a 
middle state, triple) jnana. 

(2) ' I ' tends to move towards or away from ' not-I '. 
This tendency is desire, corresponding to the affirmation- 
negation of Shakti. 1 It is (dual or rather triple) ichchha. 

1 See pp, 165-169 supra. Desire may be said to correspond with 
Negation in this obvious sense : It consumes its object. It denies to it a 
separate existence and devours it, swallows, merges its object into the 
desiring self. Food is eaten up by the hungry person. Man and woman 
espouse each other, two becoming one. When an English poet sings, 
" For each man kills the thing he loves," etc., the thought, though put 
in an extreme and evil form, is not altogether different. The gems and 
jewels and fineries that people admire and desire, they put on their per- 
sons and make them part of their ' personality ' . The three (psycho-) 
physical appetites, for food, adornment, sex, are thus * negation-al ' of the 
separateness of their objects. That which was a separate idam, or eta$, 
1 this,* is converted by them into mama, ' mine ' (the diluted weaker form 
of 'I,' its ' sphere of influence,' its ' aura '), and then into aham, ' I \ 
(Witness, how politico-economic ' spheres of influence ', ' protectorates ', 
' mandates ' . ' markets ' , ' trusts ' , become absorbed) . The three corres- 
ponding (physico-) psychical appetites, for honor, wealth, and power, 
respectively, behave in the same way. Wealth becomes ' my property, 1 
power says ' I am the State,' the honoured person begins to think ' these, 
who honour me, are my obedient followers '. 

In a somewhat similar sense, knowledge and action also may be said 
to tend to abolish the separate existence of their objects. To know, to 
understand, ' another,' fully, we must ' get into his (or its) skin,' ' see with 
his eyes,' ' feel as he feels,' ' put ourselves into his position,' ' stand in 
his shoes ' ; we must sym-pathise (or ero~pathise, as some psycho- 
analysts say) with him to the extent of identifying him with ourselves. 

P., CH. xv] THE FUNCTIONS AS Consumers 403 

(3) The ego actually moves towards or away from, 
the non-ego, This is (dual or rather triple) kriya. 

All these are but modifications, forms, aspects, or 
degrees of the main fact of identification or separation 
between Self and Not-Self. 

Fichte seems to have endeavoured to express the 
same or a similar idea thus: " (1) The ego exhibits itself 
as limited by the non-ego (i.e., the ego is cognitive) ; 
(2) conversely, the ego exhibits the non-ego as limited by 
the ego (i.e., the ego is active)." ' 

This is the real significance of the rapport of yoga-sam&dhi. (Yoga- 
sutra, i, 43, and iii, 3). We ' understand,' to the acute extent of ' feel- 
ing,' every little pain and pleasure of our body, because we have identi- 
fied ourselves with it ; this is one aspect of the truth indicated in the 
doctrine of solipsism ; this is why mothers ' understand ' the pains of their 
babies. That action subserves the purpose of ' identifying ' its object 
with or ' approximating ' to, or subordinating it to the will of the actor, 
goes without saying, seeing that action arises out of desire. But this 
feature of knowledge and action is due to their inseparable connection 
with desire. In the case of ' aversion,' ' ignoring ' and ' putting away, 1 
' negation ' appears in another aspect ; abolition of the ' other ' is still 
there, though in another manner. 

Primal Libido, Elan Vital. Horme, Appetite, Urge and Surge of 
Life, Shakti-Desire, Kama, is for Self-Realisation, S y a m, ' May I be ' ; 
its next development isBahu S y S m, ' May I be Much or More ; the 
further and final is Bahu-dha S y a m, ' May I be Many ' or Many- 
formed '. Skt. names are L o k a-e s h an a, desire for ' local habitation 
and a name', appetite for Self-preservation of physical-self by food, 
and of psychical -self by honor and glory, name and fame; Vit$a- 
e'shana, for Self-expansion by possessions, adornment, homestead, 
wealth, property ; and Dara-suta-(Shakti)-6shapa, for self-conti- 
nuation (immortalisation, sempiternahsation) by spouse-and-child and 
power over them (in the present, as well as in the future, by will and 
testament). The first corresponds broadly to jnana and <Jharma; the 
second to kriya and arfcha ; the third to ichchha and kama. All are 
inter-dependent; indeed, barely possible to distinguish. They are more 
fully dealt with in Science of Emotions, and Science of Social Organi- 
sation (which deals specially with (Jharma-artha-kama) . Incidentally, 
it may be noted that the present work, The Science of Peace , corresponds 
with Jffana ; The Science of Emotions, with Ichchha ; The Science 
of Social Organisation , with Kriya ; while The Science of Self may be 
regarded as summation. 

1 Stirling's Schwegler, p. 265. 


In other words, we may say that there is a mutual 
action and cognition between the ego and the non-ego : 
the action of the non-ego upon the ego is the cognition 
of the non-ego by the ego ; and the cognition (if the 
expression may be used) by the non-ego of the ego is 
conversely the action of the ego on the non-ego. When 
the ego impresses itself on the non-ego, we have action 
from the standpoint of the ego, and cognition from that 
of the non-ego. When the non-ego imprints itself on 
the ego, we have cognition from the standpoint of the 
ego, and action from that of the non-ego. To this it 
should be added that the condition intermediate between 
cognition and action, intermediate between the ego's 
1 being influenced and shaped ' by the non-ego, on the 
one hand, and its ' influencing and shaping ' the non-ego, 
on the other, is desire. The corresponding condition of 
the non-ego would probably be best described by the 
word tension. This desire is always hidden, while cogni* 
tion and action are manifest. 

Multifarious triplets arise under cognition, desire, and 
action. (1) ' Waking, sleeping, dreaming ' ; ' presentation 
oblivion, representation ' ; ' knowing, forgetting, recollec- 
tion ' ; ' truth, error, illusion ' ; ' sensation, conception, 
perception ' ; ' term, proposition, syllogism ' ; ' pada, 
vakya, mana ' ; ' concept or notion, judgment, reasoning* ; 
' reasonableness or sobriety, fancy, imagination ' ; ' real 
or actual, unreal or fanciful , ideal ' ; 4 observation, 
thought, science '; * concentration, meditation, attention' ; 
attention, distraction, re-searoh (or rapport, union, 


yoga-samadhi) ', etc. (2) ' Like, dislike, toleration ' ; ' love, 
hate, indifference ' ; ' partiality, carelessness, justice ' ; 
4 desire, emotion, will ' ; etc. (3) ' Action, reaction, 
alternation or balance ' ! ; ' activity, indolence, effort ' > 
4 restlessness, fatigue, perseverance ' ; ' act, labour, in- 
dustry ' ; * action, plan, scheme ' ; ' evolution, involution, 
revolution ' ; etc. These may be treated of in detail 
later on/ In the meanwhile, some observations as to 
the general relations of subject and object, individuals 
and the surroundings they live amidst, the more pro' 
minent conditions of the life of the World -Process, may 
be recorded here. 

It has been said that an ego is literally imprinted 
-with and modelled to the shape of a cognised non-ego, 
and that cognition by an ego means and is the action 
of a non-ego upon it. It might be questioned how it is 
that action, cognition, and even desire, which are the 
attributes of Self, subject, can ever belong, or be spoken 
of as belonging, to Not-Self, object ; and, conversely, 
how the capabilities of being acted on, cognised, and 
desired, which are the attributes of Not-Self, can ever 

1 A very important triplet, which is but another aspect of and supple- 
mentary to the Law of Causality, and explains how the fundamental Unity 
is being constantly restored in succession also, as causality preserves 
it in continuity. " Past reason bunted, and, no sooner had, past reason 
hated." First ' am this ', and then ' (am) not this ', the net result being 
always the I. 

2 Pranava-Vada, 3 vols. (19101913), gives hundreds of such 
triads. " Every thing in this world is a trinity completed by the 
-quaternary " ; H. P. B., I sis Unvailed, I, 508. Dr. James H. Cousins, 
A Study in Synthesis, (pub. 1934) works oat a number of quartettes in 
a fresh manner ; the work should receive more attention than it seems to 
have yet received, from students of philosophy generally, and members 
of the Theosophical Society specially. 


belong, or be spoken of as belonging, to Self. The answer 
is this. If we were speaking exclusively of the Universal 
Self or the pseudo-universal Not-Self, and if it were 
possible to really separate them, then it would be per* 
fectly correct to say that jnana-ichchha-kriya, or rather 
their root-principles, chit-anancla-sat, belong exclusively 
to Self ; and guna-karma-dravya, or rather their root- 
principles, sattva-rajas-tamas, belong exclusively to Not- 
Self. But we are now in the domain of the limited and 
the particular, and are dealing not with abstract 
Pratyag-atma and pseudo-abstract Mula-prakrti, but with 
limited, separate, selves and not-selves ; and it has been 
amply shown in the last two chapters that a limited self 
(soul) means a composite of Self and Not-Self, a jlva- 
atom, wherein the jiva-aspect is predominant ; while a 
limited not-self (body) equally means a composite of 
Self and Not-Self, but a composite in which the 
atom-aspect is predominant. The consequence of this 
is that we find both triplets of attributes present 
in every such composite, although of course one 
triplet always preponderates over the other, thereby 
giving rise to the distinction between animate and 

Thus it comes about that each separate not-self, 
being ensouled by a self, and therefore being a pseudo- 
self, assumes, by the connection of identity with the 
universal Self, the characteristics of the latter ; and this 
assumption takes on the form of a pseudo-infinite 
endeavour to find, and therefore to spread and impose, 


itself on everything, everywhere, and aUO-ways. 1 Hence a 
pseudo-infinite radiation, by vibration, of each and every 
not-self, that is to say, of each and every piece or mass 
whatsoever of Mula-prakrti, out of the pseudo-infinite 
permutations and combinations of all possible sizes of 
such pieces or masses, to which it is at all possible to 
apply the adjectives ' each ' and ' every '. In other 
words, each and every not-self is endeavouring pseudo- 
infinitely to reproduce itself and fill infinity with its own 
form ; as is now nearly established even by physical 
science, in the doctrine of the incessant and endless 
radiation and mutual registration by all objects of their 
own and of all others' pictures of all qualities whatsoever, 
sights, sounds, smells, etc. ; and this is the action of the 
not-selves, upon the selves, which action, in the selves, 
appears as cognition. 5 

1 The supplement to this fact is that each separate self or soul, being 
em-bodi-ed by a not-self, endeavours similarly to ' radiate '. ' propagate 1 , 
1 spread ', ' impose upon all others ', its own notions, thoughts, ideas, 
views, knowledg-es, feelings, tastes, interests, likes and dislikes, voli- 
tion, willings, enterprises, activities. 

* In this fact, with its ' physical ' and ' superphysical ' implications, 
i.e t , its working in the grosser and subtler planes of matter, may be 
found the reason why 'every secret must out,' some time or other to 
some one else, if not to the general public, for ' murder ' does not always 
' out ', to even the cleverest police ; and also why, while a secret is being 
kept, for that time it makes the inner body stronger and fuller, whence 
we have such facts, observations, and injunctions as these : vows of silence 
make the inner life of the mind richer, promote and strengthen thought, 
just as restraint of expenditure increases the treasury-balance, or sex- 
continence enhances vigour of body and mind and intensifies feeling ; 
certain people do not find life worth living unless they have a secret to 
keep ; they revel in mysteriousness ; others find pleasure in leading 
* double ' lives, stolen joys being sweeter to them ; the names of the 
ishta-4eva, the worshipped god, the venerated preceptor, the parents, the 
spouse, the children, in short all those specially near and dear and 


This reproduction, it is obvious, takes place literally. 
When we see an object, the picture of the object is 
imprinted on our eye, on the retina ; that is to say, the 
retina (or the purpurin, with which, as the latest 
researches go to show, the retina is covered) takes on, 
becomes modified into, the very shape of the object seen ; 
and the eye is, in the life of the physical plane, veritably 
the very ego that sees. In the moment of seeing with 
the physical eye, it is impossible to say : ' My eye sees 
and not I.' What is invariably said and meant is: 
1 / see.' The I and the organ of vision are here literally 

honoured, must not be lightly taken, for relations with the bearers of 
those names belong to the life of the heart, and avoidance of levity 
and flippancy with regard to them strengthens and develops the higher 
nature and the siikshma-sharira. Another and more obvious psychologi- 
cal reason for avoiding, in unsympathetic company, the mention, with too 
much unction, of the objects of one's love and devotion, is, that it only 
too often arouses ridicule, or jealousy, or anger and counter statements 
of the .greater merits of other's ; witness, sectarians' quarrels It has to 
be remembered that in all these cases the secrecy, the silence, the 
restraint, are effective for their purpose only up to a certain extent. 
Carried to excess, they fail and cause harm. They must come to an end, 
some time, by the metaphysical laws of nature ; they should be brought to 
an end, periodically, wisely, scientifically, for greater good. 

It should 'be noted that, not all secrets, being kept, make the inner 
body stronger in the healthy and pleasant sense. Sins committed or 
helplessly suffered by oneself (as by the victims of sex-violence), or even 
simply seen being committed by others, if kept, weigh upon the soul, 
oppress it grievously, suffocatingly, often drive it mad. Such phenomena 
have been investigated by psycho-analysts with useful (also harmful) 
results. But even in these cases, the general observation holds true that 
4 the inner body becomes stronger and fuller ' ; only, it becomes such, in 
the painful sense ; not the pleasurable. Pain intensifies and prolongs the 
consciousness. The tongue keeps working round the fibre sticking 
between the teeth; the mind keeps working round the painful secret 
sticking between its normal functionings ; the emotions concerned are 
deepened. In case of excess, either of pleasure or pain, disintegration 
of the body may happen, and does happen; in the case of pain, very 

p., CH. xv] EGO Becomes ORGAN 409 

identical for all purposes. 1 It is the same with every 
other sense. The immediate reason of this is that while, 
in the converse case, the activity of the apparent not- 
self is due to its hiding a self within, in this case the 
shapability, which is cognition, of every self, is due to its 
hiding within a not-self, a sheath, an upadhi. As in the 
one case the not-self strives to achieve infinity in pseudo- 
infinite reproduction, because of having become identified 
with a self, and therefore the universal Self ; so, in this 
case, the Self becomes limited and reflective, because of 
having become identified with a not-self. 

In order that Self and Not-Self, so entirely opposed 
to each other, should enter into dealings with each other, 
it is necessary that each should assume the characteristics 
of the other, and so, abating their opposition, making a 
compromise, come nearer to each other. The interchange 
of substance between nucleus and protoplasm is a good 
illustration. 2 In this fact we see before us the principle 
of the genesis of upadhis, sheaths, organisms, and organs 
of sense and action. The ego becomes (of course, illusorily 
and apparently, and for the time being) the organ of sense 
or action, in order J;o perceive the sense-able or act upon 
it. ' The AtmS who knows (i.e., who is feeling the stress 

?E?JiTmrf?r I Brhad-&ranyaka, I, iv. 7: 

4 Breathing, It becomes that which is named prana-breath ; speaking, 
voice ; seeing, eye ; hearing, ear ; men tat ing, mind ; such are Its 
functional names ; functionings of the self are named faculties '. In other 
words, functions create organs ; not organs, functions. 

1 Verworn, General Physiology, p. 518. 


of the consciousness) ' may I smell this,' becomes or is the 
nose (the organ of smell), for the sake of (experiencing) 
odour.' l 

Such is the metaphysical significance of the organs 
of sense and action. They are the very jlva for the time* 
The jlva is identified with them entirely while they are 
working. For there is no sufficient reason for a distinct 
and separate third something, an instrument of media- 
tion, not only a relation but a thing, between the only 
two factors of the World- Process, Self, on the one side, 
and Not-Self, on the other. 3 That they are at all dis- 
tinguished as karana, 3 ' instruments,' is only from the 
standpoint of the abstract Self. 

The metaphysical significance of sense-media, odor- 
ous particles, saliva, light, air, ether, etc., is similar. 4 The 

1 Chhandogya-Upanishaf, VIII, xu, 4-5. 

2 The words ' distinct and separate ' should be noted ; for if we 
remove this condition, then we do have a pseudo-infinity of planes or 
grades of density-subtlety of Matter, each of which may be said to link 
together a next denser with a next subtler. 

4 The NySya system has a theory that (as in the case of saliva) rays 
of light, proceeding from the organ of vision to its object, assume the 
shape of that object, and returning to the eye, produce vision ; the 
modern scientific view is that the rays go kom the object to the eye. 
The Greek philosophers also believed in an " effluvium " or " eidolon/' 
acting as a tertium quid to make possible the approach between the 
opposed subject and object. We speak of ' bright eyes ' and * dull lack- 
lustre eyes ' ; feline eyes shine in the dark. That light is a substance 
amenable to the section of gravitation, has been much discussed by 
Einstein and others, since deflections of rays from stars were observed 
during a solar eclipse in May, 1919. A dry tongue or nose cannot taste 
or smell. Saliva is the overflow of ' self ' and the enveloping of a ' not-self ' 
with ' self ' ; and transforming the ' not-self 'into ' self ' and absorbing 
and as-stwito-ting it with ' self, ; hence salivation is necessary to 
digestion. The same considerations apply to the other senses and their 


systematic and psychologically consistent names for 
these media, in Samskrt, whatever their exact nature 
may be ultimately determined to be, are prthivl (earth) 
for the medium of odour, apas or jalam (water) for taste, 
tjas or agni (fire) for vision, vayu (air) for touch, and 
akasha (ether) for sound. These media are, according 
to V6danta, the five pervasive root-elements, tattva-s or 
maha-bhuta-s and not the compounds we live amidst 
distinguished and defined radically by their special 
sensuous and active qualities, which are said to go in 
pairs ; thus, sound and speech with ear and vocal organ 
belong to akasha ; vision and figure (-and-color-)- forma- 
tion with eye and hands belong to agni ; and so forth. 1 And 
their agency, to secure communion between organ and 
sense-object, is metaphysically necessitated, in order, by 
the fact of diffusion through space, to give to the sense- 
object the semblance of the Universal Self, which reaches 
and includes all and is within the reach of all. This perva- 
sion, which, metaphysically, is pseudo-infinite in extent, is 
actually reproduced in the fact that each brahm-anda, 
* great-egg/ ' egg of the Infinite,' world-system or macro- 
cosm, is pervaded by one individuality; just as each pind- 
anda, microcosm, a human organism, is pervaded by one 
individuality. The vast masses of the root-elements that 
serve as the sense-media of the organisms inhabiting our 

1 In the human kingdom, ear as sensor and voice as motor, and eye 
as sensor and finger as motor, are best developed ; writing, formation 
of visible letter-figures is done by the fingers. Ants and some other 
kinds of insects seem to communicate by touch and antennae ; dogs and 
certain moths, by smell. 


brahm-anda, for instance, constitute, in their totality, the 
body of the Ishvara who is the brahm-anda ; the unity 
of his individuality brings together our senses and 
sense-objects in these sense-media; while he himself 
is but as an infinitesimal jiva in a vaster brahm-anda, 
a sidereal system in which our solar system is as a grain 
of sand in a solar system ; and so on pseudo-infinitely. 
This is why Ishvaras are also called vi-bhu, * per- 
vading.' 1 It is only the principle of overlapping in- 
dividualities, in another view. Later on there may 
appear more on this point, viz., how communion between 
two separate things, subject and object, in the way of 
cognition, desire, and action, is possible, and takes place 
only because the two are also one, since both of them are 
part of a higher individuality, a larger subject.* 

The remarks made in the preceding chapter as to 
the pseudo-infinite series of involucra of the jiva, one 
within another, should be recalled im this connection. 
Taking the case of vision, for instance, we find as the 
first step, that the act of seeing means the picturing of 
the object seen on the retina, which at that stage is for 

TO site f?T, Gtfrf^l: f 

Bh&gavafa, XI, iv, 3, 4. 

' He who is the Beginning of All, having ideated a Frame, made of 
five elements, entered into it, and became the Fountain of n a ra-s. 


all purposes identical with, and is, the seer. But 
analysing further, we find that, in the human being, the 
act of vision is by no means completed with this picturing 
on the retina. Vibrations of nerves convey the picture 
to a further centre in the brain not yet quite definitely 
determined, it seems, by physiological investigations. 
Physical research leaves the matter here for the present. 
But metaphysic deduces, as an inference from the in- 
separable 'conjunction of dravya-guna-karma, that, what- 
ever that brain-centre might be ultimately decided to be, 
it will be found that just as the vibrations and particles 
of the outer visible object, transmitted through the 
' ether ', (or whatever other element may finally be 
determined to be the medium of light, and however it 
may be named, the Samskrt name being tejas, as said 
before), make a picture of that object on the retina, so 
the retinal picture, which has now in turn become 
' the outer visible object ' to the more-inward-receded 
jlva, is transmitted in still more minute particles, by 

humans, jivas ; therefore he is named Nar-ayana. All this triple world- 
system is His Body ; all the sensors' and motors of all beings are derived 
from His, are parts of His ; His self-consciousness is all Knowledge, His 
Breath is all Energy-Desire, which creates-maintains-destroys ' : panthe- 
ism in a fresh aspect. Berkeley also has seen and said that the percep- 
tions of individuals are only participations in the perceptions of the 
Universal Ego. The name Kavi, Poet, Dramatist, Author, is especially 
appropriate for Brahma. The 'perceptions', experiences, sayings, 
doings, of every character in a drama, are all only ' participations ' in 
the Ideation of the Author ; all ideas are parts of the One Universal 
Ideation. Great public movements, enthusiasms, panics, are partici- 
tions in the ideas, ideals, feelings, views, sentiments of one (or more, but 
wm-ted) leader (or leaders), with sufficient intensity of will and feeling 
(tapasya, divine force, hot and glowing will). Epidemics, Yuga-dharma, 
Kala-dharma, Time-spirit, Zeit-geist- indicate the same fact. 

414 MEANING OF ' I ' AND ' MINE ' [SC. OF 

nerve-vibrations, to a corresponding subtler organ or 
brain-centre which is now masquerading as the seer in 
place of the eye, in the present condition of organisms. 
And further research will show the process repeated 
preudo-infinitely inwards, taking the sheath into subtler, 
and ever subtler planes of matter. 

But while this series of sheaths, one within another, 
is theoretically pseudo-infinite, in practice and as a 
matter of fact if we take any organism, in any one 
cycle of space and time we shall necessarily find that it 
consists of only a limited and countable number of such 
sheaths, with one unanalysable core ; the very filmiest of 
films it may be, but unanalysable any further, for the 
time being ; and in that cycle, this core represents, 
and for all purposes is, the very self ot the jiva. 
From another and higher standpoint, embracing a 
wider cycle of space and time, that film will also be 
analysable, and be seen to be not the innermost core 
but only an outer sheath, hiding within itself another 
core, which will then be irreducible. Evidence of this 
we find even physically, in comparing the earliest avail- 
able unicellular organisms of our terrene life and 
evolution, with the latest most complex ones. In the 
human being, the brain with its centres takes the place 
of Self, and is the main, seat of consciousness (from the 
standpoint of physiology), but is hedged round and 
overlaid with numbers of other parts of the body, nerves, 
ganglia, senses, etc., through which only it can be 
reached. In the unicellular organism the nucleus is 

P., CH. XV] OF ' MY EYES ', ' MY EARS ' 415 

probably the centre of consciousness, 1 and is, as it were, 
all the brain; .the sense organs, etc., in one ; in its case, 
the jiva has not yet learnt to make the distinction 
involved in the expressions, ' my eyes, 1 ' my ears ' 
between the jiva (identified with the brain as centre of 
consciousness) and its sense-instruments ; and hence it 
has got no centre of consciousness, which may be separate 
from sense-instruments. But when the consciousness 
begins to make such distinction, the nucleus at once 
resolves into a subtler core (apparently, but not yet 
positively ^determined to be, the nucleolus) with different 
parts wrapping it round ; and under the continuing stress 
of the individualised consciousness, there appears the 
progressive development and differentiation of functions 
and instruments which is called evolution. 

It should be noted here that the expression ' my 
brain ' has not the same significance as ' my eyes ' and 
* my hands '.* Of course it has a certain meaning, but 
the consciousness of my brain being distinct and different 
from me is by no means so definite, full, and clear in the 
ordinary man, as is the consciousness of the eyes and the 
hands being thus different and distinct. The expression 
gains fuller and fuller significance as the ' I ' retieats 
further and further inwards, and is able to separate itself 
more and more actually from the physical body. ' My 
clothes ' has a much fuller and clearer meaning than 

1 Verworn, General Physiology, p. 508. 

* The ashvaftha-tree, with its roots above and its branches below, 
spoken of in the Bhagavag-Glja, xv, 1, probably means the nervous 
system of man, also, besides other things ; brain above, nerves below. 

416 'MY BRAIN', 'MY SOUL' [SC. OP 

4 my bands and feet ' ; * my hands and feet ' has a much 
clearer and fuller meaning than ' my brain '. ' My sukshma 
sharira,' ' my karana sharira,' * my soul/ are practically 
(but not theoretically) meaningless in the mouths [of 
people who have never t succeeded, by means of yoga, in 
separating them from the outer physical body. To 
advanced souls, who have succeeded in doing so, * my 
brain ' has a meaning as definite as * my shirt V 

This development of the complex from the simple, 
this opening up of separated individual consciousness 
through layer into inner layer, this gradual ^growth of 
nerve within nerve and instrument within instrument, 
this definition of body within body, this multiplication of 
the means to the simple ends or rather the one end, this 
4 long-circuiting ' of the satisfaction of the elemental 
appetites of life or rather of the one appetite of Self-reali- 
sation constitutes the evolution of the individual, from 
the standpoint of limited cycles. 2 To take a fanciful 

1 See The Mahatma Letters, p. 259. Master K. H. has gone into 
samadhi-trance, for three months (in 1882) in search of "supreme- 
knowledge". Master M. has promised to him to carry on his theoso- 
phical work and correspondence with Sinnett and Hume. In the 
coarse of a letter to the former, Master M. says : " I may as well 
occupy a few minutes of my time to write to you in the best English I 
find lying idle in my friend's brain ; where also I find in the cells of 
memory, the phosphorescent thought of a short letter, to be sent by 
himself." Master M. says that his own knowledge of English is not 
so good as Master K. H.'s; but the reader can scarcely think so; of 
course the style is very different. 

2 ' Long-circuiting ' is a very significant word, coined in ' the 
science and art ' if electricity. The whole World-Process is a long- 
circuiting of the simple Relation between I and Not-I. Commentaries 
and critical expositions and illustrations are the long-cirquiting of the 
meaning of aphorisms and maxims. 


illustration : it is as if we should, to increase the power 
and range and minuteness of our vision, first put on a pair 
of spectacles, then add a telescope, and over that a miscro- 
scope, and so on indefinitely. In this imaginary illustra- 
tion the additions are outwards. In evolution, by deli- 
berate yoga, on the nivrtti-marga, ' re-turn or re-ascent 
into Spirit ', they would be inwards, a retreating within 
into subtler* and subtler planes of matter ; on the 
pravrtti-marga, descent into Matter ', they would be 
outwards too, each self taking on denser and denser veils 
of matter to enjoy the experiences of a greater and 
greater (seeming) definition of itself ' I (am) this, 9 I 
(am) this '. From the standpoint of the Absolute, on 
the other hand, all cycles and all evolution, all functions, 
all instruments, and all functionings and actual workings 
of them, on all possible planes of matter, are ever com- 
pletely present in the transcendent consciousness : " I 
This Not (am)." 

Thus we come back again and again to the fact of 
an endless series of plane within plane of matter, all 
permeated and pervaded by the consciousness in its triple 
aspect of jnana ichchha, kriya. " Veil upon veil will 
lift, but there must be veil upon veil behind." Let us 
see now how these pseudo-infinite planes of matter can 
be co-ordinated and brought into organic unity with each 
other. Co-ordinated in fact they must be ; for the 
tats, * this-es ' separate in their pseudo-infinity though 
they are by very constitution are not and cannot be 
mutually entirely oblivious and independent, when the 


thread of the One Self runs through them all, and strings 
them together like beads. 

Different planes of matter, though separate from, 
and, from one standpoint, independent of, each other to 
such an extent that they may even seem to violate the 
axioms of geometry, cannot escape these axioms alto- 
gether. As usual, we have disorder as well as order, 
negation as well as affirmation, defiance of law and yet 
submission thereto, here as well as elsewhere. Consci- 
ousness appears to transcend mathematical laws ; but it 
is only the Universal Consciousness of Pratyag-atma that 
can at all be said to do so, and this too only when it is 
considered as a whole, comprehending and at the same 
time negating the whole of Mula-prakrti. 1 Otherwise, it 
itself is the source and the embodiment of that unity, 
uniformity, regularity in diversity, the fact or brief 
description of which uniformity is called a law, and 
which appears when Self is intermingled with Mula- 
prakrti (as it always is), under the changeless stress of 
Absolute-Consciousness, Brahma. Limited individual 
consciousnesses are inseparably connected with limited 
' this-es ' ; hence they can never actually transcend those 

1 It is only in respect of this one Supreme ' self-contradictory ' fact 
that Metaphysics transcends, is beyond, Mathematics. But this one fact 
has important consequences and corollaries, which, for practical 
purposes, connect metaphysics more nearly, as it were, with the 
psychological, ethical, logical, and biological sciences, than with mathe- 
matics and the physico-chemical sciences ; though, strictly, metaphysics, 
as repeatedly said, is equally connected with all sciences and co- 
ordinates them all. Mathematics deals with space, time, energy-motion, 
taking its start from certain purely metaphysical notions, as pointed out 
before. Metaphysics deals with these as well as with their Abolition, 
their Opposite, the Infinite Here, the Eternal Now, the utterly Motion- 
less Self, full of Perfect Rest and unshakeable Peace, 


laws. That they appear to do so from some standpoints, 

is due to their identity with Pratyag-atma. The world 

of the lower astral plane, whose normal inhabitants are 

said to be yakshas, gandharvas, kinnaras, nagas, kush- 

mandas, gnomes, undines, fairies, and such other nature- 

spirits, with bodies made of the same or similar ' stuff,' 

4 mind-stuff,' as our grosser dreams and mental images, 

may seem literally to ' occupy the same space ' as the 

physical world, whose normal inhabitants are humans, 

animals, plants, minerals, etc. But this is not really so. 

The facts available point to the conclusion that as soon 

as the human develops the body and the instruments 

which enable him to begin to live consciously in the 

astral world as he does in the physical, he sees that the 

two worlds, at the most, interpenetrate, as sand and 

water, or water and air, and do not actually and 

literally occupy the same space. In other words, planes 

of matter, that appear utterly disconnected from the 

standpoint of individual consciousnesses limited to each 

plane, become only grades of density of matter from 

the standpoint of a consciousness that includes all of 


This thought may now be expanded as follows : 
The simile used above, of thread and beads, illus- 
trates the fact of order amidst disorder, and also covers 
another fact which is essential in the work of co-ordi- 
nation. In the chaplet, each bead touches but two others, 
one on each side, and not more than two; and so 
too we find that Sarpsara, World-Process, is triple, 


tribhuvanam, trai-lokyam, 1 whenever and wherever we 
take it. This fact, that it is always a triple world, when- 
ever and wherever we take it, gives the method of the 
co-ordination ; for each factor of each such triplet is also 
concurrently connected with two other triplets ; and as 
this connection extends pseudo-infinitely, it results that 
all possible planes are ringed together always. Thus 
taking the three planes of our world-system, viz., sthula, 
sukshma, and karana * (roughly corresponding to 
physical, astro-mental, and causal, of theosophical litera- 
ture) and naming them F, G, and H, we should find, on 
research, that F is simultaneously connected with three 
triplets, D E F, E F G, and F G H ; so G with E F G, 
F G H and G H I ; so H with F G H, G H I and 
H I J ; and taking any of these triplets, say H I J, the 
mutual relation of these three would be found to be the 
same as that of F G H ; that is to say, to a jiva to whom 
J represented the physical, I would represent the astro- 
mental, and H the karana plane. And this series of 
triplets extends endlessly before D and after J . 

Before passing on to the reason of this state of things, 
it may be well to note that the interpretation of tri- 
bhuvanam, ' triple world/ or ' three worlds,' advanced 
here, is not exactly what is commonly understood by the 
word, just as the inmost meaning of the sacred word, 
AUM, is not what is commonly given. Yet there is no 
conflict or inconsistency between the two interpretations* 

P., CH. XV] Why ANALOGY 421 

On the contrary, the other interpretations all follow 
necessarily from the inmost one. Students wonder now 
and then how it is that resemblances occur in different 
departments of nature ; and when it is said that one and 
the same statement may be interpreted in many ways, 
-each correct and each applying to one class and one 
department of phenomena, sober people generally suspect 
some sleight-of-hand. As a fact, a statement of a true 
principle of nature, concerning one of the Ultimates, 
or rather, strictly speaking, Penultimates, naturally 
applies to all the different series of phenomena derived 
from and constantly embodying those penultimates ; 
and the wonder may as well be, how there is differ- 
ence between part and part of nature, as how there is 
resemblance. Mula-prakrti explains the difference ; 
Pratyag-atma > the resemblance. 1 The law of analogy, 

1 The Unity of Self as pmni-present, is the reason, the cause, of 
-whatever uni-formity, similarity, analogy, we find anywhere and every- 
where. It is the real reason for the certainty felt in induction, other- 
wise utterly fallible. ' Once, therefore always ' ; ' as in one place, so 
in all places. 1 The older Nyaya-Vaish6shika gives the reason of v y a p t i- 
graha,' ap-prehen-sion of pervasiveness 1 , i.e., ' inductive generali- 
sation ' , as being pratyaksha, ' direct perception ' of j a t i , ' genus ' , 
together with v y a k{ i , 'the particular ', because of sama-vaya; 
' co-inherence ', inseparability, of ' particular ' or ' singular ' or ' indi- 
vidual ' and ' general ' or ' universal ' . The new Nyaya calls the same 
fact or process, by the name ofpraty-asatti. Max Muller, in his 
Six Systems of Indian Philosophy, has recognised that the very impor- 
tant category of s a m a-v a y a "is one peculiar to Indian philosophy ", 
and ' ' though this relationship is known in non-Indian philosophies, it 
has not received a name of its own, though such a term might have 
proved very useful in several controversies. The relation between 
thought and word " (31^3^) "f-i-, is Samavgya, inseparableness. . . . 
There is Samav&ya between threads and cloth, father and son, two 
halves and a whole, cause and effect, substance and qualities, the two 
being interdependent and inseparable"; (seepages referred to, against 
the word ' Samavaya ' in the Index to Max Muller's book). 


* as above so below,' s a m a-d a r s h i t a, ' same-sighted- 
ness', 'same-seeing- ness ', is capable of a far wider and 
truer application than is now charily given to it ; and it 
provides the reason of the existence of allegories and 
parables, in which there is as much literal fact as meta- 
phor. Because of this universal applicability of basic 
laws, tri-bhuvanam, * triple world ', when it means only 
three different but interconnected worlds or planes of 
matter, according to the ordinary explanation of the 
word, means something which is the necessary resulf of 
the metaphysical triplicity of all the life of united jlva 
and atom, i.e., of the jiva-atom. In this metaphysical 
triplicity, which is the inmost meaning of tri-bhuvanam, 
lies the reason for the state of things described in the 
preceding paragraph. 

Everywhere we find the world and ttfe things of the 
world divided into an inner and an outer, a core and a 
sheath, and a third something, a principle, a relation r 
rather than a fact or factor, binding and holding these 
two together. This is due to the very constitution of 
the Absolute as shown in the Logion, viz., an inner Self, 
an outer Not-Self, and the third something, the affir- 
mative-negative Shakti, which ties the two together 
indissolubly, and yet is not a third strictly, but only 
a repetition of the positivity, the being, of Self, and 
of the negativity, the nothingness, of Not-Self. So we 
find, in the department of consciousness taken by itself, 
an outer or real world, and an inner or ideal world, 
and a third something, the abstract consciousness, or 


self-consciousness, or apperception, or pure and abstract 
reason, as it has been variously named, holding the two 
together. This pure or abstract reason is the embodi- 
ment and source, as said before, of all abstract laws and 
principles, which are but forms of this Self-Consci- 
ousness in its relations to the objects by means of which 
it may be realising itself at the time. 

'I see this book before me ' this consciousness is a 
consciousness of the ' real ', the ' outer,' world. ' I 
remember the book, in memory ; I have thoughts about 
it, i.e., I call up mental pictures of the book in relation 
to other things, its author, country, press, people, 
in which and by whom it was printed, published, and 
criticised ; of other books on the same subject which 
have been written in other times and places ; of the 
whole history of the gradual growth of learning on the 
subject treated of in the book, and the causes thereof, 
etc.,' these are facts of the inner, the ideal world. Lastly 
there is the consciousness (corresponding to the Absolute) 
which joins together and connects, in my own self, these 
two sets of facts, those belonging to the ' Me ' and those 
to the * Not-me,' and weaves them into the one process 
of my life. That the thread of Self through the beads 
of Not-Self is, or appears as, budcjhi, laws, principles, 
apperception, self-consciousness, etc., may become clearer 
if the matter is considered thus : * I know and wish and 
act, and / know 1 that I know and wish and act ' this is 

1 Or, better, ' I am aware that I know and wish and act.' for to say 
I ' know ' instead of ' am aware,' seems to make the element of know- 
ledge or cognition more essential to Self-Consciousness than the elements 


self-consciousness. ' I am aware also that I knew and 
wished and acted before, and shall know and wish and 
act afterwards, in the same way, when the circumstances 
are the same ' this is the same self-consciousness modi- 
fied into reason, ratio-cination, ratio-nality, perception of 
the ratio, relation, of sameness, of similarity, amongst 
not-selves, because of the persistence and sameness^ 
through past, present, and future, of Self. * Such an 
experience, knowledge, desire, or action, is always followed 
by such another ' this is the same self-consciousness 
modified into and stated as a law, a principle. 

How and why does this state of things come about ? 
Why is there an outer world and inner world ? How does 
this distinction between the ideal and the real, ideas and 
realities, arise at all. and what is the distinction between 
them precisely ? ] 

of desire and conation or action, which is against fact. Samskrt words 
corresponding to apperception, etc., are anu-vyavasaya, pra ty ay- an u pa- 
shy ata, buddhi-bodha, nija-bodha, atma-nubhava, sakshita, upa- 
^rashtri-ta, etc. 

1 Self has been regarded above as linking up (by containing within 
itself, both) the ideal and the real, inner and outer, within and without, 
i.e., mental and material. A simpler and perhaps practically more 
useful way is to say that ' mind ' is the link between Self or Spirit and 
Not-Self or Matter. In Mind, both are present ; and all the Interplay 
of Spirit and Matter, 'past, present, and future ', is present in Mind. 
The present is, is existent ; the past was ; but is not ; the future will 
be, but is not. The present is the only real ; it emphatically is. 
What we see around us, what we are, at any given moment, carries 
with it an intense convincingness of actuality, factness, reality, 
existence. Yet the passing of a year, a day, even a simple catastrophic 
moment, abolishes all that intense reality, and converts it into a 
dream of the past ; and that too a more or less quickly fading dream ! 
From the metaphysical standpoint, therefore, the present is the only 
and the most wn-real ; because obviously evanescent, moment by 
moment. From that standpoint, past and future may be said to 
be far more real, or even the only real, because permanently present 
in the Supra-Conscious of God's Memory. To that Memory, all the 


For answer we have to refer back to the principle 
which is always turning up on every side under every 
complication of phenomena, when that complication is 
sifted. Pratyag-Stma is the unbroken continuity of the 
One. Mula-prakrti, on the other hand, is the utterly 
discontinuous brokenness and separateness of the many. 
The two have nothing in common with each other ; in 
fact they are ever and at every point entirely opposed 
to each other. Yet they are violently brought together 
into inviolable relation by the might of the Absolute- 
Svabhava, the Changeless Nature of the Absolute. The 
reconciliation of these warring principles, each equally 
invincible, necessitates the further principle of 'continuity 
in discreteness,' whereby each discrete thing is in turn a 
thread of continuity to even more minutely discreted 
things and lower subdivisions ; and, conversely, each 
thread of continuity is in turn a discrete and subdivisional 
item in a higher thread of continuity and this endlessly. 
This principle applies to the constitution of a so-called 
atom as also of solar systems, which include smaller 
systems and form part of larger ones in a series that is 

Procession and Panorama of the whole Universe of all possible and 
actual stars and systems, is an Eternal Now. Thus, what is real from 
the empirical standpoint, becomes wn-real, or Ideal, from the metaphysi- 
cal or transcendental standpoint ; and vice versa. The finite passing 
moment is most intensely real to the finitised or individualised jiva ; the 
in-finite contents of Mahat-BucJdhi, Supra- Consciousness, Universal 
Mind, are the most intensely real to the Infinite Self. The jfva grips 
the Finite with one hand, and embraces the In- Finite with the other 
whence arises the assurance of ' personal immortality ' , jivan-mukti ; feet 
on earth, head among stars ; nest in tree, flight in empyrean'; some 
mechanical occupation, even so-called 'drudgery, 1 for livelihood of 
body, and poetry, science, art, yoga-si(J<Jhis, religion-philosophy, for 
livelihood of soul. 


endless either way; and it underlies the continuously 
overlapping series of individuals within individuals which 
make up the jiva-half of the World- Process. 

This same principle, applied to the psychic half of 
Samsara, that is to say to consciousness ; and even there 
to the cognitional element specially (in connection with 
which it is most manifest) ; explains why there should 
be two worlds to consciousness, an ideal and a real, 
memory and sensation, and a third something holding 
the two together. The application may become clear if 
we endeavour to understand in a little more detail what 
is the significance of memory and other allied psycho- 
logical processes, and how and why they come into 

The Absolute may be correctly described as an 
eternal sensation in which the Universal Self, in one single 
act of consciousness senses the non-existence of Not-Self ; 
that is to say, of all possible pseudo-infinite not-selves 
in all the three divisions of time past, present, and 
future ; of space length, breadth, and depth ; of motion 
approach, recess, and rhythmic vibration. Now each 
separate individual jlva or self, out of the whole mass of 
pseudo-infinite jivas or selves, (the totality of which is 
unified in and by Pratyag-at m5 ) must also necessarily 
reproduce in itself this one single act of consciousness, 
this truly unique sensation, this all-embracing, all-ex- 
hausting experience, by reason of its identity with the 
universal Self ; yet it is impossible also for it to do so, 
because ot its limitedness. The reconciliation of these 


opposed necessities gives rise to the ideal world in which 
we can ' look before and after ' simultaneously (compara- 
tively only), as distinguished from the real worldJn which 
we can have only one sensation at a time (again only 
comparatively), successively. 

Thus, to begin with, the individual self requires two 
acts of consciousness to sense the non-existence of a 
single not-self. It cannot compass this in one act, like 
the universal Self. It must first sense the existence, and 
then sense the non-existence of that not-self. In the 
second place, it has to deal with pseudo-infinite not- 
selves ; it can sense them all only in, so to say, twice 
pseudo-infinite acts of consciousness, which means, in 
other words, in endless acts of consciousness, extending 
through endless time, endless space, endless motion. 
Confining ourselves for the moment to the case of one 
self dealing with one not-self, we see that that self first 
senses and asserts the existence of that not-self (as identi- 
cal with itself), and secondly senses and asserts the non- 
existence of that * same ' not-self (as non-identical with 
itself). The word 'same* here embodies what we know 
as * memory,' The imposition of continuity on an ever- 
changing not-self by a self, in consequence and by virtue 
of its own continuity, is memory of that not-self. Putting 
the matter in another form, while all the possible past, 
present, and future of the World-Process is completely 
and simultaneously present in the consciousness of 
Pratyag-atma, it unfolds, as a mayavic or illusive appear- 
ance of procession, only gradually and in succession, in 


the actual life of the individual ; and the constant partici- 
pation of the individual self, in the omniscience latent 
and ever-present in Pratyag-atma, constitutes the inner 
ideal world of so-called sub-consciousness or supra- 
consciousness, mahat or mahan-atma or buddhi, whence 
arise memory and expectation and derivative mental 
processes. 1 Consider, in this connection, the fact that, 
even in ordinary usage, the word ' present ' never means 
an imaginary point of time, dividing, as with a razor, the 
past from the present, but always a period, ' a slab or 
chunk of time ', so to say ; thus, ' at the present time,' 

* at present,' ' in this present life,' * the present circum- 
stances ', etc. 2 So, * the past ', the ' future ', also, ordin- 
arily, in common usage, mean more or less definite 
periods, 'blocks or pieces ' of time, ages, epochs ; thus : 

* the future of this nation ', * the past of that person '. 

The above statement is, however, not complete bj" 

Firstly : if the separate self can freely participate in 
the omniscience of Pratyag-atma, how is it that our 
recollection and our prevision are so very limited, so very 
erroneous ? Not one in a million can remember or fore- 
cast any facts behind and beyond this present birth ; and 
even the facts of the present life are but very imperfectly 

3 3ricW If-^rmr^n^ I Nyaya-sZtra, Ill, ii, 42. 

' Recollection (is possible) because of the all-knowing nature of the 
Self.' Compare Ward's views as to memory-continuum ( Art. ' Psycho- 
logy/ Bnc. Brit., llth Ed.) 

'See p. 316 supra, and, The Secret Doctrine I, 110, 116 
(Adyar edn.) 


remembered and pre-vised. The answer to this is that 
while, metaphysically, this continuity of memory and 
expectation in the individual self is derived from the 
consciousness of Pratyag-atma, practically and actually 
it is derived from the consciousness of the individual of 
the next higher order, 1 the Ishvara as Sutratma, just as 
in the case of the connecting unity of sens^- media; 
whence limitations. And as to the positive errors and 
forgettings within those limitations, they are due to the 
general causes which make knowledge and ignorance, 
recollection and forgetfulness, truth and error, possible, 
nay, necessary, in the World-Process at large ; these 
causes have been indicated above (pp. 404-405) in dealing 
with the sub-divisions of cognition. 

Secondly (and this is more relevant to our 
present purpose), there is the difference between the 
possibility of participation and actual participation. As 
soon as there is a positive act of memory, or positive act 
of prevision or expectation, it becomes distinct from the 
possibility of such recollection and prevision. 9 One, 
piece, so to say, of the latent has become patent, and the 
general latency remains a latency as ever before. And 
all this while, from the standpoint of the Absolute, there 

1 See pp. 347-348 supra, for the significance of the expression, ' the 
next higher individual '. Also Bh&gavata, XI, iv, 4, 3?2ffifa35:p i K!f- f 
g*raffifrTfr, p. 325 supra. 

* Bu<J<Jhi and Manas ; Total (Collective or Universal and sub-supra-), 
Un-Conscious and Conscious (with its degrees of pro-, fore-, co-Con- 
scious etc.) ; Avyaktam or Unmanifest and Vyaktam or Manifest ; Abs- 
tract and Concrete ; General and Special ; Universal and Particular ; 
all these pairs indicate aspects ot the same Fact. 


is no difference at all between latency and patency ; for, 
in the Absolute, all things which are limited, and can be 
distinguished, are exactly on the same level of 6tat-' this ' 
in the same way, and not one within or higher or lower 
than, or in any way different from, another. The solution 
of these inconsistencies is that what is latent to one is 
also patent to it in turn, and simultaneously to others, 
while what is patent to one is also latent to it in turn, 
and simultaneously to others ; and thus the equality of 
all is brought about, all existing simultaneously from the 
standpoint of the Absolute, all serving as latent and 
patent, ideal and real, one within another, at the same 
time. A hundred sculptors see a hundred different 
statues in the same block of marble simultaneously. 
The facts of physical science, re infinite registration by 
each atom of all sights, sounds, etc., are helpful for 
understanding, here. 

We may further illustrate the fact thus. If a spectator 
wandered unrestingly through the halls of a vast museum, 
a great art-gallery, at the dead of night, with a single 
small lamp in one hand, each of the natural objects, the 
pictured scenes, the statues, the portraits, would be 
illumined by that lamp, in succession, for a single 
moment, while all the rest were in darkness, and after 
that single moment, would itself fall into darkness again* 
Let there now be not one but countless such spectators, 
as many in innumerable number as the objects of sight 
within the place, each spectator meandering in and out 
incessantly through the great crowd of all others, each 


lamp bringing momentarily into light one object, and for 
only that spectator who holds that lamp. This immense 
and unmoving building is the rockbound ideation of the 
changeless Absolute. Each lamp-carrying spectator, in 
the countless crowd, is one line of consciousness in the 
pseudo-infinite lines of such that make up the totality of 
the One Universal Consciousness. Each coming into 
light of each object is its patency, is an experience of the 
jiva ; each falling into darkness is its lapse into the 
latent. From the standpoint of the objects themselves, 
or of the universal consciousness, there is no latency, nor 
patency. From that of the lines of consciousness, there 
is. Why there is this appearance of lines of conscious- 
ness should be clear from all that has gone before. 1 

We see then that whenever and wherever we take 
the World-Process, we shall find it to consist of an 
outer plane of grosser matter which corresponds to and 
makes up the ' real ' world, the patent, and an inner plane 
of subtler which makes up the ' ideal ' world, correspond- 
ing to the latent. At each stage, the jlva-core consists 
of matter of the inner plane, while its outer upadhi, 
sheath, consists of matter of the outer plane ; and when 
a person says: ' I think, 1 'I act,' it means that the matter 

1 For other illustrations, see p. 232 supra and World-War and Its 
Only Cure, pp. 411-413 f.n., Each lamp, each point of light, each 
Jiva, in the illustration above, is a focus of the Diffused Continuum of 
Light, viz., IJniversal Consciousness. Focussing does not mean com* 
plete concentration of all the Light in one point an obvious impossi- 
bility. It only means a comparative (and that too, only illusive) intensi- 
fication in one place, and slight reduction in the neighbourhood. 
W. James* phrase, ' the hot point of consciousness,' is very good. Every 
act of attention creates such a hot point. 


of the inner core, which is the * I ' for the time being, is 
actually, positively, modified by, or is itself modifying in 
a certain manner, the outer real world, literally in the 
same kind of way, though vastly subtler, as a glass may 
reflect an image, or a compressed wire-spring may push 
back the object which compresses it. The ideality of the 
inner processes is due to the fact that the inner film of 
matter is posing and masquerading, for the time, as the 
truly immaterial Self. 1 

Let us take some concrete facts to illustrate the 
above remarks. The lower we descend in the scale of 
living organisms, the less we find of that individuality, 
that self-consciousness, which looks ' before and after,' of 
memory and expectation in short. And the less we find 
of these, the hazier is the distinction between inner and 
outer, ideal and real. But as in no living organism which 
persists through even two moments of time can there be 
an utter absence of a unified consciousness, of an indi- 
viduality, of the sense of ' before and after,' however 
vague and dim it may be, so can there not be an utter 
absence of inner core and outer sheath. But in the higher 
organisms, this distinction, of a persisting core and a 
more or less changing sheath, is much more definite. In 
the average man, the sukshma-sharira (so named in 

1 In this fact may be seen illustrated the doctrine of Sankhya that 
mahat, bwjldhi, abamkara, manas, etc., are all derivatives of Prad ban a 
or Prakjti, born because of the simple juxtaposition of Purusha, and are 
therefore all jada, ' material'. Intellectual and other mental proceesss 
are shapings, colorings, stressings. etc., of the ' mental body,' as much 
as vision is the shaping of (the purpurine on) the retina. The element 
of 1-consciousness. attached to the' shaping, belongs to the Self alone 
That is the One and Only Thing or Fact that is non-material. 


Vecjanta, and corresponding to the astral, or rather astro- 
mental, body, of theosophical literature), made of a finer 
grade of matter than that which composes the physical 
plane we know of, is the inner core. This forms the 
individuality, the thread of continuity, the * present,' in 
which the past and future, the before and after, of one 
physical life-period of a human being are conjoined, 
amidst the changes of his physical body and surround- 
ings, The physical body itself has a certain ' form and 
shape ' imposed upon it by this inner body ; which form. 
roughly speaking, persists like an external thread of con- 
tinuity, through the incessant changes of the material of 
the body. This but illustrates the pseudo-infinite re- 
petition of every principle in nature. The physical body 
is sheath to the astral ; but in the physical body itself a 
still further distinction is made between a grosser and a 
finer, and the former, the grosser, portion becomes sheath 
to an inner less gross, which becomes distinguished as a 
linga-cjeha, 1 a ' type-body ', (or etheric double, in theoso- 
phical literature) , a , 

s And even in the grosser ' physical body,' we may not improperly 
say that the nervous system is the ' inner' and finer, and the rest 
' outer* and coarser. Again, in the nervous system, the ' central ' por- 
tion may be distinguished from the ' peripheral ' ; and so on, till we 
come to a recent theory which holds that the nerves proper are not 
really continuous threads, but consist of microscopic protoplasmic jelly- 
like cells, enclosed within tubes, which cells, during the active waking 
condition, stretch out on both sides and touch each other, thus becoming 
one continuous thread, which undulates with the alternate jelhfication 
and softening, or contracting and expanding, of these cells when they 
are carrying afferent or efferent impulses ; sleep resulting when these 
cells become fatigued, contract, and separate from each other. 



To put the matter in other words : Of the pseudo- 
infinite variations of the Logion, due to the pseudo-jnfinite 
variations of the 'this' contained in that logion, each 
variation may be regarded as representing one life-course, 
one line of consciousness. This one life-course, one line 
of consciousness, taking the case of the average human 
individual, is represented by the inner sukshma-sharira, 
* subtle body', which contains, latent in itself, the whole 
of the (to be unfolded actual) life of that individual, as 
the seed contains the tree. As one single ' present,' it 
includes all the time-divisions, past and future, of that 
life within itself. Because of this fact, the jlva can 
range in memory and expectation over the whole of this 
one physical life ; ! to him the whole of it is in a manner 
present at every moment of his life, because it is all pre- 
sent in the sukshma-sharira which is the ensouling core of 
his physical sheath and is himself. But his memory and 

1 True, most of our experiences are forgotten beyond conscious 
recall. But the experiments of hypnotists and investigation of ' the un- 
conscious ' show that they are still ' present ' and can be recalled in 
special circumstances. In this connection should be considered the 
physiology of the brain. The Mahatma Letters and The Secret 
Doctrine say that the material of the physical body is changed and 
renewed entirely in every seven years. But some Professors of Physio- 
logy and Anatomy have told me, on enquiry, that the cells of the brain 
do not change, though they grow. The subject requires further investi- 
gation. Any way, continuity of physical basis, in some way or other 
(may by transference of impression from old to new cells) seems to be 
needed for continuity of conscious memory, while awake in the physical 
body. The ternaries of anabolism and katabolism within metabolism, 
of integration and disintegration within preservation, of tidal flow and 
ebb within a level, of maximum and minimum under an optimum, seem 
to be at work continuously, in the body, as well as in the mind, in 
various ways. It is obvious that the softer tissues, like the layers of the 
skin, are changed and renewed quickly ; the harder ones, like deep- 
seated ideas and feelings, slowly. 


expectation cannot go beyond the limits of the present 
life, because the individuality of the sfikshma-sharlra 
does not extend over other physical births. If, however, 
by development of mind, by persistent introspection and 
metaphysical or even psycho-philosophical and abstract 
thought, helped by yogic practices (which are only 
scientifically systematised processes of education, of ex- 
tension or development of special old or new faculties), a 
jiva advances in evolution to the stage when he separates 
* himself ' as much from the sukshma-sharira as from 
the sthula-sharira or physical body, then the sukshma- 
sharira loses, in and to him, its character of inner core ; it 
becomes that jiva's normal seat or centre of ' waking * 
consciousness, as the physical or sthula is now ; and be- 
comes merged with the physical into the outer sheath ; 
and another body, (now called the karana-sharira), made 
of a still subtler grade of matter, takes the place of the 
inner core, and becomes a new sukshma-sharira ranging 
over many rebirths and compassing memory and ex- 
pectation of them all. 1 This process is repeated ad 
infinitum* in the endless spirals of evolution including 
system within system. Such seems to be the metaphysic 

1 Kfshpa says to Arjuna, GZJd, iv. 5, ' I remember all my past births ; 
you do not*. See also the conversation, regarding their memories of 
past births, between Jaigisbavya and Avatya ; Yoga-Bhashya, iii, 18. 

2 3TrTC>f:, f^P^-Vibhti^-Mah&'N&rayana Upanishaj. We have 
seen before, that the doctrine, that there are atoms within worlds and 
worlds within atoms endlessly, is very familiar in Yoga-Vasishtha and 
other works. For the specific statement that a param-anu, a ' super- 
atom,' is also an 'organism/ a 'compound* of articulated parts, a 
sanghata, as distinguished from a mere loose collection, a samuha, see 
Yoga-Bhashya, iii, 44. 


of the facts stated in The Secret Doctrine * that, to the 
Logos of our Solar System, all the planes of that system 
are as the sub-planes of one plane. They would be to 
Him, one outer real world ; his own inner, ideal, world 
would be a grade beyond. It is like this : If there were 
beings who had sense-experience of only solid matter, to 
them liquid matter would be in the place of soul, spirit, 
inner or ideal substance ; but if they should gradually 
grow very familiar with water, and begin to have some 
experience of gaseous matter, then solid and liquid would 
become ranged as degrees or subdivisions of the outer 
plane to them, and air would take the place of soul, 
spirit, etc. ; as air grew familiar, radiant matter, or ether, 
or whatever other name might be given to the next 
degree of matter, would take its place as principle of 
continuity 8 and support and unification, in actual life 
and ia general estimation. Witness, in illustration of 
one aspect of this fact, various theories of the earlier 

1 Vol. v, pp. 424. et seq., Adyar edn. 

1 Qevl-Bhdgavata speaks of the five tnaha-bhtyas serving assSfras, 
threads, principles of continuity to one another and to the countless 
forms within each. 

Vayu Pnr&na I. iv. 

' Born one from another, each preceding supports each succeeding 
one. 1 

*W W *i 3?^ ana* i $13 ^r, fensi g ^3 a?N: tfciT* 

fitaW, sfa qraft f fa Wrt%3 ; Brhad Up.. III. vi. 

' All this (solid land) is inter-woven with (and supported by) water. 
But what is water supported by ? By Air. And that Air ? ... By Brahma 
ultimately is everything supported '. 


Greek philosophers, who endeavoured to reduce the 
universe to one single element, earth, water, fire, air, etc., 
successively ; and in illustration of another aspect thereof, 
modern scientific theories with respect to ether. 
Modern scientists have collected together and discussed 
all the attributes assigned to this hypothetical ether, and 
pointed out that they are in most instances exactly 
opposite of those assigned to known kinds of matter.* 
As a fact, the list of attributes thus given, e.g., 
continuity, unlimitedness, homogeneity, non-atomicity, 
structurelessness, gravitationlessness, frictionlessness, etc., 
is not a list of attributes of any kind of matter or Mula- 
prakrti, but of Pratyag-atma. But it always happens in 
the history of evolution, that each subtler and more 
pliable grade of matter, in its relation to the next denser 
and more resistant, displays the characteristics which 
Pratyag-atma generally displays towards Mula-prakrti, 
viz., characteristics of being a source of existence 
and support, and of supplying a basis of continuity, of 
lubrication, whereby the resistant and separate are 
brought into relation with each other with the least 
possible friction, and are unified. It is worthy of remark in 
passing that the Sarpskrt word sn6h a,* means lubricant 
oil, or moisture, our water, as well as love, which is 
Pratyag-atma in the desire-aspect, desire for unity, and 
pre-eminently ' lubricates ' our human relations. We 

1 See, for instance, A.E. Dolbear, The Machinery of the Universe, 
p. 93, (Romance of Science Series). 


may well entertain the supposition, therefore, that when 
modern science, becoming more and more familiar with 
radiant matter and protyle and ether, etc., shall have 
discovered their real properties, they will all fall into 
line with the kinds of matter now better known ; and 
a new and hypothetical element will have to be assumed, 
with these same characteristics of Pratyag-atma, to 
explain the otherwise paradoxical behaviour of the 
known kinds. Puranic and theosophical literature 
speaks of two such elements, after ether or akasha, to be 
discovered within the time-limits of our Manvantara, 
which have been already referred to before, viz., mahat 
or adi-tattva and buddhi or anupadaka-tattva. 1 

Co-ordination of these pseudo-infinite planes of matter 
then, is to be found in the fact that, wherever and when- 
ever we take it, we find the World-Process as a limited 
brahm-an(Ja, a world-system, small or large, which is a 
tri-bhuvanam, a tri-lokl, a system of * three worlds ' or 
layers or planes of matter. That is to say, every jiva, 
wherever and whenever he lives, lives in a world-system 
which to him has three factors : an outer or real world, 
an inner or ideal world, and the all-embracing con- 
sciousness which connects the two, and which, being 
itself essentially and fully ever-present, is the basis of 

1 P. 372 supra, f.n. If these are (as is said) sense-able, in the same 
way as akasha, v&yu, etc., and will have their corresponding sensor and 
motor organs, as akasha has ear and vocal (Skt. vale) cords ; vayu, skin 
and feet ; agni, eyes and bands, then mahat-budghi, the psychological 
principle or faculty, antah-karana or 'inner organ* of Sfinkbya, has 
to be distinguished from them, for it has to underlie all senses , old 
or new. See Pranava-vada. 


every * present,' whatever stretch of time-space-motion 
that lower present or ideal may include. In our system, 
to average humanity, the outer world is the world of the 
physical plane and sthula-sharira ; the inner, of the 
astro-mental plane and sukshma-sharira ; the abstract 
consciousness (the principles or outlines on which the 
individual is constructed, the basic constituents of his 
nature, the special aspect or mode of the One Conscious- 
ness which that individual is intended to manifest, anger, 
or love, or art, or philanthropy, etc., in pseudo-infinite 
variety), of karana-sharira, the ' causal ' body, which 
is the cause of the others; in a way corresponding 
to that in which Absolute-Consciousness is cause 
of all that occurs within it. When, by evolution and 
opening up of the paths of individual consciousness 
through layers of the sukshma-sharira (i.e., by the 
* waking up ' of the individual on that plane, by 
transfer to it of * the hot place* in his consciousness), 
the latter and its material will become as much ' object ' 
to the consciousness as the physical body and its material 
are now ; then karana-body will take the place of 
sukshma-body, and abstract consciousness will retire to 
a subtler plane of matter, which has been called 
budcjhic, or maha-karana, or turlya 1 ; and then the 
range of memory and expectation will extend beyond 
the present life to past and future births, since the 
karana-body (because of its subtler matter) has a more 
extensive ' present,' and lasts through many physical 


births, even as the sukshma-sharira lasts through all 
changes of the physical body in one birth. From the 
standpoint of the karana-body, physical births-deaths 
are as bright-dark fortnights, or even day-nights, of physi- 
cal life would be to the sukshma-sharira. 1 

We may now pass on to certain inferences from the 
facts stated above. But before doing so it may be noted 
as useful to bear in mind in systematising apparently 
disjointed and otherwise inconsistent-seeming and confus- 
ing statements in old Samskrt and theosophical literature 
that the same words are employed, and for reasons 
existing in the nature of things as shown above, to indi- 
cate abstract general principles and types which have a 
universal application, and also special and concrete facts 
which are peculiar only to a particular locality or system. 
Thus (a) atma, (6) buddhi, (c) manas these have 
one universal sense, viz., (a) Self, (6) unifying Reason 
or Universal Mind, which is but Self * holding 

1 For ' practical ' purposes, works like Yoga-Vasishtha speak of 
only two ' bodies, ' viz., adhi-bhautika (made up of maha-bhutas) 
and ati-vahika (by or in which the jiva 4 passes from one 
mood or body to another '). In Sufi terms, the two are jism-i-kaslf and 
jism~i-latlf t or nafs-i-muqlm and nafs-i-j&ri; (see Essential Unity 
of All Religions, Index). This latter would be ' core '-body, as the 
former is ' crust '-body. For considerations, in terms of modern 
science, supporting belief in the existence and the possibility of 
development of such an 'inner body,' see Edward Carpenter's The 
Drama of Love and Death. The possibility of such extraction of a 
subtler and finer body from the denser, is evidenced by the even more 
incredibly wonderful yet very familiar actuality of the caterpillar 
chrysalis butterfly and larva pupa moth transformations. Theo- 
sophical doctrines as to larger and larger reaches of subtler and subtler 
bodies and planes, bud^hic, nirvSnic, etc., are illustrations of the 
principles attempted to be expounded in the text. 

More on the significance of the ' present ' will be found in 


together ' the Many as dharma-megha, 1 web of life, 
and network of laws, and (c) separative intelligence. 
They are also occasionally used in theosophical literature 
in another sense, viz., the three subtlest planes of matter 
out of the seven of which our solar system is there said 
to consist. When all the seven planes are taken as sub- 
planes of one cosmic plane, these three may be regarded 
as composing the inner core to the outer sheath made up 
of the other four ; even as the three subtler sub-planes 
of the physical plane supply the material for the ' inner f 
etheric double, which pervades and holds together the outer 
body composed of the four grosser sub-planes of physical 
matter, viz., solid, liquid, gaseous, and etheric. 

The necessary corollary from the above statements 
is : Planes of matter which may be very different from 
each other, which may be mutually uncognisable by> 
and even as non-existent to, the jlvas ordinarily inhabit- 
ing each, i.e., having sheaths and bodies made of, or 
corresponding to, it, will always be seen from the stand- 
point of a higher jiva, having a sufficiently extensive 
consciousness, to be graded or related to each other in 
some way or other. We can conceive of beings whose 
bodies are made of air, and of others made of fire-flames. 
These two sets of beings might even interpenetrate 
without being conscious of each other. But a jiva, who 
was familiar with both kinds of matter in all their forms, 

; Yoga-siitra, i, 2, and iv, 29, 32 ; ' the cloud, m6gha, which 
rains, mlhati, all cjharma and dharma-s, virtue, and laws of Nature, 
and also functions and characteristic qualities of things ' ; see the present 
writer's Yoga-Concordance-Dictionary . 


would be able to distinguish between the two, and see 
the gradation between the atoms composing the one 
and the other kind of matter. A mosquito can walk 
upon the surface of water; for all practical purposes, 
the water is to it as hard and resistant as stone. It is 
not so to the fish. The fish and the mosquito may not 
be able to understand, the one how the other lives and 
moves in water, and the other how the one can walk 
upon the surface of it without being immersed. Man 
can understand both things. Pseudo-infinite necessarily 
are these diversities of consciousness ; and each plane 
and each kind of matter, corresponding to each variety 
of this diversity, is again pseudo-infinite in extent of 
space, time, and motion, as already said. From the 
narrow standpoint, which knows of only one, each may 
seem to exclude even the possibility of others ; so that 
if one said that there were living beings whose bodies 
were composed of subtler matter, that our earth was 
thronged with them so that our bodies and theirs were 
passing through each other very often, and in entire 
unconsciousness of each other's existence, the statement 
would ordinarily either not be believed, as involving a 
breach of geometrical axioms, or if believed, would be 
regarded as disproving those axioms. But to a higher 
and broader outlook, both kinds of matter and their 
corresponding lines of consciousness fall into their proper 
places ; and the graded relations, to each other, of these 
planes of matter, by interpenetration, without violation 
of any mathematical laws, also becomes apparent. 


Another connected corollary seems to be that, by 
metaphysical deduction, the so-called fourth and fifth 
and higher dimensions of space can really not be any- 
thing differing in kind from the known three dimensions.* 
These three dimensions themselves, length, breadth and 
depth, are but varieties of the one fact of co-existence 
which is the essential and the whole significance of 
space. Three straight lines intersecting each other at 
right angles at one central point give us these three 
dimensions. B.ut a million, a billion, a pseudo-infinite 
number, of such triplets of lines can intersect each 
other at the same central point ; that is to say, a pseudo- 
infinite number of single straight lines can intersect each 
other, at that point, at angles of all possible degrees ; 
and we can therefore justifiably speak of a pseudo-infinite 
number of dimensions of space. In any other sense, all 
so-called new dimensions resolve themselves into cases 
of interpenetration in various ways ; and interpenetration 
itself, it is clear, is but the co-existence of atoms, or mole- 
cules, or component particles, in special positions towards 
each other. The case would be similar with dimensions 
and divisions of time and motion. 

The question of how the consciousness of a jlva 
expands, so as to embrace more and more planes of 

1 The Secret Doctrine, I, 29S-296, and The Mahatma 
Letters, p. 404, clearly repudiate the notion o! any fourth, 
fifth* etc., dimension of space, other than the three, length, 
breadth, depth. They explain that ' interpenetration ' has 
been mistaken for a new * dimension '. 


matter, is one of general evolution, or of practical yoga 
when an endvavour is made to accomplish this 

The nature itself of the process of expansion of 
consciousness is nothing peculiarly mysterious. All 
education is such expansion ; and yoga is specialised 
education. A jlva takes up a new subject of study, a 
new line of livelihood, a new department of life and mode 
of existence, and forthwith a new 'world is opened to him, 
and his consciousness flows out into, becomes co-extensive 
with, takes in and assimilates, that new world. Every 
sense, ear, eye, nose, is a window into a world of its own. 
In another aspect of 'expansion', viz., of (comparatively) 
simultaneous communion, we find other illustrations. 
Take the case of an ordinary government. The consci- 
ousness of an officer in charge of the police-administration 
of a sub-district is coextensive with the police-affairs of 
that district ; that of another in charge of its revenue- 
administration is similarly co-extensive with its revenue- 
affairs ; and so with a number of other departments 
of administration, medical, educational, arboricultural, 
commercial, municipal, side by side, in the same sub- 
district. But there are larger districts made up of 
numbers of these sub-districts, and still larger divisions 
of country made up of numbers of these districts ; and 
at each stage there are administrative officers in charge 
of each department, whose consciousness may be said to 
include the consciousnesses of their subordinates in that 
department, exclude those of their compeers, and be in 


turn included in those of their superiors. The more 
complicated the machinery of the government, the 
better the illustration will be, of inclusions, exclusions, 
partial or complete coincidences, and overlappings and 
communions of consciousness. At last we come to the 
head of the government, whose consciousness may be 
said to include the consciousnesses, whose knowledge and 
power include the knowledges and powers, of all the 
public servants of the land, whose consciousness is so 
expanded as to enable him to be in touch with them all 
and feel and act through them all constantly. An officer 
promoted through the grades of such an administration 
would clearly pass through expansions of consciousness. 
A more common illustration, which may appear to show 
out the so-called immediacy of consciousness better, is 
chat of friends and relatives. Two friends may be so 
intimate with each other, husband and wife, and members 
of a joint family, may love and be in rapport with each 
other so much, that they have a ' common life,' a ' com- 
mon feeling,' a ' common consciousness V But it should 

1 Members of a bench of judges, arriving at a concurrent 
judgment ; disputants coming to an agreement, after examin- 
ing all the pros and cons ; a classful of students, following 
with intelligent assent, a mathmatical demonstration by a 
professor ; all these are illustrations of coincidence of con- 
sciousness ; so too, a great public meeting adopting a resolu- 
tion unanimously. A simple and effectively intelligible way 
of putting the idea is this : The * We '-consciousness includes, 
synthesises, coincides with, unifies, all the ' I-, You-, He-, 
She-, It-consciousnesses which that ' We '-consciousness may 
stretch itself over, and cover, and embrace. * We ' includes 
all ' thou-s ', ' you-s ', ' he-s ', ' she-s ', ' it-s ', ' they-s ' ; and 


be borne in mind that, strictly speaking, there is no more 
immediacy in the one case than in the other, but only 
quicker cognition. Consciousness of the particular, the 
limited, working unavoidably, through an upadhi, ' sheath ', 
4 garment f , * tenement ', instrument,' ' vehicle ', neces- 
sarily deals with time as with space ; and the time- 
element is always a definite element, however infinitesimal 
it may be in any given case. The word ' immediate ' 
in such cases has only a comparative significance, as is 
apparent from the fact that the time of transmission of 
a sensation, from the end of a nerve to the seat of 
consciousness, has been distinctly and definitely calculated 
in the case of living organisms ; and differs with the 
organisms; it is much longer in a whale than in a 

Such expansion of consciousness, then, is not in its 
nature more recondite than any other item in the World- 
Process, but a thing of daily and hourly occurrence. In 
terms of metaphysic, it is the coming of an individual 
self into relation with a larger and larger not-self. The 
processes of yoga are no more and no less methods of 
e-duc-ation using the word in its true significance of 
developing, ' forth-leading ', opening up and orienting, of 
faculties already existent but weak or latent than the 
processes followed in the million schools and colleges of 
modern life, for developing the physical and mental 

it does so in such a way that every, individual, included 
therein, retains his, her, its, separate individuality, while 
feeling identity with the whole. 


powers of children and youth ; only they are (probably) 
more systematic, better thought out, based on deeper 
knowledge of psychology and metaphysic. Every act 
of attention, of concentration, of regulation and balancing, 
of deliberately ' joining ' and directing the self to an 
object, or to itself, of con-y^g-ating it to, or en-gag-ing 
it in, anything, is (jnana- or kriya-) yoga (respectively, 
according as the chitta, mind, is made receptive or pro- 
jective) ; and means some development of the individual 

NOTE: Two kinds of moksha, liber-ation, de-liver - 
ance, quitting, letting go, e-mancip-ation, un-binding, (from 
much, 'to un-tie, re-lease ') are indicated in the old books. 
(1) One is the ' metaphysical ', moksha proper, ' radical deli- 
verance ', once for all, from all and ultimate doubt of Immort- 
ality, doubt of Utter and Perfect Self-dependence; from fear 
of pain and death, fear of subjection-to-another, of being at 
the Mercy-of-Another. It is a change of the attitude of the 
chitta, mind ; change of its outlook upon Life and World-Pro- 
cess. One of the Masters (the real Founders of the Theosophical 
Society) is reported to have said, on some occasion, ' Moksha 
is not a change of conditions ' (plural) ' but of condition ' 
(singular). The person, whose mind undergoes this change of 
* condition,' becomes Self-sure ; and instead of always thinking 
of, clinging to, working for, the part, the limited, i.e., his indi- 
vidualistic egoistic self, he turns to, or rather into, the Whole; 
and persistently knows, desires (the welfare of), and works 
4 for ', or rather ' as, the whole, the unlimited Universal Self. 

(2) The other may be called ' technical ' moksha. 
Children released from school, prisoners let out from jail, 
public servants ' off ' duty, wage-workers set free after work- 
hours all these experience moksha in the technical sense, even 
on the physical plane, in daily life. Any ' freeing ' from any 
bonds, any ties, is a moksha. Receiving the ' freedom ' of a 
city, in England, now a formal honor, seems to have meant, 


originally, that the person honored was really ' free ' to enter 
into any house of that city and be welcomed as a guest, as a 
matter of right ; he was * freed ' from the ordinary limitations 
and restrictions to which strangers are subject. (Compare 
Chhandogya Up., VII, xxv, 2) ' He who has such Self -Know- 
ledge becomes Sva-rat, Self -governed ; . . . He can pass into 
any world and all worlds at will ' (in and by ' imagination ', 
and then in corresponding * reality '). ' Super-physically ', 
with the achievement, siddhi, (from s idh,sddh, to effect 
completely, accomplish, suc-ceed), of each new extension of 
faculty, each new sense, the person becomes ' free ' o/and in 
the corresponding new world, free to range in it at will. Also, 
per contra, if he becomes tired of any kind of experience, any 
world (of science, art, fairies, nymphs, gods, titans, comedies, 
tragedies, heavens, hells), and abandons it, then too he be- 
comes * free ', but free from it ; he transcends it, rises above 
it (aty-etO, by negation ; (see quotation from Charaka, p. 131, 
supra). In this sense, while ' metaphysical moksha ' is of 
one kind only, the other, ' technical or superphysical moksha * 
may be of countless kinds ; for there must be as many kinds 
of freedom as there are, or may be, of bondage ; thus, 
books of medicine speak of a person ' freed from fever, ' as 

All this implies, over again, that 'laws * are the same, for 
physical as well as super-physical planes, worlds, conditions ; 
and thereby re-inforces the Law of Analogy or Corres- 

Yoga~Bhashya t ii. 27, speaks of two kinds of v i 
m u k t i i (the word is here used as a synonym for mukti or 
moksha, but is seldom employed in this sense). The com- 
mentary, on this and the preceding aphorism, says in effect : 
The only cure for a-vidya, Primal Error (' I am this-body f ) 
is viveka, discrimination, between Purusha, 'I', and 
sa^tva (the finest attribute of Prakrti, here standing for 
the whole of Prakrti, 1 , * This ', ' Not- 1 '. This discrimination 
wavers, falters, flicker?, does not burn with a steady flame. 
To make it steady, firm, unshakable, it has to be developed 
and strengthened through seven stages: (1) Thar which has 
to be given up, viz., ' this '-body, to which the mind clings, is 


recognised as what ought not to be clung to ; (2) the causes 
which have produced the clinging are attenuated, (the causes 
being, as stated in Yoga-Sutra, ii, 3, the series of five, a-vidya- 
asmita, raga, dvesha, abhi-nivesha, error or ne-science, 
egoism, like, dislike, and 'ego-complex 1 , i.e., obstinate 
separative individualism ; of which five and the correspond- 
ing opposites, the whole World-Process is product and 
illustration) ; (3) the dropping away of them is bi ought 
about by appropriate mind-discipline, and accomplished 
more and more fully in and by samadhi-meditation ; (4) 
it is realised that discrimination (as above) is the only 
means of the utter subsidence of the causes. These four 
constitute kflryS vt-mukji, 'freedom which has to be 
made ', achieved, by practice. The remaining three stages 
constitute chit^a vi- mukti, f freeing, or freedom, or 
dissolution, of the mind ' ; (5) the momentum, desire-force, of 
buddhi, mind, is exhausted . there is no craving left for 
separative individualised existence ; (6) the gufla-s, sattva- 
rajas-tamas, attributes of mind or Prakyti, like displaced 
boulders tumbling from a mountain-top, and rushing unstay- 
ably down to the bottom, merge back into their primal source 
and disappear ; (7) Purusha, Self, (individual self which has 
become Universal Self by the dropping away of all limiting 
and individualising upadhi-sheath and entanglements) remains 
fixed in Its own Sole-ness, Kvala-ta or Kaivalyam. 
11 The dewdrop slips into the Shining Sea ". 

Yoga Vasishtha also enumerates seven steps or stages, 
in three separate places ; each list varies a little, in names 
and order, but not in substance. The places are Bk. 3, ch. 118, 
verses 3-16; Bk. 6, PUrv-ardha, ch. 120, verses 1-9; and 
ch. 126, verses 70-73. Buddhist, SUfi, and other schools of 
Yoga, have, each, their own special lists of steps, practices, 

In between the first stage and the seventh, come all the 
phases of ' life abounding ', * fuller life ' of the Right Hand 
Path of White Magic, fuller life of " terrible toil and profound 
sadness, but also a great and ever-increasing delight " (Light 
on the Path); gradual progress onthenivrtti-marga, 
Path of Renunciation and Ascent, by ' re-vers-ion * to more and 


more subtle bodies and planes, through which the jiva had 
come down, grade by grade, on the Path of Pursuit and Des- 
cent, pr a-vrtt i-m arga. The Secret Docrine, V, 300, 
says : 

" Mankind, from the first down to the last, or seventh 
Race, is composed of one and the same company of actors, 
who have descended from higher spheres to perform 
their artistic tour on this our planet, Earth. Starting as pure 
spirits on our downward journey around the world, with 
the knowledge now feebly echoed in the occult doctrines 
inherent in us, cyclic law brings us down to the reversed 
apex of Matter, which is lost down here on earth, and the 
bottom of which we have already struck; and then, the 
same law of spiritual gravity will make us slowly ascend 
to still higher, still purer, spheres, viz., those we started 
from/' ' 

1 Pp. 294-296 of H.P.B.'s From the Caves and Jungles 
of Hindustan should be carefully read as a continuation of 
the above extract from her Secret Doctrine, The following 
sentence on p. 296 indicates that Spirit, in its descent into 
Matter, comes right down into the mineral stage (atom) and 
then reascends : ' With every new Maha-Yuga (great cycle) 
the Deva separates from that which is eternal, attracted by 
existence in objective existence, like a drop of water first 
drawn up by the Sun, then starting again downwards, passing 
from one region to another, and returning at last to the dirt of 
our planet. Then having dwelt there while a small cycle 
lasted, it proceeds again upwards on the other side of the 
circle." Pp. 293-294 say useful things about spiritualistic 
phenomena. The whole confirms belief in personal im- 
mortality and Reincarnation. 

On these two subjects, The Mahatma Letters throw 
much light ; read the pages referred to in its Index against 
4 Death f and ' Reincarnation ; pp. 170-171 give some specially 
beautiful injunctions for those who watch by a death-bed; 
these injunctions indicate that the departing soul gathers out 
of its past, the most important material with which it will 
start its next re-incarnation. H.P.B/s Secret Doctrine and 


In other words, out of countless Dhyan Chohans, jivas, 
d6vas-asuras, spiritual intelligences or individuals, a great host 

Ists Unveiled have also helpful information on the subject ; 
see their Index-references against ' Reincarnation '. 

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle is well known as the creator of 
the famous detective ' Sherlock Holmes '. He was also a very 
versatile writer on many subjects, historical novels, romances, 
short stories, tragic and comic. A very important book by 
him, on a very serious subject, entitled The Edge of the 
Unknown, came into my hands only in September, 1947, 
(while these pages were passing through the press). It deals 
with the subject and the literature of spiritualistic phenomena 
from their beginnings, a little before the middle of the last 
century, till the year of its publication, 1930 ; recounts 
the author's own personal experiences with clairvoyants, 
clairaudients, levitators in broad daylight, and mediums of 
many sorts, and his very careful investigations and testings ; 
and also records the conversions of several leading scientists, 
journalists, and clergymen, who were formerly unbelievers. 
Of course the views of such believers as Sir William 
Barratt (founder of the Psychical Research Society), Sir 
Oliver Lodge, Sir William Crookes, all famous scientists, are 
referred to. Bulwer Lytton, the famous novelist, is described 
as one of the moral cowards " who admitted the facts in 
private and stood aloof in public " (p. 248) as regards 
D. D. Home's phenomena ; though himself the author of those 
* Magic '-novels, Zanoni (referred to in The Mahatma 
Letters with some commendation) and A Strange Story. 
Sir A. C. Doyle says that all the finer spirits declared, 
through their mediums, that the sole purpose, for which 
they were endeavouring to communicate with the earth-world, 
was to convince mankind of the certainty, the fact and truth, 
of personal immortality, and thereby bring great solace and 
peace of mind to all, as regards the fate of their departed dear 
ones, and also their own future ; also to show to mankind that 
the Supreme Power at the heart of the Universe was essen- 
tially Just, and that there were different kinds of purgatories 
for sinners of different degrees, and also heavens for the 
virtuous similarly ; also that reincarnation was a fact. And 


decided (by the Free- Will of Inner Necessity) to become ' a 
troupe of actors ' and gradually c descend ' to the state and stage 
of Humanity, and then * re-ascend f , equally gradually, to the 
primal state of spiritual intelligences, dvas-asuras. For 
fuller understanding of this, one should read up the references 
in the S.D. Index under * Dhyan Chohans,' ' Dhyanis,' ' Dhyani-. 
Buddhas,' etc. In Skt. terms, P i t T-s, ' fathers,' 'ancestors/ are 
born as ' p u t r a - s ', ' sons ' ; i.e., the same old souls are 
born over and over again, in new bcdies, generation after 
generation. One point may be specially noted here. S. D., V, 
374, says: " Vajra-dhara or Vajra-sattva is the Regent or 
President (chief) of all the Dhyan Chohans or Dhyani 
Buddhas, he is the highest, the Supreme Buddha ; personal yet 
never manifested objectively ". In this sentence may be seen 
the reconciliation of belief in a Personal God (of a particular 
and limited world, as in a king or emperor or president or other 
ruler of a State), and non-belief in an extra-cosniiccd and 
Universal but yet Personal God of the whole Beginningless 
and Endless World-Process ; see pp. 170-172, supra. In The 
Mahatma Letters, all notion of such an extra-cosmical, uni- 
versal, * personal ' god, is strongly repudiated (pp. 52-59). 

We have seen above that moksha-freedotn has as many 
kinds, technically, as bondage. Self, having, of It-Self, ' put 
aside * (' forgotten ') Its Freedom, and put on countless bonds 
of finite forms, modes, moods, experiences ; is everlastingly 
engaged in the task of regaining Its freedom ; freedom from 
this want, that slavery, this pain, that restriction, this limita- 
tion, that oppression, this ignorance, that powerlessness 
political, economic, domestic, social, individual, biological,, 
psychological, racial, national, etc. ; freedom from inability to 
fly at will to planets and stars, to see what is happening, or 
has happened, or will happen, on any of them ; and so forth. 

there is little doubt that the faith of mankind at large has been 
revived on a large scale, by means of spiritualistic pheno- 
mena, as also in various other ways, directly and indirectly, 
in personal immortality and reincarnation. The whole book is 
well worth reading and pondering over by Theosophists. Also 
The Wanderings of a spiritualist (1921) by the same author* 


For practical purposes, however, a few of the more im- 
portant kinds or stages of moksha are specified by different 
schools or systems of jnana-knowledge or bhakti-devotion, 
from their own respective standpoints. A yoga-method of 
preponderant karma-action is also recognised, viz. y the karma- 
yoga and karma-sannyasa-yoga expounded in Chs. iii and v of 
Gltn. But it is generally agreed that it is subsidiary ; while 
the yogas of predominant bhakti or of predominant jnana are 
more direct means to moksha ; the former, chiefly to the 
special and super-physical kinds ; the latter, mainly to the 
metaphysical. Pranava-Vada (see its Index-references under 
4 moksha ') gives helpful information. The main idea to bear 
in mind, explaining the unfamiliar in terms of the familiar, is 
that these many kinds of moksha, * free choice ', are like the 
many vocations and careers from which any one may be 
selected, according to his taste and temperament, by a person, 
who has completed a good general education. But, while the 
several vocations may be regarded as of equal importance, yet 
there is also a grading and ranking among the persons 
pursuing them. Thus Rshis, Maha-Rshis, Brahma-Rshis, 
D6va-Rshis, Parama-Rshis ; Bodhi-sattvas, Buddhas, Maha- 
Buddhas, Masters or Chohans of ' seven rays ', Pratyt'ka- 
Chohans ; Thrones, Principalities, Powers ; Auliya, Abdal, 
Abrar, Ghausas or Qutubs (in Vedic, Buddhist, Christian, 
Muslim, schemes), have different functions as well as grades 
and ranks in the Invisible Spiritual Government. 

Karma-yoga is the preliminary step, bhakti-yoga the 
next, jnana-yoga, the last ; after achieving jnana, the soul 
pursues all three conjointly, with a new vision and a new 

By bhakti-devotion, the soul attains the following kinds 
of moksha, step by step. Chhandogya 2. 20. 2 ; Mukti (1. 23) ; 
and other Upanishats, mention them : (l) Sal ok y a, life in 
the 1 o k a, world, of the loved and worshipped deity ; 
(2) S a m ! p y a, " nearness ' to him or her ; (3) S a r s h t i, 
holding of similar fshti-s, powers and possessions, (4) 
Sarupya, sameness of rupa, appearance, with him or 
her ; (5) S a y u j y a, complete identification with, mergence 
into, him or her. The worshipped object may be any one of 


the great gods or goddesses. The several grades of g a a a-s,, 
retinue, of Shiva ; p a r s h a d a-s, companions of Vishnu ; 
T s h i-s, court-iers, of Brahma ; s a k h i-s, comrades," of 
P6vi ; a n u-c h a r a-s, followers, of other deities ; are ex- 
amples. Correspondences to all these ' super-physical ' states- 
will be readily seen in human relations in earth-life. Theo- 
sophical tradition as to the souls of Chaldean votaries of 
various stars and planets going away to them, at special 
astronomical conjunctions, by means of special rites and 
ceremonies also illustrates the same idea. 

The difference between such moksha-s and states of 
svarga or PSvachan or SukhavatI, heaven, may be regarded as 
one of degree of comparative voluntartness and conscious 
control in the former, and the opposite in the latter ; like the 
differences of wakefulness and reverie. 

As regards ' Metaphysical emancipation from all tetters 
of the soul, and gain of Self-dependence ', it should be noted 
that ' Realisation of the Reality, the Real, the Self ', is not 
merely intellectual, nor merely emotional, nor merely actionai 
(physical, volitional), nor merely intuitionalbut is all these 
at once. A person learning to swim, has one supreme moment,, 
when the experience comes to him of ' Sink or Swim ', and 
ends in 'Swim, and not Sink*. The travail, the soul -and- 
body-rending of the spiritual experience of ' Die, clinging to 
the Finite body, or Live, clinging to the Infinite I ', is similar. 
As Light on the Path describes it, solemnly, beautifully, the 
lower nature weeps, the heart cries, the lower self frenziedly 
strives to preserve its separateness ; but it has to be trans- 
formed, transmuted, into the Higher non-separative all- 
inclusive Self : " Seek in the heart the source of evil and 
expunge it. He who will enter upon the Path must tear this 
thing out of his heart. And then the heart will bleed, and 
the whole life of the man seem to be utterly dissolved. This 
ordeal must be endured . . . Fasten the energies of your soul 
upon the task. Live neither in the present, nor the future, 
but in the Eternal. This giant weed cannot flower there." 
The illumination, the transfiguration, comes in different ways 
to different souls. In some, the intellectual aspect is pre- 
dominant rshis, sages, seers; in others, the emotional 


munis, saints ; in others, the actional hatha-yogis, ritualists. 
The Ultimate Goal is the same for all. 

Following quotations supply further explanations and 
illustrations of the principles indicated above.* 

: f^f-Rf fcJ^TFirH I Yoga-sty, i. 19. 
: 5H, 3^%: %3?4 I ii, 25. 

iqicf 4-w^N ^ i "i, 49. 

iii, 50. 

i iii, 55. 

: i w f 29. 

7Mf ., iv, 34. 

-f^^T^T: ; 

i 3 fcilifcf 

RT C 9 BI^3^F 51 ft^fcl I Vayu-Purana, quoted in 
Vachaspati's Tffed on Yoga-bkashya, i, 19. 

T: IcW: PjpfT: I Fd^^-^-. Purvarcjha, 
Ch. 57, and Mafrya-P.. Ch. 143. 

: ^ ^ %<?, qai^r i^r ^^^TJTT e55t^i grffaf 

ChhAndogya, 2.20.2. 


55Ss^T, ST^ lp WTO 


l^ff *nfcf 3Kfaq I Muktika Up., i, 15-43. 

Bhavishya-Purana, III, Khapda iv t Ck. 7. 


: i B^^. xi. xx. 
*rt i 
% I, 'I^OT 

V&yu-Pur&na t . Parva,, Ch. vii. 

p., CH. xv] KAIVALYA-AL(L-) ONENESS 457 


M&dhyamika Su^ra, Ch, 25, verses 3 and 9. 

The substance of the above quotations is this: * Kaivalya, 
Kevala-ta, soleness, soli-tude, L-one-li-ness, On-(e)-li-ness, is 
the final transcendental metaphysical moksha. I-On-(e)-ly- 
am and-None-Else. All-is-I, I-am-All;not-an(y)-Other. (Leave 
me Al-one !, the harrassed person cries !) Dis-junction of 
a-vidya (the Error, I-am-this) from I is Kaivalya. The soul 
that has become sure of the difference, opposition, mutual- 
other-ness, of Self and Nature (Mot-Self, Matter, This, with its 
gunas, sattva, etc.) grasps all (i.e., the whole of This) by (one 
comprehensive act of Thought, and therefore rises superior 
to all. (See quotation from Charaka, p. 131, supra ; what I 
really do not care for, what I take no interest in, what I have 
have cut off from myself that has no power over my mind, 
cannot influence me in any way ; I am superior to his, her, or 
its guiles and wiles and witcheries). Then that soul's condi- 
tion is the one called Dharma-megha Samadhi, meditation in 
which the Dharma-s, laws of Nature, rain down (megha, 
mehati) upon the passion-less error-free truth-seeing mind ; 
then the facts and laws of the World-Process appear fully 
and clearly to the meditator. When the soul loses its interest 
in and is tired of even such contemplation and enumeration of 
Nature's secrets, pra-san-khyane api a-kusidasya ; then it 
retires into Kaivalya. When sattva becomes equal in purity 
to Self, it hierges into the latter, (Nature dis-appears into Self, 
in pralaya-sleep), and Kaivalya remains. When guna-s, 
Nature's triple attributes, have no momentum left, nothing left 
to do, no unexhausted unfulfilled desire, no object to strive fc>r, 
then they dissolve and vanish, and Kaivalya remains, i.e., 
the Principle of Consciousness, established in It-Self. 1 

Souls which still cling to the finest super-subtle aspects 
of nature, attain to the condition of vi-deha-s, bodiless ones, 
and prakrt i-laya-s, dissolved into Nature (This); (or the 
state of bodiless beings who have become dissolved into 
Prakrti- Nature) ; and they enjoy this condition for long eons 
(though there is no time-marker in those conditions ; (vide 
Mahatma Letters, reDeva-chan, and Avlchi, pp. 194-197). 


Buddhist books also mention these. Pnranas amplify details. 
It accord with their respective aspirations, souls merge into 

(a) various cosmic or systemic indriyas, senses, of the systemic 
Ishvara (corresponding to various deva-s, rshi-s, etc.) ; or 

(b) into the systemic b h u t a-s or t a J t v a-s, elements ; or (c) 
into the principle of aham-kara, egoism, mere pure ' I am ' ; 
or (d) into the principle of mahat-buddhi, universal mind ; or 
(e) into the principle of Avyakta-Mula-Prakrti ; or attain other 
states. (Artists of a high order, painters, sculptors, musicians, 
perfumers, inventors of delicious perfumes, gustators, creators 
of exquisite tastes, tactators, or palpators, devisers of delight- 
ful touches, as of silks, velvets, plushes, gossamers, zephyrs, 
cool or warm and limpid waters, soft emulsive oils and 
unguents such would be candidates for the technical moksha 
of incjriya-chintakas, sense-contemplators ; great scientists, 
for that of bhuta-chintakas ; abstract introverts or, lather, 
introspectors, of abhi-manika-s or ahamkara-chintakas , pro- 
found comprehensive thinkers or philosopheis, of buddhi- 
chintakas ; meditators on the unmanifest, of Avyakta- 
chintakas). The state of (a) lasts for ten manvantaras ; 
of each succeeding one, ten times longer than the preceding. 
(These figures are scarcely to be taken as precise ! They 
generally imply that the more subtle is the longer-lasting)* 
When the attributeless Nirguna Purusha is reached, all 
measure of Time disappears '. 

* The states of various gods are attained by appropriate 
yajiia-s (mystery sacrifices, mystic rituals, etc, ; % of Virat (a 
deity below Brahma), by renunciation of the fruit of all 
actions ; of mergence into Prakrti, by vai-ragya, revulsion 
from the world ; of Kaivalya, by knowledge. These are the 
fiv% gati-s, goings, courses, ways, that lie before the aspiring 

4 Dwelling in the world of the worshipped deity is known 
as salokya-muk^i ; attaining general resemblance to him (in 
appearance, in way of living, wearing his uni-form, so to say), 
is sa-rupya ; being entrusted with some of his powers and 
possessions (as a public servant is, with a king's), is sarshti ; 
being near him, (as a member of a king's entourage or per- 
sonal staff), is samipya ; being identified with him, con-join-ed 


with him, (able to take his place and act for him, on occasion,, 
as queen or son), is sayujya '. 

' While the physical body lasts, a soul that has achieved 
(metaphysical) moksha, is called jivan-mukta ; when the body 
falls away, it becomes vid6ha-mukta, which is the same as- 

c Salokya is obtained by tapas-asceticism ; samipya, by 
bhakti -devotion ; sarupya (and sarshti), by dhyana-meditation ; 
sayujya, by jnana-knowledge. Each succeeding one of these 
is twice as blissful as the preceding. Moksha into deva-s 
comes to an end, soon or late ; usually at the end of the 
Manvantara. Im-mortality,a-mrta-tva, technically means con- 
scious existence or life (in a superphysical subtle body, till the 
pralaya-dissolution-chaos of the elements, a-bhuta-samplava. r 

' There are three Paths of (a) Karma, way of works ; 
(b) bhakti, way of devotion ; (c) jnana, way of knowledge ; in 
other words, energism, pietism, gnosticism. The first is for 
those who are not yet tired of the world ; they should continue 
to perform all right-and-due acts till fatigue begins to come 
upon their mind. The second is for those who are not too 
strongly attached to the world, not yet detached from it ; and 
have generally heard of me, the Self of all, and begun to 
aspire for a higher life (of fine feelings and fine artistic 
thoughts and ideas ) ; the third is for those who are surfeited 
with the world, and long to cease from its restlessness, and 
find repeal and peace ! ' 

' Those who worship the devas, go to them. They who- 
worship Me, the Self, the God'in all and o/all, they come to 
Me. 1 (Gitci). 

' That which is causeless, is not believed or arrived at by 
gradual steps and stages, (but flashes forth all at once), is 
never destroyed, never cut short, nor is ever-lasting (in time), 
has no end and no beginning, (but Is, once for all, eternally) 
that is Nirvana. This corn-motion, this restless going-and- 
coming, which, believed in and en-dur-ed (as taking place in 
dura-tion), time, is Samsara, World -Process ; this same, not 
believed in, not accepted, (as true, but seen at Illusion, as 


Mind's Imaginary Creation), is Nirvana.' (Buddhist Madhya- 
mika Karika). 

" The insan-ul-kamil, perfect man, is a man who has 
fully realised his essential oneness with the Divine Being in 
whose likeness he is made . . . An ecstatic feeling of one- 
ness with God constitutes the wall, (singular of aultya, 
saints). He unites the One and the Many, so that the 
universe depends on him for its continued existence/' (Here, 
the singular he is obviously to be understood as standing for 
a numerous class of souls, in the same way as when one may 
say that the atoll owes its existence to the coral insect, 
or that the color of the Red Sea is due to a microscopic 
plant). " He brings relief to the distressed, health to the 
sick, children to the childless, food to the famis'hed, spiritual 
guidance to those who entrust their souls^o his care, blessing 
to all who invoke Allah in his name " ;' Nicholson, Studies 
in Islamic Mysticism, p. 78. 

Jalal-ud-din Rumi, chief of Persian Sufis, says: 

Kulle shayin halikun juz Wajh-i-tJ. 
Gar na-1 dar Wajh-i-0, hasti ma ju ! 

' All things are mortal save the Face of God. 
If thou hast found no place within that Face, 
Then hope not thou for Immortality ! ' 

Face, here, means Being, the Being of th^ Eternal 
Self. The secret of preserving personal immortality (of the 
technical kinds) is indicated in these lines, entirely in accord 
with the theosophical view. If a soul deliberately fixes in its 
memory, attaches to its higher manas, the upper half of the fifth 
principle, any great incidents, great loves, and other noble 
emotions, in their settings, great devotion to a great deity, and 
thus fixes, shapes and crystallises, conglomerates, a particular 
personality or individuality or ' ego-complex ', purposefully 
creates a centre of individuality, and attaches that strongly 
to its realization of the Eternal Self ; then the Immortality 
of the latter is reflected on to the former also. V6(JanJa 
tradition is the same ; the higher associations and memories 
of the charama-d6ha, 'the last physical body 1 , may, 


at the will of the liberated soul, be carried into the liberated 
condition. The ' last body ' here is the same as the ' a n - 
aga m ! ' of Buddhism ; it is the body in which Self is seen 
and realised ; after the falling away of which, there is no 
Wfi-conscious rebirth, karma having been exhausted, ' burnt 
up by Jnana ' (Glta) ; whatever birth there is, afterwards, of 
that jiva-soul, is conscious, deliberately chosen, for some 
particular service of the world. 

Yoga-Vasishtha (ill, ix) gives a fine description, first of 
the jivan-mukta, (some of the verses occur in Glta also) ; and 
then of the videha-mukta, thus : ' When the body of the 
jivan-mukta falls away under the touch of time, he enters 
into the videha condition. As space he holds the stars within 
himself ; he blazes as the sun ; he blows as the breezes ; as 
the earth he bears the mountains, the foiests, the races of 
men and animals ; *he bears fruit in the trees, he flowers in 
the creepers, he flows as the rivers, he surges against the 
shores of the earth as the mountainous billows of the ocean ; 
he rains life-sap into the vegetable kingdom as the moonlight ; 
he kills out life as the hala-hala venom : he illumines the 
heavens as light, and merges them in gloom as darkness ; he 
lives, wakes, sleeps, sorrows and rejoices, as the minds of 
all ; he is each atom and all stars at once ; indeed he is now 
all time, all space, and all their moving contents ! . . . But if 
the videha-mukta becomes thus identical with the World- 
Process, is that deliverance, or is it but a deeper immersion in 
the welter of illusion-maya ? ... It would be such deeper 
sinking were it not accompanied by the consciousness that 
the illusion is illusion, that there is No Other-than-I, that 
Brahma is An- Any?..!.' In the last statement is probably 
conveyed the distinction between the videha and prakrti-laya 
of Yoga-sutra on the one hand, and the kaivalya of Yoga or 
videha of Vedanta on the other. 

The ancient tradition of Upanishats and Yoga-Vasishtha 
is that when the soul turns from the finite, ethically, emo- 
tionally, and intellectually, it necessarily finds the Infinite and 
attains moksha ; that, thereafter, the individual consciousness 
turns more and more into the cosmic consciousness, that jiiana- 
vairagya-bhakti are but the inseparably correlated aspects of 


ach other, and grow towards perfection side by side. As said 
in Bhagavata, 

: \ 

* Devotion to, and vision of the Supreme Self, and turning 
away from all Else these three are simultaneous/ And in 
9 Yoga-bhashya (i, 16). 

' The highest degree and fullness of knowledge is com- 
plete vai-ragya '. 

That this tradition has never died and is living still may 
be indicated by the following renderings of songs in Hindi 
and Urdu, the first by Kabir, and the two others by recent 
Sufi poets. All mystic literatures of all religions, Vedanta, 
Tasaw-wuf, Gnosticism, Qabbala, etc., are on the same lines. 

But before recording those renderings of mystic songs, 
attention may be called to a very serious danger of terrible 
misunderstanding which lurks under the word Kaivalya, 
4 Solitude ', ' Oneness ', * Soleness '. It seems to be the last 
wile of the Maya of the ' lower ego ', which would live on by 
masquerading as the ' Higher Universal Ego ' : ' I will have 
moksha for myself ; why should I care for others '. But 
M o k s h a is freedom from this very egoism ; which freedom is 
nothing else than Universal all-others -including (not excluding) 
Ego-ism. Hence mumuksha, ' wish for moksha ', is rightly 
understood as Universal Love incipient, while Moksha is that 
same Universal Love full-blown and triumphant. In theoso- 
phical literature, stress is laid on the fact that the greatest 
qualification for ' initiation ' is having brought others along 
on to the Path and helped them to their ' majority ' of soul. 
Glta and Bhagavata and other scriptures repeatedly declare 
that an indispensable qualification for the aspirant is ' love 
and active service of all beings '. The gateway of the Path 
is v a i - r a g y a, ' dis-passion ', but it has to be a ' passion- 
ately compassionate dispassion *. Many types ofvai-ragya 
are pictured in the classic legends of India. The purest of 
the pui% is that of Rama, wholly saftvika, so to say, (see 
Mystic Experiences or Tales from Yoga-Vasishtha); also that 


of Gautama Buddha ; in both we see profoundly compassion- 
ate wish to free all" living things from their misery. Arjuna's 
revulsion is very limitedly sattvika, mixed with much rajas 
too ; his compassion is only for his kith and kin and relatives. 
Bhartr-hari's is rajasa-tamasa, caused by disgust with 
the world because of the infidelity of his queenj but it is, 
later on, made sattvika by his intense pursuit of Atma-vidya. 
Similar is the case of the merchant Samadhi (in Durga-Sapta- 
Shatl), who was driven away from his wealthy home by his 
wife and sons, because they wanted to be unchecked masters 
of the whole property ; and, at the end of three years' severe 
asceticism, desired from the goddess Durga, only ' the Supreme 
Knowledge which would annihilate egoism '. Somewhat 
different is the case of Samadhis' companion, king Sura^ha (in 
the same high story), who desired from Purga, long-lasting 
kingship, and is to become the reigning Manu, Savarni, of the 
next Manvantara ; ! strictly speaking, perhaps there was no 
vairagya in his case, but a sattvika-rajasa wish to rule justly 
and give happiness to the people; but since such rule is not 
possible without good grounding in Atma-Vidya, the rajas in 
his case was infused with a high degree and quality of sattva. 
Steadiest and also pure in sufficient degree is the deliberate 

* vairagya ' of the son (or daughter) of Manu, who, having per- 
formed the duties of the first two stages of life, a s h r a m a - s, 

* retires ' from the world, philosophically ; in this case too, it 
is not so much ' vairagya f in the sense of sudden onset of 
passion or compassion, as, indeed, moksha already achieved, 
partly, if not wholly : for exposition of the subject of ashra- 
mas, see The Science of Social Organisation, or the briefer 
The Science of the Self, 

Dear reader !, if you happen to be husband, wife, father, 
mother, elder relative, super-ordinate officer, teacher, in the 
outer world ! your position acquires a new and deeper and 
more wonderful significance for you, when you realise this 
marvellous fact, that the necessary condition of your own 

1 This writer has met with no definite statement to that effect in the 
old books ; but it almost seems that Suratha and Samadhi were born as 
Maru and DeVapi (Bhagavata, XII, ii) ; are now the Theosophical 
Masters Morya and Koothoomi ; and will be the Manu and the Buddha 
of the next Race and Epoch. 


advancement is that you help your youngers and dependents 
on to that same path of Progress. The realisation becomes a 
powerful incentive to patience and tenderness ; for you now 
always say to yourself consciously : ' These weaker souls have 
been entrusted to me that I may help them on, with myself, 
to that ancient Path, ' sharp as the razor's edge ', yet also 
strewn with the flowers of love and sympathy, and also safe- 
guarded with the balustrades of holy instructions, by the 
strong and watchful hands and hearts of the Elders of 
the Race ! 

' When the Soul's inebriate, 
With God, 'tis in no mood to prate ! 
The gem, when found, is hid away ; 
Why make display day after day ! 
The balance holds, the scales don't sway, 
What need the goods again to weigh ! 
The Swan hath found the Manasa-lake ; 
Shall it again to puddles take ? 
That wanton barmaid Consciousness 
Hath drunken love's-wine to excess 
Herself, and keeps no more the tale 
Of how much and to whom the sale ! 
Thy Lover Loved is there, in Thee ! 
Not out, but in, ope eyes and see ! ' 


* No bar guards His palace-gateway, no veil screens His 

face of light, 
Thou, O Soul ! by thine own self -ness art enwrapt in 

darkest night ! 
Youth is gone, and age is on thee, yet vain dreams still 

fill thy mind, 
If thou turn not from thy small self, how shalt thou thy 

Great Self find ? 
Taste the wonder of this heart-meat, as it burneth more 

and more, 


Through life's ocean -brine there spreadeth savour sweet 

from shore to shore ! . 

But the names differ, beloved !, thou, I, all are only One, 
In the firefly gleams the self-same beam that blazeth in 

the Sun ! 
Since He knows all art ^nd science, we too may invent 

and know ; 
In the human heart is hidden more than all the Scriptures 

show ! x 

Thou the music in the song-bird, Thou the fragrance in 

the rose, 
Thou the Goal that all are seeking, Thou the Self that 

each one knows ! 
Why, and Where, art Thou in hiding, My Beloved !, 

come to Me ! 
Every year-long moment brings thy Lover desperate 

agony ! 
Not without Thy-self permittest may the strongest win 

to Thee, 

Out of this Turmoil and Tumult of our Life's Tem- 
pestuous sea ! ' 


* Behind the mask of every face He hid 
God, very God ; and I I knew it not. 
The Right had fallen wrongly into Wrong, 
The True into Untruth I knew it not. 
The Lord of all the Worlds in mud and mire 
He begged from door to door I knew it not. 
On every page of scripture He had writ, 
' Nearer am I to Thee than time own heart,' 
But I I could not read I knew it not. 
In temple, church, and mosque I sought for long, 
The gold hid in the ' mine * (Me) I knew it .not. 
The moon that I had seen and had forgot 
The clouds had hid the moon I knew rt not. 
The rust of selfishness o'erlay my heart, 
I had forgot my-Self I knew it not. 
I sought the Wonder in the Noise Outside 


It lay still in My Heart I knew it not. 
But now, my Soul, my God, my Self, my All, 
Thou magic-maker of this vast mirage, 
Juggler of joys and sorrows, loves and hates, 
Thee sole I (know) An-other (I know) Not ! 
I know I only am, alJ^Else is Naught ! 
I only is, and all This Else is Not ! 
I know I am but I, ' I-(am)-This-Not.' 




ALL the main facts or rather principles connected with 
jivas-souls and atoms-bodies have, perhaps, been general- 
ly brought out and summed up now. One more point 
deserves some words : The distinction between Universal 
and Singular, and the Relation between them, mentioned 
before. This triplet belongs equally to jivas and atoms ; 
is, thus, v part of the Summation of the World-Process ; 
and could not well be discussed before some general 
notion had been gained of the distinction between ' the 
ideal world ' and ' the real world ' ; the former of which 
is, as it were, a complete and standing picture or plan of 
the stream of successive events which make up the latter ; 


and so occupies, to this latter, the position of universal to 

The aphorisms of Nyaya, as we now have them, 
classify and describe the constituents of Samsara in their 
subjective aspect, i.e., in terms of cognition, as the means 
of knowledge. 1 The aphorisms of Vaisheshika classify 
them as objects of knowledge, in their objective aspect, in 
terms of the cognised. Thus, Kanada, author of the 
Vaisheshika aphorisms, states that there are six primary 
padarthas ' meanings ot words ', things, i.e., objects, viz., 
dravya, guna, karma, samanya, vishsha, and samavaya. 
The first three have been discussed before, (pp. 284-312 
supra). The next three mean, respectively, the * universal 
or general,' the ' singular or special,' and the * relation of 
inseparable co-inherence '. ' 

As often indicated before, the One true Universal is 
Pratyag- Atma ; the Many, the manifold Singular, the 
Multitude of Singulars, is Mula-Prakrti ; and the peculiar 
bond that exists between them is the real primal 
s a m a v a y a-s a m ba n d h a, literally, the * firm bond of 
going into, merging into, pervasion of, each other ', 

1 ' Nis-shreyasa, Summum Bonum, Highest Happiness, Moksha, can 
be achieved only by True Knowledge of the essential nature of (1) the 
Means, tests, proofs, evidences, measures (i.e., measur-ers), ascertainers, 
of true knowledge; (2) the Knowable, the to-be-known, to-be-ascer- 
tained ; (3) Doubt ; (4) Purpose or Motive (of enquiry or argument) ; (5) 
Familiar Example ; (6) Established Tenet, accepted maxim or principle or 
fact ; (7) the Members of a Syllogism ; (8) Inference (especially of a 
refutative or repudiative or eliminative kind) ; (9) Decided Conclusion ; 
{10, 11, 12) Three kinds of discussion (according to three kinds of 
purpose) ; (13, 14, 15, 16) Four kinds of Fallacies. It should be noted 
that Moksha is the principal aim, and that the nature of the Self is the 
first and foremost ' to-be-ascertained ' : Nyaya-sutra t the very first. 



4 co-inherence '. Beside this One Universal l there is, 
strictly speaking, no other Universal, but only * generals \ 
So, beside the (apparently, comparatively) final (pseudo- 
ultihiate infinitesimal) singulars of Etat-' This ' a there is 
no other real singular, but only species or ' specials '.* 
The characteristic of these ' generals ' and ' specials ' ot 
'particulars' is that each one of them is general to 

satta-samSnya, 'Universal Being,' <?C- or 

!, para- or antya-sSmanya, ' final or ultimate universal/ or 1^- 
r, Para-jati. summum genus. 

2 ^l^lf^tt 5 !, antya-vishesha, <?C-fl$ft, para-visbsha, ^IT-fttft* 
charama vishesha, ' final, or extreme or ultimate particularity. ' 

3 <TOK3rfti par-Spara-jati. 

Extremes meet. Para-samanya and para- vishesha are identical , as 
Infinite and Infinitesimal ; Brahma and jlva. As said before, a final 
ultimate parama-anu as para-vishsha is a ' myth/ an imaginary concept, 
a convention, devised for practical convenience. With reference to 
samavaya, some observations of Max Muller are worth quoting. They 
are taken from his Six Systems of Indian Philosophy (collected works). 
pp. 376-7, and 447; that book, so far as I am aware, continues to be the 
most clear, compact, concise, correct, and comprehensive work, on its 
subject. " Samavaya or intimate connection is a very useful name for a 
connection between things which cannot exist, one without the other, 
such as cause and effect, parts and whole, and the like. It comes very 
near to a-vina-bhava, *>., the not-without being, and should be carefully 
distinguished from mere conjunction or succession " . . . . " (This) 
category . . , is peculiar to Indian philosophy. It is translated in- 
hesion or inseparability . . . It is different from mere connection, as 
between horse and rider. . . . There is samavaya between threads and 
eloth, (the ideas of) father and son, two halves and a whole, cause and 
effect, substance and qualities, thought and word, the two being inter* 
dependent and therefore inseparable. Though this relationship is known in 
non-Indian philosophies, it has not received a name of its own, though 
such a term might have proved very useful in several controversies " ; as 
those, we may add, of nominalism, realism, conceptualism, etc. A-yuta- 
si^dhi, of Yoga philosophy, seems to be much the same as samavaya or 
a-vina-bhiva. R the last, Max Muller's translation would perhaps be 
more intelligible if read as ' not-being-without,' i.e., ' each being not able 
to exist without the other * . 


lower specials, and at the same time special to a 
higher general. In other words, while Pratyag-atma is 
the principle of the Universal, and Mula-prakrti the 
principle of the singular, the jlva-atom is individual or 
particular, combining and reconciling in itself both uni- 
versal and singular. 

Difficulty in the expression of this thought is occasion- 
ed by the fact that while the meaning of universal and 
general and special is comparatively fixed and free from 
ambiguity, such is not the case with the significations 
of singular and individual and particular, as the words 
are currently used. 1 The underlying philosophical idea 
of their mutual relation being indeterminate, the express- 
ion is naturally doubtful also. And this very haziness 
of the idea is at the bottom of the long-lasting dispute 
between the doctrines of nominalism and realism and 
their various modifications. As a fact, in the world 
around us, we actually find neither the true One, nor the 
true Many or Not-One, by itself. What we do 'find 
always, instead, is a one which is also a many at the 
same time.* We distinguish between the two by em- 
phasising within ourselves the jlva-aspect, i.e., the aspect 
of self-consciousness and Pratyag-atma, and, from the 

1 An instance of this may be seen in the divers arrangements mad* 
of the triplets of the categories of Kant ; thus at p. 221 of Schwegler's 
History of Philosophy, the triplet of ' totality, plurality, and unity ' 
is arranged in an order the reverse of that followed in the original 
of Kant. 

2 The pen with which, the table on which, the house in which, 
I am writing, each of these is a one ; but is also composed of many, very 
many, parts. 


standpoint thereof, beholding the Not-Self in juxta- 
position to and yet in separation from the Self. The 
facts, so viewed, are clear. One and the many, abstract 
and concrete, general and special, universal and singular, 
are just as inseparable as back and front. They are 
inseparable in fact as well as in thought (which also is 
a fact, though manufactured in subtler material, as, on 
the other hand, every * fact ' is a ' thought/ of ' consci- 
ousness ', and existing by and in consciousness.) But 
the phraseology requires to be settled in accordance with 
this fact and thought. The settlement may perhaps be 
made thus : The word ' universal ' should be confined to 
the true One, Pratyag-atma, and to the modifications and 
manifestations of its unity, viz., the laws of the ' pure ' 
reason, 1 the abstract laws and principles which underlie 
the details of the World-Process and are as it were the 
transformation of the Pratyag-atma itself in association 
with the diversity of Mula-prakrti. The word ' singular ' 
should similarly be confined to the pseudo-true Many, the 
pseudo-finally separate. As the universal is the One which 
includes and supports all, so the singular is the exactly 
opposite one that would exclude all else ;* it indicates 
the pseudo-ultimate constituents of the many, which may 
well, for practical convenience, be technically called 
* atom/ ' anu ' or * param-anu *. 3 For that which is 

1 The sattva-f actor of Mahat-Bud^hi, the cognitional element or 
aspect of 'the Cosmic Mind, Cosmic Intelligence. Cf. Dharma-m6gha^ 
p. 441 supra. 

2 , para-vishSsha or S^ft^Cf, antya-vishsha. 


between these two ones, a something which is a one and 
a many at the same time, a whole composed of parts, the 
word ' particular ' seems appropriate. Such a ' parti- 
cular ' would be * general ' (an imitation of the universal) 
to those it includes and supports and holds together, and 
' special ' (an imitation of the singular) to that by which 
it itself is supported along with other co-particulars ; all 
so-called inanimate substances, all sheaths and bodies 
of the so-called animate, all objects of cognition or desire 
or action, all genera and species, types, sub-types and 
archetypes, would thus be ' particulars '. The word 
1 individual ' is peculiar ; it would be useful if it were 
confined to the jlva-atom, which combines the true uni- 
versal and the pseudo-true singular, rather than only 
generals and specials. It is not Pratyag-atma only, nor 
Mula-prakrti only, but both; and jet, because of the 
unfixable, in-de-finite, pseudo-infinite nature of the atom, 
the jlva-atom may be called a particular also. When- 
ever and wherever we may take an actual individual jlva- 
atom, the atom-portion of it, its sheath, will be found to 
be a ' definite ' that merges on both sides into the ' in- 
de-finite ' ; it is an infinitesimal fraction, on the one 
hand, of a pseudo-infinite universe, and, on the other, 
it is a pseudo-infinite multiple of infinitesimal fractions. 
' All things, all beings, all thoughts, feels, acts, begin and 
also end in the in-de-finite ; they are de-finite only 
midway.' J 

% a. 28. 


If we were defining the main items of the World- 
Process in terms of the Absolute, the jlva-atom would be 
called the individualised Absolute, and a world-system a 
particularised one ; the Absolute itself being then com- 
paratively called the universal Absolute. But in view of 
the statements made in the preceding paragraph, it 
would appear to be almost more consistent and syste- 
matic to call the jlva-atom a singularised Absolute. Yet, 
though, in strictness, this would be the better descrip- 
tion, still, for all practical purposes of metaphysical 
research for the reasons for which the jlva-atom may 
be regarded as a particular also it is more useful to 
employ the expression ' individualised Absolute '. The 
1 individuality ' of the jiva in the jlva-atom is more pre- 
dominant than the ' singularity ' of the atom therein for 

Tennyson's " Who knows ! From the great deep to the great deep 
he goes," is an expression, in poetical and emotional form, of the same 
intellectual 'truth. All the World-Process, the world-ex-istence, is a 
becoming ; all life is a passing ; every river is a flowing ; every sensation 
is a feeling. Splendour is the coming in and at the same time the going 
out of wealth. Stoppage means sinking into pralaya. Too much care 
kills its object and prevents it from fulfilling its purpose and achieving 
its destiny. Beauty, too, is for due use, and use makes more beauty. 
Existence, manifestation, is in and by action. Every atom, and every 
psychosis, is a (dual) focussing, a vortex, in a cont inuutft^ of ' ether, f 
and of ' general sensation ' or ' affective tone ' or ' volitional tension '. 

Yoga-V&sishtha, III, xiv, 47. 

' That which comes between is and is not, existent and non-exist- 
ent, is what is meant by the word bhavati, becomes \ i.e., between 
Being and nothing is Becoming.' 

"The Anglican noble, in a well-known passage of Bede, compares 
the life of man to the flight of a bird which darts quickly through a 
lighted hall, out of darkness, and into darkness again "; Inge, Chris- 
tian Mysticism, p. 251. Many other poets and writers of note, of east 
and west have depicted the thought with various examples. 


such purposes. Attention has been drawn before, to the 
fact that the Instinct behind Language has given to both 
jiva and atom, the same adjectival name, ' in-divid-ual f , 
* un-divid-able ', ' in-divis-ible ', ' a-tom '. 

On the above view, recognising the nature and the 
necessity of the connection between the One and the 
Many, it becomes easy to see what the true mean of re- 
conciliation is between nominalism and realism. Every 
object, being a jiva-atom, or a conglomerate of jlva- 
atoms (see pp. 347-352 supra, regarding ' individualities 
within individualities), is general and special, abstract 
and concrete, at one and the same time. Therefore, 
when the new-born infant opens its eyes for the first 
time, it necessarily sees the genus ' woman ' as well 
,as the species ' (individual) mother,' at one and the 
same time. As soon as we see any object, we see its 
generality as well as its speciality. 1 Whenever we see 
a one, we see also at once the possibility, inherent in the 
one, of a pseudo-infinity of that one, i.e., of such ones. 
The One is universal ; a one reproduces the One ; the 
universality of the true One reappears as the generality 

and the pseudo-infinity of the illusive one. 2 

1 The fact has an important bearing on methods of education. 
3 In this fact is contained the principle of the validity of generalisa- 
tions, of induction, o^ff^f, vyapti, and not in any repetitions of experi- 
ments ; these only help to eliminate, by means of concomitant variations, 
i.e., agreements and differences, 3f?R, anvaya, and sqf^^> ? vyati-re*ka, 
the accidental from the essential qualities. This fact, of the instantaneous 
seeing of the ' general ' in the ' special ', is named SKSfflf^ pratv-Ssat$i, 
in the ' new ' Nyaya, started by Gange*sha (circa 12th century A.C.) 

It should also be noted that the considerations put forward in the 
text deal with one aspect of the dispute between nominalism and realism. 


This fact is embodied in the grammatical affixes : 
' ness,' ' ship,' ' hood ' (in English), and ' ta ' or ' tva r 
(in Samskrt), expressive of the abstract and of quality, 
which can be added on to any noun or adjective. It is 
significant that abstractness and generality should belong 
to, and be expressible exclusively in, terms of quality ; 
for quality or guna corresponds to jnana, which in turn 
corresponds specially with Pratyag-atma, the one uni- 
versal and abstract. Abstraction, praty-ahara, indeed, 
means * drawing away from others ' and reduction into 
terms of Pratyag-atma, making a one and therefore a 
pseudo-wmversal, of that which was mixed up with and 
part of the many. So too, the concrete is mostly express- 
ed in terms of motion or karma, which corresponds to 
kriya, which corresponds to Not-Self ; as witness the 
fact that so many names or nouns originate in 

viz., the one asserting that abstract concepts do not exist apart from 
concrete things, the other that they do. In another aspect also, about 
the relation between thought and language, notions and names, the 
dispute may be reconciled by the same considerations. The two are 
inseparable, though distinguishable ; as, indeed, all the contents of the 
World-Process are necessarily inseparable from each other, because held 
together in and by the One Consciousness, though endlessly distinguish- 
able from each other, because held together by that Consciousness as 
Many Mula-Prakrti. In the course of a beautiful hymn to Purusha and 
IVakrti, as Eternal Man and Woman, ever inseparate, Bh&gavaja,. 
VI. xix, 13, says : 

fl ssRiftfl WOT, tft: 

, SUOT: c 

' She is manifestation ; Thou the Final Cause thereof. She is 
sense and body ; Thou the Soul behind. She is name and form ; Thou 
the basic Thought.' 


verbs. 1 Finally, the relation of the two is embodied in 
diravya, substance, noun or name ; it combines act and fact, 
characteristic action and quality, in a ' thing,' and corres- 
ponds to the hidden Negation-Shakti that manifests its 
various forms in the declensional changes of termination 
of the noun (in the older languages ; for the separate 
prepositions of modern languages are artificial separations 
of these terminational affixes). 

From these observations it should be clear that the 
universal 9 is One ; the singular, Many ; and genera- 
species, pseudo-infinite; and that everywhere and always 
there is the possibility of distinguishing the abstract from 
the concrete by the mere addition of ' ness ' to the latter ; 
in other words, by concentrating the oneness and uni- 
versality of the Self upon and into the concrete, and so 
of discovering an endless series, in an endless gradation, 
of concepts, ideas, types, archetypes, etc, Plato seems 
to have spoken of only one archetypal world, while the 
legitimate inferences from the logion require a pseudo- 
infinity of such, higher and lower, in an endlessly as- 
cending and descending scale. The logion itself, it should 
be noted, and the laws and principles that proceed from 

1 On the other hand, it is true that verbs also are formed, later on, 
from nouns ; but fewer, apparently. From cognition, action ; from 
action, cognition ; this is Nature's circle. 

1 As noted before, Vaisheshika calls the highest, or, rather, the one 
true universal, by the name of universal being, fl^ffflRfWT, sa(ta- 
sScianya, which, plainly, is the objective name for the Self ; and the 
lowest or true singular or fst$ft; vishesha, it calls anu or atom, which is 
but another name for ta-This. 


it directly, can scarcely be spoken of as types or arche- 
types ; for types and archetypes are comparatively de- 
finite objects, abstract-concrete, (thoTigh with the aspect 
of abstractness or generality and commonness inclining to 
be predominant), while laws and principles are only 
relations between objects. 

With these remarks we may bring to a close the 
observations regarding the general features of jlvas and 
atoms, and conclude this work with a re-statement of the 
Summation of the World-Process in Consciousness. 1 

In the preceding chapter we have seen how the 
endless and apparently quite disconnected diversity of 
atom beside atom and atom within atom, plane beside 
plane and plane within plane, world beside world and 
world within world, individuality beside individuality and 
individuality within individuality, collapses together into 
an ordered juggler's box within box under the touch of 
the principle of the ever-expanding Individual Consci- 
ousness, which, taking its source in the Universal Consci- 
ousness of Pratyag-atma, is incessantly threading together 
all the otherwise disconnected beads of Mula-prakrti. 

The more the nature of Consciousness is pondered 
on, the more the nature of the jiva becomes clear. As 
the most significant definition of the atom is that it is a 
persisting-point, i.e., a line or sphere of objectivity, of 
unconsciousness, in its triple aspect of cognisability, 

1 More detailed consideration of the three aspects of the jiva's life, 
viz., cognition, desire, action, will be found in The Science of the 
Emotions, The Science of Social Organisation, The Science of the 
Self, and Pranava-vada or the Science o/ the Sacred Word. 


desirability, and movability, guna, dravya, and karma, 
so the most significant definition of the jiva is that 
it is a persisting-point, i.e., a line or sphere of consci- 
ousness and subjectivity, in its triple aspect of cogniser, 
desirer, and actor. Combining these two definitions,. 
a jlva-atom might be defined as the individualised 
Absolute (thus bringing out the true significance of 
the current saying, that ' jiva is verily Brahma and 
naught else ' x ) ; a particular number of them may be said 

' I will tell you in a single sentence what has been expounded in ten 
million books, viz., Brahma is true, the moving world is an illusion, jiva 
is Brahma and Naught Else '. But more is wanted ; realisation is in the 
first person, not the third. The third person is outside me ;b\vhat I want 
is the first person, within me, my-Self . 

3*91 5 \?, STSfTeSJlT: fl 

4 Brahma is this is but indirect knowledge ;* Brahma am, I am 
Brahma this is direct realisation '. All philosophies, all religions, 
mysticisms, gnosticisms, sciences, arts, need to be tested by this supreme 
experience and reduced into terms of this First-hand Direct Knowledge. 
* I-This-Not '. The work is well worth doing on an extensive scale the 
reduction of different philosophers' views into terms of this Logion ; 
(see pp. 199-204, supra). Thus, the Arabian Sufi, Jili, (14th century A.D. 
in his work Ins&n-ul-K&mil, ' The Perfect Man ', and Hegel, use very 
similar expressions in developing their ontology. The former speaks of 
" The Dhat developing an inward and an outward aspect, am& and 
ahadiyya, and ahadiyya again developing two aspects, huviyya or that- 
ness and Aniyya or I-ness ; and the latter, of ' The self-sundering of the 
Idea ', ' the self-diremption of the Absolute ', ' the absolute going out into 
its opposite, and then returning into itself ' , 'the unity of consciousness 
holds within itself in equilibrium the vital antagonism of opposites, 
thought and thing, mind and matter, spirit and nature, which seems to 
rend the world asunder '. . ." ; (Nicholson, Studies in Islamic Mysti- 
cism, 81-97). All this becomes luminous, freed from misty obscurity, 
only when we translate it into terms of 4 I-This-Not \ That philoso- 
phers and mystics seem to differ from each other, is only because they 


to constitute a particularised Absolute, or a world -system, 
a cosmos that also appears like the individualised Abso- 
lute to be complete in itself ; and the totality of these 
individualised and particularised Absolutes, to make up 
the universal or truly complete Absolute, Brahma ; 
all this not interfering, in the slightest degree, with the 
fact that individual or (strictly speaking) singular, parti- 
cular, and universal are not three but absolutely identical, 
literally one and the ame. 

An illustration may perhaps help to make these 
statements a little clearer. Suppose that life, that the 
World-Process, consists of ten experiences : that is to 
say, of five sensations, each dual as pleasurable and pain- 
ful, so that the two factors of each such pair, when 
balanced against each other, neutralise each other and 
leave behind a cipher, as equal credit and debit in a 
banker's account may do. One self, going through these 
experiences in one fixed order of time, space, and motion, 
would exhaust them all comparatively quickly, and would 
form one individuality, marked and defined by the ten 
experiences in that one order, thus making one line of 
consciousness. But let us now vary the order of the ten 
experiences ; this mere variation of order, it will be seen, 
implies a variation in the times, spaces, and movements 
connected with each item of experience. If we vary the 
order, then, |in all possible ways, but without decreasing 
the number of the experiences, we have at once orders to 

use terms of the third person, 'he', 'she*, 'it', instead of the first 
person, ' I ', ' we '. When we speak in terms of ' I ', we bring things 
nome to ourselves. 


the number of ' factorial ten/ in algebraical technicality, 
that is to say 3,628,800. It is clear at once that each of 
these millions of orders of the succession of experiences 
marks out and defines, and therefore amounts to, a dis- 
tinct and separate individuality; for an individuality can 
no other wise be described, discriminated and fixed, than 
by enumerating the experiences of that individuality, by 
narrating its biography. Yet, while each one of these 
orders makes a distinct individuality, it is also equally 
clear, at the same time, that in essence, substance, com- 
pleteness, all these individualities are verily and truly 
one ; and that whatever difference there is between them 
is made up of the illusory differences of mere time, space, 
motioii, all three utter emptinesses and nothings, the 
triple aspect of Negation. 1 

In place of five as the number of sensations, now 
substitute the number ' pseudo-infinite ' ; for tats 
are pseudo-infinite by axiom, and each is pleasurable 
during the affirmation of it, and painful during the 
negation." The total number of our experiences then 

1 Thus, a thousand globe-trotters, travelling round the earth, at the 
same or different times, over different routes, with different accou re- 
men ts, will yet be able to say, if they meet and compare notes after 
completing the circumambulation : ' We have all seen the same coun- 
tries, and passed through the same experiences ' (speaking generally). 

1 See Nyaya SBfra, III, ii, 35. 

: \ Bh&shya on same ; ' The knower, i.e. conscious ego, is motived 
by like and dislike, to advance and retreat, respectively ' ; ' when a 


becomes 2 X pseudo-infinite, and the total number of 
permutations of these experiences is 2Xoo (factorial 
twice pseudo-infinite). This, at first sight, should 
be the total number of all possible ' lines of conscious- 
ness,' or ' individualities ' or ' jivas '. But this is 
so only at first sight, and we have not reached the end 
of our calculations even now. For we have up to now 
been taking the experiences all at a time. But they have 
to be taken in all possible combinations also, one at a 
time, two at a time, and three, and four, and so on, to 
pseudo-infinity. The result is, briefly, a pseudo-infinity 
of pseudo-infinities as the total number of jivas in the 
World- Process; each being a distinct, immortal, ever- 
spirating, ever-gyrating line of consciousness ; yet each 
being absolutely identical with all others ; for the World- 
Process is made up entirely and exclusively of the one 
universal Self, passing itself through all possible pseudo- 
infinite experiences, simultaneously from the standpoint 
of that universal Self, successively from that of the limited 
not-selves. 1 

person knows that so-and-so will give him pleasure, then he tries to secure 
it ; if he knows that it will cause him pain, he tries to avoid it '. 

1 The Secret Doctrine, V. pp. 397-398, says : " What difference can 
it make in the perceptions of an ego, whether he enter Nirvana loaded 
with the recollections only of his own personal lives tens of thousands 
according to the modern re-incarnationists or whether, merged entirely 
in the Parabrahmic state it becomes one with the All, with the absolute 
knowledge and the absolute feeling of representing collective humanities ? 
Once that an ego lives only ten distinct individual lives, he must neces- 
sarily lose his own self, and become mixed upmerged, so to say with 
these ten selves." 

If the reader will shut his eyes and ponder what exactly he feels 
would be perpetuation of his separate individuality, he will probably 
understand the problem clearly : ' What exactly is it that I crave to 


It may be asked : Why this interminable vari- 
ation of the order of the experiences ? As usual, the 
answer is contained in the logion. The one Prafyag- 
atma is the ever-present. The many Mula-prakrti is 
the ever- successive, ever-past, and ever-future. The 
opposition between the two is utter. Yet also is 
there inevitable and constant juxtaposition and relation. 
The one is the universal, sarvika, samanya; the other 
is the singular, individual, pratyekika, vishsha ; and 
between them there exists unbreakable relation of co- 
inherence, samavaya. The reconciliation of the con- 
tradiction is that Pratyag-atma becomes as multitudinous 
as the tats, in order to encompass them all simultane- 
ously in the one vast present of the totality of the 

perpetuate, to eternalise, when I desire per-sona.1 immortality? Any parti- 
cular experience ? The ownership of any particular thing ? Any particular 
shape of face and figure ? Any emotional mood ? Any intellectual feat ? 
Any physical exploit ? Any particular piece of knowledge ? Any relation- 
ship with any person ? Any life of crime ? Any ot sainthness ? Any 
agonising experience ? Any particular state of delight ? 

The answer, after due introspection, will always be ' No ' (See f . ns. 
on pp. 84, 141, 314 supra). For any and every particular experience, 
possession, face, mood, etc., will pall, will tire, will lose interest, after 
some time, short or long. When my own body, so very dear to me, 
becomes so tiresome to me, after sixteen, eighteen, twenty hours of 
waking and working, that I run away from it into sleep, day after day, 
night after night, how can I cling to anything else unchangingly 
throughout sempiternity ? 

Change is the Jaw and the condition of separate individual existence. 
Yet it is also a fact that ' I ' wants ' immortality '. What is the recon- 
ciliation ? ' Immortality * means ' the assurance of immortality ' ; I am 
the Universal Supreme I, therefore necessarily Immortal. But all per- 
sonal or individual ' I's ' are the universal I; therefore I am all ' I's '. 
But ' personal I ' means a conglomerate of particular experiences ; 
therefore I contain all possible such experiences and conglomerates ; and 
I can revive in memory and vivid imagination, and therefore in reality, 
any I wish, whenever I please. This potentiality is really all I crave, 
when I crave personal immortality ; and metaphysical jSana-knowledge 
assures it to me. 



World-Process ; and again, each single one of this 
multitude of (Pratyag-atma transformed into pseudo- 
infinite jlvas) also incessantly endeavours to encompass 
the whole of the many in the total succession of end- 
less time and space and motion, because each jlva 
must be equal to and cannot be less than the whole of 
Pratyag-atma. Take the totality of the World-Process 
at any one instant of time, and you find all possible 
pseudo-infinite experiences present therein, simultaneous- 
ly, coexistently, side by side, in the pseudo-infinity of 
space sorrows in one region, equivalent joys in another ; 
gains here, equal losses there ; life and growth in one 
place, a balancing death and decay in another.! But, 
again, take any one experience, a single point or moment 
of consciousness, and follow it out behind and beyond, 
into the past and the future, along any one of the pseudo- 
infinite diameters that in their totality make up the solid 
mass of the sphere, any one of the lines of consciousness 
of which it is the meeting-point, the point of junction 
and of crossing, and along that line there will be found 

1 To realise that all these sorrows, joys, gains, life and death, are in 
the I, are in Me, at once this is Moksha ; to realise that they are all in 
Me, successively (as described in the next sentence of the text) is also 
moksha of another kind. 

: I JMna-garbha. 


all possible experiences in different moments of time, in 
different successions. 1 

Another illustration may be attempted : Take a 
round ball of iron. Let this ball be composed of a 
number of round bullets. Let the ball have a revo- 
lutional movement of its own as a whole, on a fixed axis, 
so that the space occupied by it never changes. Let each 
of the bullets have another motion of its own, perfectly 
free and ever-changing in direction, but strictly confined 
within the periphery of the ball, and therefore necessarily 
so arranged that each bullet moves only by the equal 
displacement and movement of another. The ball now 
combines in itself, always and simultaneously, all the 
possible movements of all its constituents ; and each of 
these constituents also passes through each one of all 
1 Compare the Sarprkjt saying : 

gEHcf f :*sf, : I 

4 Pain (follows invariably) after pleasure, and pleasure after pain/ 
Bhagavata, V, xxvi, 2, expressly says that ' all jfvas must pass through 
all experiences, turn by turn ', 

cfitj: 9OTT ^IcR: a*TfaTCT: 33? tp eefo aiWfifa 

Brhad Up. has some words which may also be interpreted to the 
same effect, ' all are equal or similar, all are in-finite ', 

Mbh., Shantip., also says that, ' The gatf, going, path, course, 
destiny, of no one is greater than that of any one ; Vetja shows that all 
are equal ' , 


For yet other illustrations, see my World War and Its Only Cure 
World Order and World Religion, pp. 411-413, 484. 


these possible movements, but in succession, the motior* 
of each being so counterbalanced by that of another, 
from moment to moment, that the position of the ball, as 
a whole, in space, never changes. Finally, wherever in 
this illustration we have a definite limit of size or 
number, substitute unlimitedness. Let the whole ball be 
boundlessly large. Let each bullet composing it be in 
turn composed of smaller bullets ; these of shot ; these 
again of smaller shot ; and so on pseudo-infinitely. Let 
these bullets and shot be of pseudo-infinite sizes ; and 
let the peripheries of these bullets and shot be purely 
imaginary, so that each bullet and shot, while one such 
in itself, is also at the same time part of the volume 
enclosed by a pseudo-infinite number of peripheries of all 
possible sizes coexisting with and overlapping each 
other within the single periphery of the whole. The 
ball now becomes the Absolute. Its transcendent 
axis, of the pseudo-infinity of the numbers of which 
the ball is veritably composed, is the logion. Its 
revolution vanishes into a rock-like fixity of change- 
lessness, 1 because it occupies the whole of space, and 
in the absence of a remaining and surrounding space,. 

maha-shila-sattS, ' rock-like-being,' frequently des- 
cribed in Yoga V&sishtha. This illustration is not altogether fanciful. 
Physical science is establishing more and more clearly every day that it 
is almost a literal description of what is actually taking place in all solids. 
And when we remember that metaphysical as well as scientific reasoning 
favours 'the belief that space is a vacuum filled full with a plenum of 
subtler and subtler matter ; that the heavenly bodies are not moving in 
empty but in matter-filled space ; that vast masses of subtler matter cling 
to and form shells for what we call these ' solid ' globes, and participate 
in their rotatory and other motions ; that the thicker the rotating 
shell the faster will be its movement at the surface ; that the quicker 


against which it could be seen, no revolution can be. Its 
universal sphericity is the Pratyag-atma. Its concrete 
and discrete material is Mula-prakrti. Its bullets within 
bullets, and shot within shot are the pseudo-infinite jiva- 
atoms which, in their pseudo-infinitesimal sphericity of 
pointness, are identical with the infinite sphericity of the 
whole. The imaginary-ness of the periphery of each is 
the endlessness of the overlapping of individuality-points. 
The endless movement of each of these points makes a 
line of consciousness working out in successive time ; 
while the totality of these lines of consciousness is the 
transcendent completeness of the Absolute. 

the movement the greater is the resistance and the hardness, i.e., 
solidity, etc. if we remember these things we may see that it is possible 
that the illustration literally describes the actual World-Process, and 
that we are living and moving freely within masses of matter that present 
a skin of iron, a ' ring-pass-not, ' to things outside. The ' discarded ' old 
doctrines of 'cycle in epicycle, orb in orb,' of heavens one above and 
around another, in which the heavenly bodies are studded, as bosses in 
shields, etc., thus seem to have a chance of being restored with a much 
fuller significance. This will be only in keeping with the general law of 
all the march of the World-Process, viz., that a thing passes into its 
opposite and then returns again to its original condition on a higher level, 
endlessly. Take up a newspaper, and we find illustrations of this in the 
most widely-separated departments of life thus ; (1) Pedlars and hawkers 
are replaced by great central stores, depots, and fixed shops, and then 
comes the travelling salesman again ; (2) duels, single combats, heroes, 
are replaced by massed bands, and these are superseded by bush-fighting 
and sharpshooting ; then the massed bands reappear as trench-fighting, 
and the single combats as the fights of aeroplanes and submarines ; (3) 
Chinese writing is superseded by the alphabet, which again is threatened 
with displacement by shorthand, and so on. 

The illustration of the rock may be interpreted in another way. The 
sculptor's mind fashions ideally, any number of images, one after another, 
in one and the same block of marble. All these possible images may be 
said to be acutually contained in the block all the time. The doctrine 
of any number of ' theoretical arches ' being formed in any given wall, 
any of which can be made concrete and manifest by breaking an opening 
in the appropriate place, illustrates the same fact. 


In these illustrations we see the summation of the 
World -Process, while also seeing how the utter emptiness 
which is the utter fullness of the Absolute, its changeless 
balance of being against nothing, is always being en- 
deavoured to be reproduced in the individualised Absolute, 
the jiva-atom. Life is balanced against death ; progress 
against regress ; anode against kathode; anabolism against 
katabolism ; pleasure against pain ; being against nothing ; 
Spirit against Matter. Taking the net result of each 
completed life also, we see the same balancing appear* 
as has found expression, and in one sense, true expression, 
in words like those of Bhartr-hari, the poet-king and then 
the ascetic-yogi : ' What real difference is there between 
the pleasures and the pains of Indra, the high chieftain 
of the gods, and those of the lowliest animal ? The joys 
of love and of life that the one derives, under the prompt- 
ings of desire, from his goddess consort and from nectar, 
the same are derived by the other from his lowly mate 
and his (to human beings) filthy food. The terrors of 
death again are as keen to the on^ as to the other. 
Respective desire-and-karma makes a difference in their 
surroundings and appearances. But the net result, and 
the relativity of subject and object, enjoyer and enjoyed, 
sufferer and cause of suffering, are the same.' ! The equality 

Vairagya-Shataka t 


and sameness of all jlvas, not only in the sense of the 
sameness of comparative results of long periods, life- 
times, or cycles, but also at each moment of time, in the 
matter of pleasure and pain, will also appear further, 
when the nature of those two all-important constituents 
of the life of the Self is carefully considered ; for there is, 
indeed, a pleasure hiding in every pain, and a pain hiding 
in every pleasure ; when the one is felt by the outer, the 
opposite is felt by the inner man. 1 From the standpoint 
of Brahma, all is the same, all is equal ; there is no differ- 
ence at all, in kind as well as being ; for Brahma is indeed 
the denial of all difference by the Universal Self. Why 
should there be, how can there be, the reasonless horror 

See. here, the f.n.s. on pp. 228-231, also. A very useful way of 
interpreting the working of the Law of Karma, as psycho-physical cause- 
effect or action-reaction, is to understand it in terms, not, of the plea- 
sures or pains of the benefited or the victimised, but of the benf actors 
or victimisers. A land-hungry or ' glory '-hungry pride-mad ' con- 
queror ', slays some millions of men, of and through his armies ; a butcher 
slaughters myriads of sheep and cattle ; a ravenous predacean kills and 
devours thousands of herbivores He or it can scarcely be slain 
millions or myriads or thousands of times' in as many births. Even 
infinitely prolific and alt -wise Nature would find it very difficult to keep 
and square the mathematical accounts correctly ; the more so, since, in 
every new birth, new karma, would be added on to the old ! But the 
(subjective) pleasure that the killer derived from the massacre, the 
pleasure of gloating or money -or-land-gain or glory-gain, is easily counter- 
balanced by a corresponding amount of (subjective) pain, experienced, 
maybe in even a single body, amidst appropriate (objective) settings. Also 
the pains of a prolonged malignant disease or of manglings and mutila- . 
tions in an accident, may be psychically equivalent in the finer and 
more sensitive organism of a human body to the death-pains of a thousand 
lower animals. 

' He who sees in-action in action and action in in- action, he is 
truly wise, and he performs all actions (rightly and wisely), without 


and hideousness, the nameless heart-harrowing, of one 
really and permanently smaller, weaker, poorer, lower, 
humbler, more pitiable or more contemptible, more tram- 
pled upon and tortured, than another, greater, stronger, 
richer, higher, prouder, more feared or more honoured 
oppressor, tormenter, and gloater ? Where would be the 
justification, if there were really such cruel injustice of 
difference (as the enquirer intensely felt at the beginning 
of his search), and not a mere appearance and play of 
sage and saint, sovereign and soldier, slayer and slain, 
oppressor and victim, servant and slave, high god and 
lower man and lowlier, worm and plant and mineral ! ] 

1 He who realises this becomes perfectly ' natural ' again, as a child ; 
but on the higher level of the ' second ' childhood, through a ' second ' 

birth into the Ancient Wisdom, 

3TO j the Sufi's tark-i-tark. ' The natural 

state is best ' ; ' the wise man may behave, on occasion, like the very 
unwise ; he no longer desires moksha, for he has found it ; he gives up 
that which has enabled him to give up, as a thorn is thrown away after 
having been used to extract a thorn from the foot, he abandons aband- 
oning '. Purna-purusha, Mard-i-famGw, Insan-ul-k&mil, ' final, 
complete, perfect man ' are the expressions which describe such a one. 

Another aspect of the idea may be put thus : Every atom is a, as 
well as the, whole universe. Every part is the whole. Every drop of 
water is the same (in potential contents) as the whole ocean. Every the 
tiniest image of the sun in every the tiniest globule of water is the whole 
Sun. Every jfva is the whole Universal Self. The whole universe is one 
infinite 'Pool's Paradise', bhrama; every jiva has its own 'fool's 
paradise, (or rather ' paradis-es) ' ; and the individual ' fool's paradise ', 
drama, is as real or as mythical as the Universal Fool's Paradise, and is 
part of, or copy of. and contained in, the latter ; for all is and are the 
Play of the Supreme Self's s a n - k a 1 p a, Will-Ideation. 

For the thought of the spiritual equality, indeed same-ness, of all 
jiva-souls, see pp. 329-330 supra. 

The following passage from Bible, Eccl estates, 9-2, seems to be a 
very near equivalent of the verse quoted and translated on p. 330 supra : 
" All things come alike ta all. There is one " (i.e., the same) event to 


It has been said that the words of Bhartr-hari are true 
in a sense. They are true in the deepest metaphysical 
sense, which takes account of the whole of space, time, 
and motion, in their totality. But the current view of the 
fact of endless evolution and progress and difference is 
also true, in the practical sense that deals with only a 
part of space, time, and motion, instead of with the whole 
of them. While one jlva cannot, in the net result of all 
experiences, be really different from another jlva, for both 
are equally Pratyag-atma, yet each atom is equally 
necessarily different from every other atom. Hence what 
we have is a constant sameness underlying endless 

the righteous and to the wicked: to the good and clean, and to the 
unclean ; to him that sacrificeth, and to him that sacrificeth not ; as is 
the good, so is the sinner". Yet always the warning holds that "all 
things " includes consequences also, of good as well as evil actions. 

The great Law of Analogy may be again pondered by the reader in 
this reference. It establishes the similarity, equality, sameness, oneness, 
of all. 

I Brhad. C7^.,4, 4, 8-25. 

1 Very subtle, atom-like, is this Ancient Path . . . See, by the mind, 
that there is no many (no separates). He goes from death to death who 
(and while he) sees (and clings to separatist) many (-ness). Atma, Self, 
is Not-This, Not-This. He who knows that Self, sees all in It, and It in 
all, and all as Self, sin touches him not, he crosses beyond all sins. He 
is undecaying, undying, unf earing. Brahma is Fear-less, Brahma is 
Fearless, Brahma is Fearless '. 


differences.! If there were actual limits to time, space, 
motion ; if the World-Process did not stretch backwards 
and forwards pseudo-infinitely ; if cycles and systems 
were complete in themselves instead of being parts of 
interminable chains in time, space, motion ; if the ' all r 
of experiences could really be fixed in and at any point of 
time, space, and motion ; then only, by striking the 
balance of each and every life, we should literally find 
a cipher as the result in each case. But there are no 
such actual and absolute limits. Each life-thread 
stretches endlessly through endless cycles and world- 
systems. Hence there is no real beginning and no real 
end to any life, but only endless apparent beginnings 
and apparent ends, and no final and complete balancing 
of any, in terms of the limited and concrete, is possible. 
Also, as each life, taken individually, is necessarily and 
actually at a different point of time, space, and motion 
from every other, therefore no simultaneous balancing of 
all is possible. Complete balancing and casting up of 
accounts is possible only from the standpoint of the true 
infinite and eternal, Pratyag-atma, wherein the whole of 
time, space, and motion, and therefore the whole possible 
life of each and every jlva, is summed up at once, now, 
here, al-ways. From the standpoint of the limited, the 

1 In this fact we find the reason why, though the chief of the gods and 
the beast, Indra and swine, are both similar or even the same or equal 
in respect, of nett pleasure and pain, yet, in the infinite complexities of 
evolution and dissolution, in respect of details, there is very much more 
4 long-circuiting ' and ' refinement ' between the desires and the satis- 
factions of the one than of the other. Hence the thought and the 
corresponding language of ' higher and lower ' is thoroughly justified, 
for practical purposes. 


pseudo-infinite, on the contrary, there is an endless 
alternation of progress and regress, evolution and involu- 
tion on an ever-differing level, which is ever making a 
difference of goal even in endless repetition, and thus 
immortally keeping, before every jiva-atom, an ever higher 
and higher * ascent ' after an ever deeper and deeper 
' descent ' into ever grosser and grosser planes of matter ; 
a thought that, despite the promise of ever-higher goals, 
would prove most desolately wearisome, nay, most agonis- 
ingly horrible, because of the corresponding ever deeper 
* descents ' ; were it not that the constant summation of 
the whole of the pseudo-infinitely complex World- Process 
in the utter simplicity of the Absolute, makes the endless 
succession of that World-Process the Lila, the Volun- 
tary Play, that it really is, of Self ; and in which Play, 
Tragedy and Comedy balance and cancel each other 

Only Self, None Else, compels to anything or any 
mood or state or circumstance. There is None Else to so 

Therefore is the Process of the World a process of 
pseudo-infinite repetition in pseudo-infinite change, 
always curling back upon itself endlessly in pseudo- 
infinite spirals. The jlva that, having reached the end 
of the pravrtti arc of its particular cycle, thus realises the 
utter equality, the utter sameness and identity, of all 
jivas in the Supreme Self, amidst the utter diversity of 
Not-Self, cries out at the overpowering wonder of it : 
'The beholder seeth it as a marvel; the narrator 


speaketh it as a marvel ; the listener heareth it as a 
marvel ; and yet after the seeing, speaking, and hearing 
of it, none knoweth the complete detail of it ! ' ' And he 
also cries out at the same time : * Where is there des- 
pondency, where sorrow, unto him who seeth the One- 
ness ! ' * He sees that all jivas rise and fall, lower and 
higher, endlessly, in pseudo-infinite time, space, and 
motion. He sees that the jlva that is a crawling worm 
to-day will be the Ishvara of a great system to-morrow ; 
and that the jlva that is the Ishvara of a system to-day 
will descend into deeper densities of matter in a 
greater system to-morrow, to rise to the still larger 
Ishvara-ship of a vaster system in still another kalpa. 3 
Nay, not only will be, in the one sense, but also is in 
another sense. The single human being that is so weak 
and helpless, even as a worm, in the solar system of the 
Ishvara to whom he owes allegiance, is, at the same 
time, in turn, veritable Ishvara to the tissue-cells, leuco- 
cytes, and animalcules, that compose his organism ; and 
the currents of his large life, unconsciously or consciously 
to himself, govern those of the minute ones. The ruler 
of a solar system, again, would at the same time, in turn, 
be an infinitesimal cell in the unimaginably vast frame 

Bhagavad-Glta, ii, 28. 
2 I Isha Upanishat, 7. 

3 3RE *J3WI Sffa Bfhad-Aranyaka, I, iv, 10. 


of a Virat-Purusha, whose individuality includes countless 
billions of such systems. And, throughout all this wonder, 
the knower of Brahma also knows that there is no ruth- 
less cruelty, no nightmare agony of helplessness in it, for, 
at every moment, each condition is essentially voluntary, 
the product of that utterly Free Will of Self (and there- 
fore of all selves), which there is none else to bend and 
curb in any way, the Will that is truly liberated from all 
bondage. He knows that because all things, all jlvas 
and all Ishvaras, belong to, nay, are in and are Self 
already, therefore whatsoever a self wishes, that, with all 
its consequences, will surely belong to it, if it only 
earnestly wishes ; this earnest wish itself being the 
essence of yoga, with its three coequal factors of bhakti, 
jnana, and karma, correponding to ichchha, jnana, and 
kriya respectively. Knowing all this, he knows, he 
cognises Brahma ; and loving all selves as himself, desir- 
ing their welfare as his own, and acting for their happi- 
ness as he labours for his own, he realises and is 
Brahma. 1 Such an one is truly mukta, free, delivered 
from all bonds ; he knows and is the Ab-sol-ute, Self 
ab-solved from all the limitations of Not-Self, the Self 
wherein is ab-solu-tion from all doubt and error, all 
wants and pains, all fevered restlessness and anxious 
seeking. To him belongs the Everlasting Peace ! 

The book opens with Nachiketa's cry for the Knowledge 
which would give him Peace through Freedom from Doubt 

1 In the words of Bh&gavafa, the cognition of the identity of one* 
self with all selves and All-Self is shudc^h-advaita ; the feeling of that 
unity is bhav-acjvai^a ; the working for it is kriy-acjvaita. 


and Fear. It ends with ancient verses which sum up that 
Knowledge and bring the Peace. Nachiketa refused 
steadfastly all the other finite and ephemeral things which 
were offered to him to allure him away from the Infinite 
and Eternal. Therefore he obtained, therefore he became 
the Immortal, Infinite Eternal, and in It, he found all finite 
things also. May all sincere seekers do likewise. 

' AUM ! Such is the imperishable Brahma, such is 
the unwaning Supreme. Knowing It, whatsoever one 
desireth, that is his ! The One Ruler that abideth within 
all beings as their Inner self, That maketh the one seed 
manifold ! the wise who realise That One within them- 
selves unto them belongeth the Eternal Joy, unto None- 
Else, unto None-Else ! The Eternal One amidst the ever- 
lasting Many, That maketh and f ulfilleth all the countless 
desires of the Many they who behold That One in their 
Self, unto them, and unto WJone-Else, belongeth the 
Eternal Peace.' 1 ' This is the sole sense of the Veda, 
such is the whole essence of all Experience that all 
language declareth only Me and describeth Naught-Else ; 
it imagineth the I in all kinds of forms and rejecteth 
them all ; in the realising that all-Else-than-I is but My 
Illusion, and in the Negation and abolition thereof, is 
found the Final Peace '. a 

' Thus did Nachiketa, having obtained from the 
Lord of Death the Secret of Death, this Supreme Know- 
ledge, and also the whole method of Yoga-practice, 
become identified with Brahma, and free from all fear 

1 Katha Upanishaj. 

9 Bhagavaja, XI, xxi, 43. 


and doubt and death. So too may every other earnest 
seeker become free who acquires the Supreme Knowledge, 
Adhyatma, only '.' 


, ^^i wfii: ^ 


1 Katka Upanishaf. 



A SOUL all broken with its petty pains ! 

The boundless glories of the Infinite ! 

How may the one, unfit, feeble, slow-moving, 

Harrassed with all the burdens of its sins, 

Tell rightly of the Other's Perfectness ! 

Yet, for the love of self that drave it forth, 

A-searching on that ancient path of thought, 

They tell is sharper than the sword-blade's edge, 

In hope to find that which would bring some touch 

Of solace to it in its weariness 

Because that love of self hath gained its goal, 

And uttermost self-seeking found the Self, 

And so grown love of Self and of all selves, 

It drave that soul unworthy, full of sin, 

But full of love, yea, full of agony 

Amidst its new-found peace, that any self, 

Thinking itself as less than the Great Self, 

Should suffer pang of helpless littleness 

To cry abroad and set down what it found 

In words, too poor, too weak, and too confused, 

That yet, eked out by the strong earnestness 

Of other searching souls, may, with the blessing 

Of the compassioning Guardians of our race, 

Bring to these seeking souls some little peace ! 

Ye that have suffered, and have passed beyond 
Our human sorrowing, and yet not passed, 
For Ye are suffering it of your own will, 
So long as any suffer helplessly ! 


Ye Blessed Race of Manus, Rshis, BucJ4has, 

Gods, Angels, mother-hearted Hierarchs ! 

Christs, Prophets, Saints! Ye Helpers of our race 

Ye Holy Ones that suffer for our sake ! 

I lay this ill-strung wreath of bloomless words, 

But with the hands of reverence, at your feet, 

That, filled with freshness by. their streaming life, 

And consecrated by their holiness, 

And cleansed of all the soiling of my sins, 

They may bespread their fragrance o'er the world, 

And bring Self : knowledge and Self-certainness, 

And quenchless joy of all-embracing Self, 

To all that suffer voiceless misery. 

Peace unto all, sweetness, serenity, 
The peace that from this doubtless knowledge flows 
That there is naught beyond our very Self, 
The Comman Self of old and young and babe 
No Death, nor other Power out of Me, 
To hurt or hinder, hearten us or help 
Knowledge that all this Process of the World, 
Its laugh and smile, its groan and bitter tears, 
Are all the Self's, My own, Pastime and Play 
Knowledge that all is Self, and for the Self, 
And by the Self, whence is Unshaken Peace ! 



INOTE. Alteration of page-numbers in these Indices, for the sake of 
the new edition, represents the very heavy labor of love of Miss Preston 
and Mr. Henry Van Zeijst. To them, deep gratitude of author and 
readers are due. It is true that the Indices are not quite up to date ; for 
new books quoted (few), and old books newly referred to (often) in the 
large additions made in this new edition, have not been referred to in 
these Indices. But this, it is trusted will not seriously inconvenience 
readers. The Index of Proper names has also not been enlarged ; 
because the new matter in the text contains very few additional names. 
The Glossary of Samskr.t words has also been left unenlarged for the 
same reason. To bring all these up to date would have taken many 
weeks of heavy labor for me, which I am ill fitted for now at my age $ 
and the publishers, the Theosophical Publishing House, are naturally 
anxious that publication of the book should not be delayed longer. It 
has been already three whole years in the press, because of the abnormal 
conditions created by World War II and its aftermath ; in normal times 
it could have been brought out in three months, or at most six. 

Aditya-hrdaya-stotra, a hymn to the Sun, in Bhavishy-oftara 

Purana, 365. 

Ananda-Lahart, a hymn to Shakti, by Shankara, 219. 
Ancient Wisdom, by Annie Besant, 389. 
Anubhuti-prakasha-sar-oddhGra, a small work on Ve^lanta, 


Anu-gtta, 256, 257, 291, 365, 373. 
Aumk&ra-sarva3va, 235. 

Bergson, by Wildon Carr, 281. 

Bhagavata Parana, also called Vishqu-Bhagavata or 
Shrtmad-Bhagavata to distinguish it from tyevl- 
Bhagavata, 33, 50, 114, 152, 161, 201,202,255,257, 
260, 264, 271, 301, 317, 345, 352, 360, 398, 412, 429, 
462, 474, 483, 494. 


Bhagavad-Glta ; see Glta. 

Bhamati, by Vacbaspati, a commentary on Shankara's 

Shanraka-Bhashya on Brahma-sutra, 22, 23, 83. 
Bhavishya-Puratia, 456. 
Brahma-sutra, aphorisms by Vyasa on the VSdanta 

system of philosophy, 207, 256, 328. 
Brhad-aranyaka Upanishat, 2, 24, 50, 85, 113,266,307, 

341, 409, 492. 

Charaka-samhita, a work on medicine, 28, 32, 282, 378. 
Chhandogya Upanishat, 47, 93, 109, 112, 177, 307, 410. 

f>evl-Bhagavata Purana, 26, 47, 114, 173, 191,193,218. 
240, 243, 244, 250-256, 269, 318, 370, 436. 

Dignity of Man, by Fichte, 84. 

Drama of Love and Death, by Edward Carpenter, 440. 

Dream Problem, by Dr. Ram Narayan, 29. 

Durga-sapta-shatl, a part of Markandeya Pur ana, des- 
cribing avataras of Shakti, 167, 251. 

Electrical Theory and the Problem of the Universe, by 

Tunzelman, 390. 

Encyclopedia Britannica, 27, 383. 
Ether, Matter and Motion, by Dolbear, 322, 382. 
Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy, by 

J. S. Mill, 88. 

Fichte, by Adamson, 79. 

General Physiology, by Max Verworn, 194, 336, 342, 347, 

354, 387, 409. 
Gtta or Bhagavad-Glta, 6, 38, 39, 90, 116, 173, 191-194, 

209, 229, 242, 245, 250, 256-260, 263, 269, 318, 350, 

415, 461, 471, 487, 492. 

Gopatha-Brahmaqa, part of Atharva-V6da, 110. 
Goraksha-Samhita, 249. 

Grammar of Science, by Karl Pearson, 47, 220. 
Guptavatj, a commentary on jpurga-sapta-shatl, by Bhgs- 

kara-raya, 167, 251. 


Handbook of Chemistry, by Ostwald, 91 
History of Philosophy, by Hegel, 77. 

Ueberweg, 65. 

,, ,, Schwegler, 43, 57, 65, 80, 82, 89, 

174, 403. 

Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion, by Caird, 69. 
Isha Upanishat, 148, 161, 492. 

JHana-garbha, 165, 482. 

Kalagni-rudra Upanishat, 248. 
Kama-sutra by Vatsyayana, 269 
Kapila-G\ta, 370. 

Katha Upanishat, 1, 33, 108, 161, 325, 494. 
Kena Upanishat,' 32, 161, 341. 

Machinery of the Universe, The, by Dolbear, 437. 
Maha-bharata, Epic of the Great War between Kauravas 

and Pandavas, by Vyasa, 235, 271, 282, 283, 291, 318, 

335, 373, 388. 
Mahima-stuti, a hymn to Shiva, by Pushpa-cjanta, 116, 228, 

237, 365. 

Malinl-vijaya, 249. 
Mandukya Upanishat, 109, 161. 
Mantra-shastra, 235. 
Manu, 2, 41/151,. 228, 257. 
Matsya Purana, 455. 
Monadology, by Leibnitz, 180. 
Mukti-sopana, by Goraksha, 250. 
Mundaka Upanishat, 352. 

Nandikeshvara-Karika, 159, 235. 

New Psychology, The, by Scripture, 91. 

Nirniamba Upanishat, 15. 

Nirukta, a work on the principles of Veda-exegesis, by 
Yaska, 250. 

Nyaya-Sutra, the aphorisms of the Nyaya System of philo- 
sophy," by Gautama, 261, 288, 340, 428, 479. 

Nyaya-bhashya, commentary on the above, by Vatsyayana, 
32, 261, 266, 479. 


Nyaya-vartika-tafparya, annotations by Vachaspati, on a 

gloss by u4yotakara on the above. 
Nyaya-kosha, a dictionary of the technical terms of the Nyaya 

philosophy, by Bhimacharya, 300. 

Occult Chemistry, by Annie Besant and C. W. Leadbeater, 

Origin and Nature of Life, The, by Dr. B. Moore, 180. 

Pancha-dashl, a work on the VSdanta System of philosophy, 

Vidy-ararjya, 7, 9, 25, 222, 377. 
Pancht'karana-vivarana, a small treatise on the doctrine of 

the quintuple compounding of the primal elements, 377. 
Paramartha-sara, a work of the Kashmir Shaiva School of 

philosophy, by Abhinava-gupta, 166. 
Political Ideals, by C. D. Burns. 349. 
Pragmatism, by Wiliiam James, 53. 
Pranava-vada, 40, 121, 166, 167, 186, 200, 235, 317, 370, 

376, 391, 405, 438, 440, 453. 
Prashna Upanishat. 50, 108, 268. 
Principles of Science, by Jevons, 180. 
Psychology, by Hoffding, 7, 9, 11, 222, 227, 271, 380. 

' William James, 33, 53. 

' Herbert Spencer, 272. 

James Ward, 27, 383, 339. 
Psychology of Sex, by Havelock Ellis, 204. 
Puranas, ' histories ' of world-evolution and dissolution, by 

many Vyasa-s, 76, 89, 115, 120, 159, 164, 235, 236, 239, 

253, 263, 264, 271, 290, 315, 323. 
Purusha-sukta, the great Vedic hymn to the Macrocosmic 

Man, the Supreme Self, 350. 

Rahasya-traya, 251. 

Ramayana, the Epic of the History of the Solar Race of 

Kings, and especially of Rama and of his war with 

Ravaga, by Valmiki, 235. 
RBmayana (in Hiniji), by Tulasi Das, 328. 
Replies to Criticisms, in Essays, by Herbert Spencer, 69. 
Response in the Living and the Non-Living, by Sir J. C 

Bose, 336. 


Rg-veja, 148, 152. 

Rubaiyat, by Omar Khayyam, 12. 

Sankhya-karika, 41, 53, 235, 256, 260, 266. 

Sankhya-tattva-kaumudf, 260. 

Sankshepa Shariraka, a work on Vedanta, by Sarvajfia 

Muni, 81, 191. 
Sankshepa Tik&, commentary on above by Macjhusudana 

Sarasvati, 85, 191. 
Sarva-sara Upanishat, 15, 152. 

Saundarya-Lahan, a hymn to Shakti, by Shankara, 148. 
Science and the Infinite, by S. T. Klein, 312. 
Science of Knowledge, by Fichte, 83, 174. 
Science of Peace (First Edition), 121. 
Science of Religion or Sanatana Vaidika Qharma, by 

Bhagavan Das, 142. 
Science of Social Organization or The Laws of Manu, by 

Bhagavan Das, 142. 

Secret Doctrine, by H. P. Blavatsky, 309, 322, 345, 375, 389. 
Secret of Hegel, by Stirling, 43. 
Shabda-kalpa-druma, 268. 
Shariraka-Bhashya, commentary by Shankara on the 

Brahma-Sutra of Vyasa, 8, 34, 49, 71, 84. 
Shaiva Agama, 236. 
Shandilya, 271. 
Shiva Purana, 248. 
Shiva-Sutra-vim arshiqi, a work of the Kashmir Shaiva 

school of philosophy, by Vasu Gupta and Kshemaraja, 

165, 249, 257, 260, 262, 264. 
Shvet-ashvatara Upanishat, 153, 209. 

Spanda-karika-vivrti, by Rflma Kantha, 249, 262, 264, 269. 
Story of Life's Mechanism, by H. W. Conn, 342. 

Taitiiriya Upanishat, 47, 93, 109. 

faniraloka, 268. 

Tantra-shastra, a class of works dealing with ' secret * 

"sciences" and arts, 110, 233, 247, 370. 
TQra-sara -Upanishat, 109, 234. 

Tatparya-prakSsha, commentary on Yoga-Vasishtha, 147. 
Tattva-sandoha, 269. 


Text-book to Kant, by Stirling, 65. 

Theosophist, 29. 

Thesaurus, by Roget, 142. 

The Proposed University at Indore, by Patrick Geddes, 18. 

Tilaka-Tika, commentary on De*vi Bhagavata, by Nila- 

kantha, 252. 

Tlka, on Yoga-bhashya, by Vachaspati, 455. 
Tripad-vibhuti-maha-narayana Upanishat, 377, 435. 
Two New Worlds, by Fournier D'Albe, 391. 

Upanishats, a class of mystical and philosophical treatises 
forming part of the Vedas, 96, 111, 120, 461. 

Upaskara, commentary on Vaisheshika-sutra, by Shankara 
Mishra, 33. 

Vairagya-shataka, by Bhartr-hari, 486. 

Vaisheshika-sutra, 33, 54, 261. 

Vayu Purana, 455. 

Vedanta-sara, 9, 222, 252, 256, 282. 

Vedas, 40, 54, 111, 115, 200, 243, 263. 

Vinaya-patrika, a collection of hymns, in Hindi, by Tulasi 

Das, 326. 
Vishqu-Purana, 29. 

What is Thought ?, by Stirling, 78, 81, 82, 89. 

Yoga-sutra, Aphorisms by PataSjali on the Yoga System 
of philosophy and practical or applied psychology, 109, 
161, 184, 288, 333, 360, 378, 403, 435, 455. 

Yoga-bhashya, commentary on above, by Vyasa, 33, 175, 
259, 290, 301, 378, 462. 

Yoga- Vasishtha, a large work, in verse, ascribed to Valmiki, 
on mystical and Vecjanta philosophy, 2, 3, 32, 38, 75, 
115, 147, 164, 180, 181, 213, 227, 262, 312, 342, 377, 
391, 398, 435, 440, 461, 484. 

Zadig et Micromegas, Voltaire, 376. 


Abhinava-gupta, 165. 

Adamson, 79. 

AdvaiJa-V&Janta, the name of a system of philosophy, 52, e 

Agni, 250, 263." 

Ahriman, 9. 

Albrecht, 94. 

Ananta, 317. 

Aniruddha, 271. 

Aristotle, 94. 

Bacon, 94. 

Balarama, 271. 

Boehme, 94. 

Bergson, 19, 214, 280, 281, 286. 

Besant, Annie, 382, 399. 

Bhagavati, a name and form of Shakti, 115. 

Bhartr-hari, 486, 489. 

Bhava, a name and form of Shiva, 2, 236. 

Bhavani, a name and form of the consort or shakti of 

Shiva, 237. 
Bhim-acharya, 300. 
Bhushundi, 164. 

Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna, 389. 
Bose, Sir Jagacjisha Chandra. 336. 
Brahma, 2, 170, 193, 236, 238, 249, 251, 290, 318, 319, 

323, 377. 
Brahmi, 249. 
Bruno, 94. 
Burns, C. D., 349. 

Caird, 69. 
Capes, The, 291. 
Carpenter, Edward, 440. 


Carr, W., 281. 

Chaldean votaries, 454. 

Chandra, a name of the moon, 250. 

Chandl, a name and form of the Shakti of Shiva, 167. 

Charaka, author of a work on medicine, which is known by 

the same name ; said by tradition to be another name of 

PataSjali, 28, etc. 
Chatterji, J. C., 165. 

Descartes, 22, 94. 

Dolbear, 322, 382, 437. 

Durga, 240. 

Pvaita-Vedanta, the name of a system of philosophy, 48, etc. 

Eckhart, 94. 
Ellis, Havelock, 204. 
Eros, 271, 304. 
Euclid, 40. 

Fichte, 66, 67, 68, 77-88, 94, 95, 174, 403. 
Fournier d'Albe, 391. 
Fresnel, 386. 

Gargyayaga, 40, 121. 

Garuda, 317, 318. 

Gaur!, 236, 249, 318. 

Gayatri, the name of a Rg-V6da-verse, being a prayer to or 

invocation of the Sun, 111, 243. 
Geddes, Prof. Patrick, 18. 
Goraksha, 250. 
Gnostic Works, 112- 
Greek Philosophers, 94, 410. 
Green, 27. 

Hamilton, 69. 
Hamsa, 323. 

Kara, a name and form of Shiva, 236. 
Hari, a name and form of Vishmi, 2. 

Hegel, 66-68 ; his main thesis, 69-71 ; his petitio principii, 
74-87 ; his great error, 151. 


Hoffding, 7, 9, 11, 27, 214, 222, 227, 271, 380. 
Hormuzd, 9. 

Htibbe-Schleiden, Dr., 386. 
Hume, 57, 160. 
Huygens, 386. 

Indra, 46?263, 341, 486. 

James, William, 33, 53, 217, 261. 

Jevons, 180. 

Jishrjm, a name and form of Vishnu, 291. 

Kabbalistic Works, 112. 

Kabir, Indian religious reformer, saint and poet, 464. 
Kala, a name and form of Time and also of Shiva, 316. 
Kali, a name and form of the consort -Shakti of Shiva, 237, 

251, 318. 

Kama, 233; Kama-Eros, 271, 304. 
Kanada, 467. 

Kandarpa, a name and form of Kama, 233. 
Kant, 58-66 ; fundamental defect of, 54, 213, 369, 469. 
Keshava, a name and form of Vishnu, 326. 
Klein, S. T., 312. 
Kroeger, 83, 174. 
Krshna, 38, 194, 245, 271. 
Krug, 73, 179, 354. 

Ladd, Prof., 380. 

Lakshml, chief name and form of the consort-Shakti of 

Vishnu, 233, 251, 318, 319. 
Lee, F.S.', 194. 
Leibnitz, 94, 180. 

Ma, a name of Lakshmi, 234. 

Madhu-sudana Sarasvatt, 85. 

Maha-Kala, a name and form of Shiva, the " Great Dark 

Time or Mover, 11 317. 
Maha-Kall, 167. 
Maha-Lakshml, 167. 
MahS-Sarasvati, 167. 


Mahesha, a name and form of Shiva, 2. 

Maitreyi, 2. 

Mansel, 69. 

Manu, see Manu. 

Markandeya, 164. 

McTaggart, Prof. J. E., 83. 

Mill,J.S., 88. 

Mitra, a name and form of the Sun, 263. 

Mukunda, a name and form of Vishnu, 115. 

Mystics, 94. 

Nachiketa, 1, 2, 36, 108. 

Narayana, a name and form of Vishnu, 291. 

Nayyayikas, 300. 

Neo-Platonists, 94. 

Newton, 386. 

NidSgha, 29. 

Nila-Kantha, 252, 318. 

North Pole, 291. 

Nyaya, name of a system of philosophy, 53, etc. 

Omar Kfcayyam, 19. 
Ostwald, 91. 

Pajanjali, 109. 

Pearson, Karl, 47, 220. 

Pfltiger, 349. 

Plato, 94. 


Prajapati, 35, 47. 

Pra^ava, a name of AUM ; Etymological explanation of the 

word, 109, 117, 233, etc. 
Preyer, 348, 352. 

Qarin, a Sufi poet, 465. 

Radha, 'that form of Shakti, prarja, nerve force, vital energy, 

which energises the motor organs, 240. 
Rama, 2. " ' 

Rama-Kantha, 249. 


Rambha, 436. 

Ram Narayana, Dr., 29. 

bhu, 29. 

Roget, 142. 

Rosicrucians, 93. 

Rudra, 236, 251. 

Sankarshana-Bala-rama, 271. 

Sankhya, the name of a system of philosophy, 9, etc. 

SarasvatI, 231, 318. 

Satya-kama, 108. 

Scheffler, 94. 

Schelling, his statement of the law of relativity, 66, 68, 77, 

79, 89. 

Schopenhauer, 94. 
Schwegler, 74, 83, 84, 89, 469. 
Scripture, 91. 
Sisyphus, 90. 
Shakti, 49. 

Shambhu, a name and form of Shiva, 291. 
Shankara, a name and form of Shiva, 234. 
Shankar-acharya, 19, 71, 84, 148. 
Shankara Mishra, 33. 
Shesha, 317, 319. 
Shiva, 170, 193, 236, 237, 244, 248, 251, 253, 290, 

317, 318. 
Shri-Harsha, 31. 

Smara, name and form of Kama, 304. 
Spencer, Herbert, 69, 94, 272. 
Spinoza, 94. 
Stout, 27, 214. 
Sufi poets, 462. 
Surya, a name of an aspect of the Sun, 250, 263. 

Tantalus, 90. 
Titans, 56. 

Tulasl Das, 326, 327. 
Tunzelman, 390. 

Ueberweg, 65. 


Urna Haimavati, a name and form of Mula-prakrti, ' that 
which is not and melts away like snow ' ; also a name 
and form of Shiva's consort, 341. 

VSchaspaJi, 455. 

Vaish6shika, the name of a system of philosophy, 33, etc. 

Vaishgavl, a name and form of the shakti of Vishnu, 249. 

Varuija, 263. 

Vasishtha, 2, 139, 324. 

Vasudeva-Krshga, 271. 

Vatsyayana, 269. 

Vedanta, the name of a system of philosophy, 4, etc. 

Verworn, Max, 194, 336, 342, 347, 354, 387, 409, 415. 

Vishnu, 2, 47, 170, 193, 213, 238, 249,251,271,291,317, 

318, 319. 

Vishvamitfra, 139. 
Voltaire, 376. 
Vyasa, 328. 

Ward, James, 27, 189, 383, 428. 
Weismann, 24. 

Yajffa-valkya, 2. 

Yama, 1, 46, 108. 

Yoga, the name of a system of philosophy, 33, etc. 


Abhasa, ' illusory appearance, 1 11. 

Abhasa -vatfa, * the doctrine ' that the world-process is an 
1 illusion/ another name for Advaita-Vedanta, 11. 

Abhi-mana, 'egoistic desire, pride, 1 266, 270. 

Abhimani-devata, the * individualising ' and ensouling ' deity/ 
the non-human jlva functioning as, or in, a nature-force 
or nature-phenomenon, 263. 

Abhi-nivesha, tenacity, obduracy, clinging to separate indi- 
vidualised life, will-to-live, 233, 239. 

Abhi-sandhi, determination, intention, 266,271. 

Abhi-vyakta, clearly manifested, defined, distinct, 285. 

Abhyasa, practice, perseverance, repetition, 195. 

A-chit, ' un-conscious ' ; inanimate ; material ; matter, 49, 173. 

Adana, taking back, 238. 

Adas, the somewhat distant * this,' 41. 

Adhara, ' that which supports, 310. 

Adhi-aksha, overlord, oversee, 32. 

Adhi-bhautika, made of the physical bhutas, i.e., sensable 
materials, 440. 

Adhikari, the person entitled, having the right, 53. 

Adho-gamana, going downward, 381. 

Adhyasa, ' super-imposition * or reflection of the attributes of 
one thing on or in another thing, 11, 204, 340. 

Adhyasa- vada, the doctrine that the world-process is a dream- 
image, ' super-imposed ' upon the Universal Conscious- 
ness by Itself, 11. 

Adhyajma-vicjya, ' the science of the Self f : subjective 
science ; psychology, 47. 

Adhyavasaya, ascertained knowledge, 266, 270. 

Adi, ' beginning, 1 the ' first ' tattva, 312, 376, 438. 

-tattva, ' the first element ' (of matter), next but one 
above akasha in gradation of subtlety, 376, 438. 


A-dvaita, ' non-dual ' ; non-dualistic ; monistic, 52, 84-88, 

" 194,238,493. 
Agama, ' that which has come down,' a traditional school of 

religio-philosophical worship, 236. 
Agni, ' fire, 1 the root-element of matter corresponding to the 

organ of vision, 411, 438. 
Aham, ' I ' ; Ego; Self, 119, 158, 191, 238, 285, 308, 332, 333 

337,344-7,351,402. - 
Aham-dhiji, I -consciousness,' individualist-feeling, (as 

shaktO, 264. 

Aham-EtaJ, 141, 392, etc. 
Aham-Etat-Na, 119, 139, 146, 200, 208, 225, 238, 

325, etc. t t t 

Aham-kara, ' I -ness,' ' Egoism,' Ego-ising, self -referring, 

selfish desire,' 56, 191, 215, 228, 255, 256, 260, 264, 376, 

432, 458. 

AjBana, non- Knowledge, 'nescience/ tamas, 257, 258. 
Akasha, ' space ' ; ' the luminous ' ; the root-element or plane 

of matter corresponding to the organ of hearing and the 

quality of sound, 85, 159, 173, 376, 377, 282, 389, 395, 


A-kasmika, 'without a why,' causeless, accidental, 371. 
A-khanda*, ' without parts,' 140, 285. 
Akshara-mudra, J kind f acrosti m 
Akshara-mushti, J 
Akunchana, ' contraction,' 381. 
A-lasya, ' laziness,' 257. 
Alochana, sensation,' 269. 
A-mitra, 'non-friend,' foe, 175. 
Amsha-guna-kala, 360. 

A-mukhya, ' not-chief/ minor, subordinate, 299. 
A-mukhya-karapa, ' un-principal cause ' ; a minor or sub- 
sidiary cause, 299. 
A-murJa, formless, 285, 290. 
An-aham, ' NotJ ' Non-Ego, 119. 
Anadi-pravaha, ' beginningless (and endless) flow,' 181. 
An-adi-pravaha-safta, ' beginningless-flow-existence/ ever- 

lastingness, 34. 
An-dmaya, ' not-sick' 257. 
Ananda, 4 bliss,' 167-169, 191, 238, 380-1, 383, 401. 


Ananda-ghana, 1 * compacted bliss.' ) 139 4Q - 

Anan<Ja-maya, / composed of bliss, j ' ' 

An-anyat, ' not-other, 1 457. 

An-artha-vda, a counsel of evil, a mischievous doctrine, 291. 

An-atma, * Not-Self,' 148, 173^ 

Anava-mala, ' atom-dust, 1 the ' stain ' of ' atoms f created by 

desire, 264. 
Andolana, * swinging ' ; revolving, weighing, pondering or 

balancing in the mind ; cogitation ; agitation, 381. 
An-idam, ' not-this,' 115, 116. 

A-nirdeshya, ' not to be pointed out,' indefinable, 139. 
A-nirvachaniya, ' indescribable,' 148. 
Aniti, ' breathes,' contracts and expands, 262. 
A-nitya, ' impermanent,' 211. 
An-rta, 'not right'; false; untrue; unlawful ; unrighteous, 

*173, 192. 

Anrta-jada-duhkha, unreal-unliving-miserable, 192. 
Anta, 'end,'" 315. 
Anfah, ' inner,' 307. 

Antah-karana, ' the inner instrument, 176, 260, 264, 438. 
Antah-karana-chatushtaya, the four aspects, faculties, func- 
tions of the inner organ,' 261. 

Antara, * interval ' ; middle ; interspace ; difference, 306. 
Antar-yflmi, * inner watcher or ruler ' ; the Self, 164. 
Antya-sdmanya, the ' final ' or highest genus, 468. 
Antya-vishesha, the final or lowest ' particular ' or singular, 

468, 470. 

Anu, ' ion,' atom, 81, 260, 262, 263, 264, 389, 398, 471, 475. 
Anu bhava, Anu-bhuti, presentation, experience, ' becoming 

like ' the object, 32. 
An-ud buddha, sub-conscious, or supra-conscious, not risen 

into waking consciousness, above or below the threshold 

of consciousness, dormant, un-awake, 285. 
An-upSdaka, ' receiver-less ' ; the root-element of matter next 

above akSsha, so-called because there is as yet no organ 

or ' receiver ' developed by humanity for it, 376, 438. 
Anu*san<Jhna, tracing, following out, connecting before and 

after, 270. 

Anu-vyavasflya, ' ap-perception,' 424. 
Anvaya, ' concomitant presence/ 473. 


Anyat-anyat, ' other of other/ ' other than other,' 150. 

Apakshepana, ^casting away/ 381. 

Apara-paksha, 'other side or wing,' 306. 

Apara-p&rshva, ' other side or flank,' 306. 

Apard-prakrti, 'other or un-higher, i.e., lower nature,' 

Apara-visheha, ' lowest particular,' 285, 470. 

A-pari-nmi, * unchanging,' 163. 

A-par-oksha, ' not away from the eye ' ; direct ; immediate, 
41, 202, 247. 

Apas or flpah, ' waters ' ; the root-element of matter corres- 
ponding to the organ of taste, 376, 382, 389, 390. 

Apa-sarpaija, ' moving away,' 322. 

A-paurusheya, ' non-human,' ' super-human,' 41. 

A-praksha, 'non-illumination,' absence of light, dark- 
ness, 257. 

A-pravrttij ' in-activity,' listlessness, 257. 

A-priti,' dis-satisfaction, 260. 

Arambha, 'origin,' commencement, 257, 312. 

Arambha-vacja, 'the theory or doctrine of a beginning/ 
i.e., creation of the world by a Personal God, 7, 11, 222. 

Artha, * desired substance ' (and its equivalents and allies, 
(Jravya, bala, bhakti, ichchha) 254, 255. 

Artha-vflija, allegory, parable, metaphor, 291. 

A-sa<Jhflrana, 'uncommon/ special, 371. 

A-sa<jhflrana-nimitta, " uncommon cause or condition ' ; special 
or chief cause or condition, 299. 

A-samavyi-kdrana, ' non- concomitant cause/ 299. 

A-sat, 'non-existent/ ' un-true/ ' not-good/ 70, 182, 183. 

A-shama, restlessness, 257. 

Ashvattha, one of the three chief varieties of great Indian 
fig-trees, the pipal, 415. 

Asmi, 'am/ 119, 208, 238, 239. 

Asmi-Ja, ' am-ness/ the feeling that ' I am ' a separate indi- 
vidual, sense of separate -self -existence, 229, 234, 239, 

A-sura, a class of non- human beings ; also a race of human 
beings ; (some think the Assyrians were so named in 
the Vedas), 398. 

A tana, wandering, 381. 


Atati, foes about, 262. 

Atita, 'past, 1 transcendent, ]39. 

Ati-vflhika, the " transmigrating ' body ; ideal or mental body, 
made of thought or imagination, as opposed to the physi- 
cal or a(Jhi-bhautika body, 440. 

Atma, Self (Gr. ' atom ' or ' etymon '), 28, 59, 84, 85, 153, 
160, 161, 164, 171, 261-265, 291, 292, 326, 338, 409. 

Atrna-bucjcjhi-manas, the Self the Universal mind or pure 
reason the individualising mind, 214, 291, 440. 

Atma-cjharana, ' self -maintenance,' 367. 

Atrna-nubhava, ' self-experience,' apperception, 424. 

Atma-vasha, ' self-dependent,' 229. 

Atma-vi(Jya, ' the Science of the Self,' 247. 

Atra, ' here ' 306. 

Aty-ant-a-sat, ' extremely non-existent ', utterly non-existent, 
pure non-being, 87. 

A-U-M, 1, 108, 117, 121, 200, 494, 495, 497. 

Avarana, ' enveloping ' ; veiling, screening, covering up, 
blinding, 238, 239, 257, 258, 260, 271. 

Avarta-bhramana, * spiral motion,' 322. 

Avasana, ' end ', completion, termination, 312. 

Avashyaka-ta, ' helplessness ', necessity, 217. 

Avastha, state, condition, 247. 

Avatara, ' descent,' ' incarnation,' an incarnate deity, 264. 

A-vidya, ' non-knowledge ' ; nescience ; ignorance ; error, 168, 
175, 218, 226, 234, 241, 242, 245, 246, 253, 258. 

Avi<Jya-Vi(Jya-Mahavi4ya, error-truth-great-Science (or Wis- 
dom), 254. 

Avi$ya-kama-karma f ' Error-desire-action.' 67. 

A-vikarl, ' immutable,' 164. 

A-vyakta, ' unmanifested ' ; undefined ; vague ; unmanifested 
or root- Matter; (sometimes also) unmanifested Spirit, 159, 

_ _ 173, 194, 285, 458. 

Ayama, ' extent, 1 extension, length, 332. 

Ayana, ' going/ motion, 302, 319, 332. 

Ayu, ' lifetime/ 332. 

A-yuga-pat, ' not two together/ ' not simultaneous/ at differ- 
ent times, successively, 285. 

Ba<J<Jha, ' bound/ fettered, 229. 


Bahih, ' outside ' ; outer, external, 307. 

Bahish-karafla, * outer instrument,* the external or physical 

sensor and motor organs, 176. 
Bala, strength, power, 254. 
Bancjha or ban (Jh ana, * bondage/ 315. 
Bhakti, love, devotion, 254, 453, 459. 
Bhakti-Yoga, ' the path of devotion,' 255. 
Bhava, existence, being, thought, emotion, feeling, thing, 

intention, 284, 378. 
Bhav a<Jvaita, realisation of non-separateness or unity of all 

life and all living beings in emotion, by universal 

love, 493. 
Bhflvand-cjardhya, consolidation, condensation, ' hardening * 

of * thought ' or imagination, 228. 
Bhavishyat, ' that which will be ' ; future, 313. 
Bheda, 'dividing 1 , division ; separateness ; difference, 173. 
Bhe<Ja-mula, * the root or source of separateness,' 173. 
Bhrama, Bhranfi, wandering, ' gyrating,' moving round and 

round, 159, 210, 233. 
Bhuh-bhuvah-svah, the three worlds or planes, physical- 

astral-mental, or physical-astro-mental-causal, 250. 
Bhuta, * what has become ' ; being ; creature ; element, 284, 

Bhut-a(Ji; the ' first being ' or ' the originator of the (material) 

elements,' 376. 
Bhut-a(Ji, ahamkara regarded as originator of the five tattvas, 

256, 284, 376. 

Bhuvah, the astral world, 250. 
Bija, ' seed ' ; potency ; 186. 
Bija-mantra, ' seed-idea,' principle, 285. 
Bindu, ' point/ drop, 308. 
Bodha, understanding, 270. 
Brahma-charya, the pursuit or storing, of (a) knowledge, (b) 

the vital seed, (c) the ' Infinite,' 108. 
Brahma, ' immensity, expansion, or extension f ; the Absolute,. 

the Supreme, 35, 41, 84-8, 93, 108-9, 113, 115-6, 138- 

40, 150-64, 167, 172, 176-7, 192, 202, 209, 210, 219, 

264, 307, 318, 320, 350, 375, 401, 418, 458, 478, 487, 493. 
Brahm-anda, an egg of the infinite, an orb in spa